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3 2044 102 869 294 

D. AppkUm df Co.'t Pubhcatums. 


French, Germao, Spanish, and English Dictionaries. 




ladiealXBf the Acoeatoation of •▼•>T Garmrnn Word, conUiBinp wrftrml bondrad Germaa Bjb» 

nymt, U^tber wirh a CfaunficatioB and Alphabetical List of the Incfalar Verfat, 

aarJl a Lat of Gonnan AbbreviatioiM. Compiled from the Works of 

HiLPBRT, FLiioBL, OasiB, UsTra, and otfaon. 


By G. J. ADLER, A. M., 

PlBfewoi of the German Lanfuafe and Literatnro in the UniverritT of the City of Kew-Tork. 
One larso volnme, 8to., of 1400 pe^et. Price $S. Strongly and neatly bonnd. 





The Fntrr Pakt oomnrahendin; word* in oommon nw Termt oonneoted with 
Terms heloncinc to the Fine Arts— 4000 Uktorical Names-^OOO Geographioa] Namw— HOC 
terms lately pnUuhed, with the raoifuiiciA'noir or bvbbt wobd, aooordinf to the Frenoh 
Academy and the most eminent Lexicographen and Oimmmariaas ; toratber with 750 Otiiiemt 
Remark*, in which the Tarions methods of pionoonoinf employed by di&not authors are inves- 
tigated and compared with each other. 

The Sbcohd Pabt oontainias a eopions Vocabnlary of Baj^isb words and ezprasrions, with 
the Proaaneiation aooovding to Wilker. 

The whole preceded by a practical and comprehensive System of French Pronandation. 


Fiench Teachfer in Edinbargh ; Corresponding Member of the French Grammatioal Sodety of 
Paris, &«.. fte. Reprinted from a dnolieate east of the stereotype plates of the last Edinbargh 
editioa. One stont volame, ISmo., of nearly 900 pages. Prioe $1 50. 



ooHTAmnro the PRoinTNCiATioir, ettmologt, and xxplanatioh of all 


To which are added, a Vocabulary of the Roots of EngUdi Words, and an Aeoentad Lirt 
of GreA, Latin, and Soriptore Proper Names. 


Reetor of the Grens School, Edinbvigh. With a Critical Preface, by flsifRT Rbbd, P io ft — > 
of English Literatnre in the Univerrity of Pennsylvania, and an Appendix, showing the pe»> 
oandalion of nearly 3000 of the most imporUni Geographical Mamei. One volamo, 19i»., 
•f aaaily 600 pages, bonnd in leather. Prioe f 1 . 


In preparation, 





Editor of Ollendorff's Spanish Grammar, and 
In one laiga 8vo. volume, uniform with " Adier's German LaxlepK,' 


D, Appleton ^ Co.'s Educational PuhUcattona, 

French, German, Italian, and Spanish Reading Books 




Containing Fables, Select Tales, Remarkable Facts, Amnsing Anecdotes, 

dtc. With a Dictionary of all the Words, translated into English. 

By M. Di FivAs, Member of Several Literary Societies. 

One aMt volanw, ICmo. PriM 50 oenti. 



With a Vocabiilary of the New and Difficult Words and Idiomatic Phrases 
adopted in Modem French Literature. By F. Rowan. Edited by 
J. L. Jewett, Editor of Ollendorff's French Grammar. 

On« volome, ISnuo. 75 cenU. 




Mis en Ordre Progressif, et Annot^s, pour en fiiciliter L'IntelUgence. Par 

A. G. GoLLOT, Professor de Langues et de Litteratore. 

One volame, 13mo, of 5(20 pafcs. Piioo 91. 


Prepared with reference to Ollendorff's German Grammar, with copious Notes 

and a Vocabulary. By G J. Adleb, Professor of the German Language 

and Literature in the UnivexBity of the City of New- York. 

One neat rdnme, ]9mo. 91. 




A Collection of Selected Pieces in Italian Prose, designed as a Class Reading- 
Book for Beginneis in the Study of the Italian Language. By E. Fkux 
FoREsn, LL. D., Professor of the Italian Language and Literature in 
Columbia College and in the University of the City of New- York. 

One neat toIqum, ISmo. Prtoe %\. 


Consisting of Passages from the most approved Authors in Prose and Vena 

arranged in Progressive Order ; 

For the OM of thoM who wish to obtain euily aPrecUcel Knowledge of the Castiliaa 

Laof aate ; with Plain Rolec for tU Pronanctation, Notes Explanatory of the 

Idioini and Diffionlt ConitrnoUone, and a Copioo* Vooabolary. 

asms k iSQiTaL to oLLBNiMRrr'e mbtbod or lkarrino to rkad, writs, and ipsaa 


Editor of ODendorfT'i Bpaniih Grammar. One neat volanie, 19mo. Piioe 91.95 



























Jcly J, 1915 
Gift of 
. A Ijawrence Lo-w^il 

Aitned, aeeoidlBf to an Aet of OongnM, la tbc fnr ISM. 


b fbo dflin OOeo of fbo Dlftrlct Oomt of Ow United BtatM to fbo BonthMm 

Dtotilct of New Tork. 

MT NonoBi^— A Kct to the EzercisM of thk Gnunmar ii poUkhed in 
■qiuato Voliiiiia 


The superiority of Ollkndobfv'b Msthod of teaching lan- 
guages 18 now 80 uniyersally acknowledged, both in the United 
States and in Europe, that an adaptation of it to the Euphonic 
Castelzan, or Spanish Languaos, must be considered as a de- 
sideratum to persons wishing to learn it. Divested of the ab- 
stractedness of Grammar, it contains, however, all its elements ; 
but it develops them so gradually, and in so simple a manner, 
as to render them intelligible to the most ordinary capacity. 
The dijfficulties are met singly, thoroughly analyzed, and made 
familiar by dint of a varied and interesting repetition,— the most 
effectual means to impress them on young and unlearned minds, 
generally averse to thought or reflection, and always prone to 
trust to their undisciplined memory, a power often treacherous 
from want of proper direction. It is, therefore, hardly possible 
to go through this book with any deg^ree of application, without 
becoming thoroughly conversant with the colloquial, idiomatic, 
and classic use of the Spanish language. Consequently, persons 
transacting business in the countries of which the Spanish is 
the vernacular tongue, will find this work to be their best guide 
in learning to speak it with propriety. 

For the benefit of persons grammatically acquainted with the 
English, or other languages, a Synopns of the Spanish has been 
annexed as an Appendix, containing tables of the regular con- 
jugations of the verbs, copious lists of the irregular verbs, gen- 
eral rules of etymology, syntax, <&c., by means of which they 
may learn all the peculiarities of the Spanish, and make them- 
selves perfect masters of it in a very short time, without the 
assistance of a teacher. 



To enliancey if possible, the importance and utility of this 
Method, the pronunciation of the Spanish letters is explained 
and exemplified, in so simple, clear, and easy a manner, as to 
render it comprehensible to every capacity. 

Consulting also the benefit of the learners, and with a view 
to render this work a complete course for Beading^ Speaking^ 
and Writing the Spanish language. Models of Familiar and 
Commercial Letters are added to it, containing directions for all 
the usual commercial transactions, by the aid of which, young 
learners, and persons who instruct themselves, may transact, in 
writing, any buaness. 

It is hardly necessary to remark, that the English phrases in 
the Exercises are not always models worthy of imitation ; but 
they are made use of in order to instruct the scholar how to 
express them properly in Spanish, and thereby to teach him 
its idioms. 

Nbw Toik, Fe^mory, 1848 



FtLMWAcm 5 

El Eatondno 8ag» B ••»» 8 

LcssoHs L to LXXXn 9-897 

Some Idiommtical ExprMaionf 

Some of the proveilisnKMtiniiae... 
Appbhdix 401 

OftTHOOft^PHT 401 

RemarkB on the PronunciatioOo. 400 

Double Letters 400 

DiTisionofSfUablM 407 

Punctuation 407 

Accent 406 

Reading I<esaoiu 410 

Common Spaniah Abl»eTiationa'-« 414 

Sttmoloot ' 410 

Article 41P 

Ifoona 419 

A4)ectiTes 480 

Noona of Number 480 

Pnmoana 433 

Of tbe Verb 438 

Terminations of the Yerbe 448 

Co^Jogationi of the auxiliary rerba 440 
Idiomatical translation of some 

tenses 451 

PaaaiveTeibs 498 

Pronominal or Beflectire Terbs.. 408 
Oenmd 454 

Participle 4M 

Verbs that have two participles. « . 489 

AdTerbs 490 

Prepoaltiflos 497 

Conjunctions 497 

Intaijections 496 

Analogy 496 

Syntax 490 

Of the Article 480 

Of theNoonsadA4)setife 404 

Of the Pronoun 408 

Of the Verb 478 

Of the Participle 488 

Of theAdrerb 484 

Of the Preposition 489 

Of the Conjunction 488 

Of the Interjection 488 

Table containing the Verbs that gOT- 
em certain Prepositions 488 

The Irregular Verbs 914 

Impersonal Verbs 

A list of aU the Irregular Verbs 

Hodelos de Cartas mercantiles y 
Ikmlllarss 987 

Table de la Moneda oorriente en Bs- 
paAa,ylasBep<iblicasde AmMca 944 

Cartas Familiares 944 

IHDSX 991 


The iiTsgiilBr tvrbs are dedgnated by a star C*). 

The Oguies 1, 8, 8, placed after the rerbs, denote that they are regulsr, and tndi- 
eate the conjugations to which they respectirely belong. 

The figures 1, 8, 3, placed before the verbs, denote the persons, either sbigubur or 

N. 1, N. 8, Jec., are used to designate the siiB|»le tenses of the verbs. 

N. 1, p., N. a, p., Jbc, designate the compound tenses of the verbs. 

Expressions which vary either in their construction or idiom from the Bnglisii» 
are marked thus t. 

A hand (9Sr) denotes a particular remark 


A THnunr stalling found a decanter of water, and attempted to drink 
from it ; but the water scarcely toached the neck of the decanter, and the 
bird's bill coold not reach it 

He began to peck at the outside of the TesMl, in order to make a hole 
in it ; but in vain, the glass was too haid. 

He then attempted to upset the decanter. In this he succeeded no bet- 
ter ; the Tessel was too heavy. 

At length the starling hit upon an idea that succeeded : he threw little 
pebbles into the decanter, which caused the water gradually to rise till with- 
in the reach of his bill. 

• • . 

SkQl is better than strength : patience and reflection make many things 
easy which at fiist appear impossible. 


XJm estomino sediento haU6 una garrafa Ilena de agna, 6 inmediata- 
mente procurd beber ; pero el agua i p€nas llegaba al cuello de la gairafk, 
y el pico del pijaro no podia alcanzaria. 

8e puso Inego i picar la garrafa & fin de hacer un agugerito ; pero se es- 
foii6 en vano, porque el vidrio era muy grueso. 

£nt6nces intents voltear la garrafa para deiramar el agua ; pero no pndo 
haoerio, porque era muy pesada. 

Al fin concibi6 una idea, que se le logr6 : ech6 pooo & pooo en la gairafa 
una cantidad tan grande de piedrecitas, que hicieron subir gradnalmente el 
agua i la distancia que su ptoo podia alcanzar, y Inego apag^ su sed. 

• • • 

Mas vale mafia que fuena: la paciencia y la reflexion hacen ficiles 

muchas oosas, que pareeian imposibles & primera vista. 



FAUST LESSON.— Xiweion Prmera. 


Maiouijiib SaaxjLAM^ — Mtueulmo Singular 

Of or from the. 
To or at the. 




Have yoaT 
Yea, Sir, I have. 

The hat 
Have yoa the hat? 

tTiene V.7« t«.r— 6. 
Si, sefior, yo teogo. fior. 
El Bombrero. 
I Tiene V. el wmhrero? 

You. I Voted, (V.) 

Obo. There are in Spanish three ways of addreanng a person, to wit 
lit. By tnuHlating literally the prononn tkou^ TiL 
Sd «« « « yott. Vol, in the nngnlar. 

VoflOTEOs, VoeoTKAa, plmal 
3d. ''the pronoun you, Uvrsn, amg. ; UvrxDM, pi. 

Ab the celebrated Spanish poet, Cadaloo, says, 

" Una dama seria y grare 
Y que la criUca tabe 
Bel Ym, del 7^, y del UsUd.*» 

Ti is oaed among the nearest relatives of a family, intimate friends, little 
diildren, in poetry, and speaking to menial seirants. 

' To TKAGHBB& — Each lesson should be dictated to the pupils, who 
should pronounce each word as soon as dictated. The teacher should also 
exercin his pupils by putting the questions to them in Tarioos ways. 

' A Spanish interrogatiye sentence stands between two points of interro* 
gaifiOBt the first of which is inverted, to diow when the emphasis begins. 


FlR^rr LE880K. 

Vo9 wu formeriy genenOy used among all claflseB of society, adoTMnuig 
eaeh other indiTidually ; at present it is confined to penons of high rank, or 
those placed in high posts, as superiors addressing their inferioTB. 

Pablic speaken, preacben, Ac., addressing the public, congregations, 
&c^ use Foso<ro«; unless they be corporate bodies entitled to be styled 
Vna», (your Lordships,) &C. 

UsTSD, a contraction of Vuesira Mtreed, (your Honor, or your WoBihip,) 
fonneriy used, then abridged into Vuesarcid, and fiaally Into Usttd, or 
UhS, is the only word used in the common intercourse in polite society, in 
all the transactions of life ; excepting the cases above explained, and when 
the persons spoken to are entitled to a higher maik of reqiect by calling 
them Uma, {Vue$tra Seiioria, V. S., your Lordship or Ladjrship,) dtc. 

Utted, and its plural U$tede9, are common to both genders, and agree 
with the Terb in the third person stngnlar or plural, accArding to their re- 
spectiye number ; as. You are a good boy, Uated e» iin hutn muehaeho : 
Yon are good boys, UttedeM 9on fruenot mucAacAos. 

Utted, and Uttedea, have been always written in abbreviation, thus: 
Vmd,, Vmd9^ — Vm., Vnu. At present, Uated is represented by a F., and 
U9tede9 by VT. 

The qwaker by using Utted may be sure never to give ofienee. llie 
omisBton of it is considered vulgar ; for instance, Digame qtie hora es, (tell 
me what hour it is,) instead of Digame V. que hora ««. 

When Ueted is made use of at the beginning of a phrase, to avoid its 
repetition the cases of the pronouns he, 61, or she, ella, are employed ; as. 
When I saw you this morning, I told you, that I would accompany you 
and present you to him this afternoon — Cuando yo vi a Usted eeta maiiana 
le dije, que yo le (or la) acompanaria, y le (la) preeentaria d SI esta tarde. 

In translating ancient history, public speeches, &c., tu, vom, or voeoiros 
must be used ; because Ueted is of a very modem introduction into the lan- 

With the view to make the sehdar perfectly familiar with the use of 
these three modes of address, some of the exercises are translated in one 
and some in another ; but preference is given to Ueted, because it is the 
most necessary and usual in the colloquial polite intcreourso. 

/. I Yo. yo, — 6 

The bread. El pan. 

The cane. El hasten. 

The soap. 

The sugar. 

The paper. 
Have you the paper? 
Yes, Sir, I have the paper. 

Have you my hat? 
Yes, I have your hat 

El jabon. ja. 

El azOcar. gu. 

El papel. 

iTlene V. el papel? 

Si, seiior, yo tengo el papeL 

I Tieoe V. mi sombrero? 
Si, yo tengo su sombrero do V, 
Mit (both gendem.) 

SfiOOKD uoasoK, 



07 Mind thai (n) standi for a rommnn oooii. 
El (n) de ir ( "^ (b) <fe V. » more polAe than el (n) do V. 

HaTO yoa your caneT 
I have my cane^ 
Have yon my paper? 
I have year paper. 

Wkieh hat have yoa 7 

Wkieh er Whmt ? 

Whidi hiead have yea? 
I have my fanad. 
Which cane have yoa? 

I have your cane. 

^Tiene V. an 
Yo tengo mi 
(Tiene V. mi papel? 
Yo tengo eo papet do V., er 
el papal do V. 


I Que aombfoio tiene V.? 

I Que pan tiene V.7 
Yo ten^ mi pan. 
I Qae baalOB liene V.? 
Yo tengo el baaton de K, 
Yo tengo ra baaton de V . 

Have yoa the hat ? — Yes^ Sir, I have the hat. — Have you yonr hat ? 
— I have my hat — ^Have you my hat ? — I have your hat. — ^Which hat 
have yoa ? — ^I have my hat — Have you the bread ? — ^I have the bread. 
— ^Have yoa my bread ?— ^I have yoor bread. — ^Have yoa yoor bread ? 
— ^I have my bread. — Which bread have you ? — I have yoar breads — 
Have yoa my cane?-*! have your cane. — Have yoa yoor cane? — 
Which cane have you ? — ^I have yoar cane. — Have yoa yoor soap ? — 
Yes, Sir, I have my soap. — ^Which soap have yoo ? — Your so^, SRr. — 
Which sugar have you? — ^I have your sugar. — Have you my paper? 
— ^I have your paper. — ^Have you the paper ? — Yes, Sir, I have the 
paper. — Which sugar have you, Sir ? — ^I have my sugar, 1^. — ^Eiave 
you your hat ? — ^Yes, Sir, I have my hat.' 

SECOND LESSON.— Leccum Segunda. 

Have yoa the paper? 
Have yoo it ? 
I have iL 

i Tiene v. el papel 7 
iLe tiene V.7 
Yo U tengo. 

* In writing these ezerciKS, the popile raoet pronoonce ell the phnaea 
aloud, as they write them. 

Obt, Before dictating a new leoBon, the teacher pots to the pupile the 

quotiona contained in the printed exercise of the last 1 
tatea the new leswn, and pots fresh qoestions. 

n ; then he dir> 


BSOOiro LI880V. 


Le, (this pronoan goes before the 


Have you my hatT 

I Tiene V . mi sombrero f 

Ye?, Sir, I have it 

Si, senor, yo le tengo. 

The cloth. 

Elpaflow ForthepronanciatioD 


£1 zapato. of the syllables nor, 

The dog. 

£1 perro. no, zo, Uo, see the 

The hone. 

£1 caballo. Table. 

The leather. 

£1 cordoban. 

Have yoa my good doth f 

I Tiene V. mi baen pailo 7 

Good. Bueno, makes huen before 

a noon mescaline singular, tw^ — 6. 

B.i Maio, " mal « 

u u u 



Handsome or fine. 



Fea feo. 


Viejo. we, jo. — j. 

Hft.Te yoa the pretty dogT 

I Tiene V. el bonito perro? 

No, Sir. 

No, seilor. 

1 have it not. 

To no le tengo. 


No. [verb.) 


No. {No comes always before the 

I have not. 

Yo no tengo. 

Have yoa my old hatT 

I Tiene V. mi sombrero viejo 7 jo. 

I have not your old hat 

Yo uo tengo "? sombrero viejo de V. 

Which paper have yoa? 
£ have the good paper. 
Have yoa my good soap? 
I have it not 

I Que papel tiene V.? 

Yo tengo el bueu papeL uen, — 6. 

I Tiene V. mi baen jabon ? 

Yo no le tengo. 

I Tiene V. el sombrero de papel ? 

Have you the paper hat 7 . 

Cb§. Two substantives depending on each other, without any stop 
betr.;«en them, or separated by an apostrophe ('), are translated by changing 
their order, and placing the preposition de (of) between them : as. He has 
a )';.ck bouse, 61 tiene una caea de ladrxUo; Pope's works, lae ohrae de 

The leather shoe. 

£1 zapato de cordoban. 

The gun. 

£1 fusil. 


The iron. 

£1 hierro, el fierro. 

ier. — 6 

Ine iron gun. 

£] fusil de hierro. 



The cottoD. 

The eapu 
The cotton capw 
Have yoo the leather dioe? 
My M iron gun. 
Your pretty cotton ci^ 


£1 gorrOb 

£1 goiTO de algodoQ. 

I Tiene V. el xapeto de coidoban? 

Mi foMl viejo de hieno. 

Sa bonito gorro de algodon de V., or 

£1 bonito goiro de algodon de V. 



Have yoa my fine hone ? — Yes, Sir, I have it. — ^Have yon your old 
Bhoe ? — ^No^ Sir, I have it not. — ^Have yon my pretty leather shoe ? — 
I have it. — ^Which horse have yon? — ^I have yonr good horse.-— 
Which shoe have you ? — ^I have my ngly leather shoe. — Have you 
my cap ? — ^I have it not — ^Have you your bad cap 7 — Yes, I have it- 
Have you my ugly cotton cap ? — ^No, Sir, I have it not — Wliich cap 
have you 7 — ^I have the paper cap. — ^Have you the good cloth 7 — ^Yes, 
I have it — ^Have you my fine cloth 7 — ^No, Sir, I have it not — ^Which 
cloth have you 7 — ^I have your pretty cloth. — ^Have you your old soap 7 
—1 have it not. Sir. — ^Have you my good soap 7 — No, Sir ; I have your 
bad so^. — Which soap have you 7 — ^I have your old soap. — ^Have you 
your good gun 7 — ^I have it not, Sir. — ^Have you my old iron gun 7 — 
I have it. — Which gun have you 7 — ^I have the old iron gun. — ^Have 
you my cloth cap 7 — Yes, Sir, I have your pretty cloth cap. — 
Have you the fine leather shoe 7 — ^No, I have it not. — ^Which leather 
shoe have yon ? — I have the ugly leather shoe. — ^Have you your old 
horsed — ^No, Sir, I have it not — ^Which horse have you 7 — ^I have my 
fine horse.— Have you my old dog 7 — ^No, Sir, I have not your old dog ; 
I have your good dog. 


THIRD LESSON.— JLeccion Jh-cera. 

Have yon any thing ? 
I have mrnething. 

Any thing^^-aomething. 
I have Mtiking. 
I have mot any thing. 

Not any thing. 

^ Tiene V. algo ? or alguna eooa. 
Yo tengo algo. go. 

Alguna COM, algo, gu. 

Yo no tengo nada. 
Yo nada tengo, (or no tengo ningona 

No (v) nada. 
Nada (v). 

Oho. A If nada m used without no, nada k placed before the veih. 
I have nothing | Nada tengo, (or no tengo nada.) 




(Mc. B, The pnHioan Mibjeet, or nominative, it almoil nhvayi emitted, be- 
eanee the termination of the verb ahowe the penon which perfionns the ac- 
tion ezprened by the verK 

The wine. 

The money. 

The gold. 

The button. 

The gold button. 

Tlie coffee. 

The cheew. 

The candlestick. 

The gold candlMtick. 

Have yon any thing good 7 
I have nothing good. 

Aze yon hungry T 
I am hangry. 
I am not hungry. 
Are yon thirrtyT 
I am not thiraty. 
Are you eleepy? 
I am sleepy. 
Are youaahamedT 
I am not ashamed. 

WAalhave you? 

What have you good? 

EI vino. 

El dinerob 

El oro. 


El boton d€ oro. 


El quesD. 

EI candelero. 

EI candelero de oro. 


I Tiene V. algo baeoo, (or de boeno?) 
Yo no tengo nada de baeno, (or nada 

de bueno tengo.) 

I I Tieue V. hambre ? [bre.; 
t Yo tengo hambre, (or tengo ham- 
t No tengo hambre. 

ti Tiene V.sed? 

t No tengo sed. 

1 1 Tiene V. suefio 7 «v«. 

t Tengo suefia no — fi. 

1 1 Tiene V. vergfienza 7 He. 

t No tengo vergQenxa. 

j, Que tiene V.7 

I Que? 

I Que tiene V. bueno? (or de boeno.) 

06#. C. Que, in connection with an adjective, requires, sometimes, de 
before the adjective. 

What have you bad? 
I have nothing bad. 

I Que tiene Vm. malo? (or de malo.) 
No tengo nada malo, (or de malo.) 

Have yon my good wine ? — ^I have it. — Have you the old gold ? — ^I 
have it not. — ^Have you any thing ? — ^Yes, I have something. — What 
have you 7 — ^I have the money. — ^Have you the gold candlestick ? — 
No, I have it not; I have nothing, Sir. — ^Have you my old (afiejo) 
cheese 7 — ^I have it. — Have you any thing bad 7 — ^Yes, Sir, I have 
something bad; I have the bad coffee. — ^Have you your ugly iron 
button ? — ^No, I have it not.-^What have you 7 — ^I have the gold candle- 
stick. — ^Have you my cloth cap ? — ^No, I have it not — ^Yes, you have 



it— N<s Sir, I hftve not any thmg.-^Have yov any UuDg ^^^'^'^^nt f 
— No^ Sir, I have acmiethiiig n^y. — ^Whai iuiFe you ugly ?— I fane 
the agiy dog. — Have yoa any thing old 7 — I have nothing old ; I licvi 
something pmty^ — ^What have yoa pretty?-^ have the pretty papv 
cap.— Are you hungry ?-*Yea, I am hm^py.^Aie ytm sleepy?— No, 
I am not aleepy ; I am thira^.-^Are you aahafiy*^ j — ^No, Sir, I am 
aleepy.— Hatb you any thing good?— -Yea, Sir, I have your good 

FOURTH LESSON.— Lecciwi Ouarte. 

Have yoa that book? 
I have that book. 


That hone. 
That money. 
That cloth cap. 
That old dog. 
That pretty paper hat 

Tengo CM Ubnx 



Em gono de pailo. 


Em boaito oombreio de papeL 

flava yoa the bread of the bakerT 
Of the. 
Of the neighbor. 
Have yoa the cloth of the tailor 7 

The tailor'i doth. 
'8 (meaning) the (n) oftk€(n). 
The neighbor'a cap. 
My tailor's dog. 
That neighbor's hone. 
Oftfi A. El (n) de m ased before 

Have yoa my neighbor's cap 7 
Have yoa thai tailor's cloth 7 

iTlene Y. el pan del panademf 


Del veeina 

t Tiene Y. el pafto del oasti* 7 

El pailo del saatre. 

El (n) del (n), or el (n) de. 

El somhrero del recino. 

El peiTo de mi sastie. 

EI caballo de este vecino. 

adjective proaoans, saoh as my, thai, 

I Tiene V. el gaao de mi veeino 7 

I Tiene Y. el pailo de este sastie 7 

Have yoa the neighbor's? 

Tkat^ or the one. 
'8 meaaing that of, m the one of. 

The neighbor's. 

My tailor's. 

That tailor's. 

Yonr brother's. 


Tlie man. 

I Tiene Y. el del vacino 7 

El del, or el de. 

El del, or el de. 

El del veeino. 

El de mi sastre. 

£1 de CM sastre. 

£3 de sa hermaoo de Y. 


El hombre. 

(See Obs. A.) 



HaT« you my broad w tho bokei's? 

I haTo yoar Doighbor's. 
HaTo yoa your* or mine ? 
I have mint ; I hayo not yotir«. 

Iftne, or my oton. 


I Tiene Y. mi pan 6 el dd paDaden T 

Yo tenge t\ Aewsi yeciiio do Y. 

I Tiene Y. tl royo 6 el mio ? 

Yo tengo tl win ; no tongo el de V, 


El 9uyo, (or el de V.) 

Ohs. B, El »uyo ia used when Y. has been exprened in the fint part of 
the phraae ; bat el de V, moat be nsed when Y. has not been expraaed. 

Are yon warm? 
I am warm. 
Are yon cold T 
I am not cold 
Are you afraid T 
I am afraid. 
That coaL 
My friend. 
The man's. 

tiTieneY. caIor7 
t Tengo calor. 
t Yo no tengo frio. 
1 1 Tiene Y. miedo T 
t Tengo miedo. 
Eae carbon. 
Mi amiga 
£1 del hombre. 

to. — 6. 

Haye yon that book ? — ^No, Sir, I haye it not — ^Which book have 
you ? — I have the neighbor's. — Have you my stick or that of my 
friend ? — ^I have your friend's. — ^Have you your bread or the baker's 7 
-^I have not that of the baker ; I have mine. — ^Have you the neigh- 
bor's horse 7 — ^No, I have not the neighbor's. — ^Which horse have you 7 
— ^I have the baker's. — Have you your dog or the tailor's 7 — ^I have my 
own.— ^Have you the pretty gold button of my brother 7 — ^I have it 
not. — ^Which button have you 7 — I have my cloth button. — ^Have you 
my cloth cap, or the tailor's 7 — ^I have not yours ; I have the tailor's. 
— ^Have you my brother's horse, or mine 7 — ^I have your brother's.— 
Which coffee have you 7 — ^I have the neighbor's. — ^Have you your 
dog, or that of the man 7 — ^I have th^ man's. — ^Have you your friend's 
money 7 — ^I have it not ; I have my own. — ^Are you afraid of that dog 7 
— ^No, Sir. — ^Are you cold or warm 7 — ^I am warm. — Are you sleepy 7 
— I am not sleepy ; I am hungry. 


Have you my bread, or the baker's 7 — ^I have yours. — ^Have you my 

gold candlestick, or the neighbor's 7 — I have the neighbor's. — Have 

you your paper or mine 7 — ^I Imve mine. — ^Have you your tailor's cloth 7 

— I have it not — ^Which cloth have you 7 — ^My brother's — ^Which hat 



Mfc yoa ? — I have that man's. — Have yon the old stick of my brother? 
—No, I bave not your brother's dd stick ; I have my own. — Have 
joa that man's soap 7 — ^No, I have it not — ^Wbich soap have yoa 7— 
I have yonr brother's old soap. — ^Have yoa my inm gnu, or my broth- 
er's 7 — I have yoon. — Which shoe have you 7 — ^I have my fnend's 
leather shoe. — ^Haye yon your gold buttim, or mine 7 — ^I have not 
yours. — Which button have yon 7 — ^I have the tailor's. — ^Have yon 
any thin^ good 7 — ^Yes, Sir, I have something good. — ^What have yon 
good ? — ^I have yonr brother's good horse. — ^Are yon afraid of that 
man 7 — No, Sir, I am not afraid of that man. — ^Have yon my neigh- 
bor's coal 7 — ¥•«, Sir, I have it — ^Have yon that man's good horse 7 — 
No, Sr, I have my ownX/ 

< — Leccion Qutrtfo. 

£1 comerciante. 

Del zapatero. 

£1 muchacha 


El chocolate. 


The merchant 
Of the aboemaker. 
The boy. 
The chocolate. 


I Tiene V. el baaton del comerciante 
eel da v.? 

Yo no tengo m el palo del comer- 
ciante ni el nuo. 

No — nt — nu 

Yo DO tengo ni el pan ni el qaeao, (or 
ni el pan ni el qnoso tengo.) 

O&s. A. When no is naed, it stands befoie the verb ; bat when it is not 
m — nt mast be placed before the noons, and then the verb is 
placed last 

Have yoa the merchant's cane or 

year own? 
I have neiihtr the merchant's cane 

Jior mine. 

Neither — nor. 
I have neither the bread nor the 

Are yea hangry or thirsty 7 

I am neither hangry nor thirsty. 

Axe yea warm or cold 7 

I am neither warm nor cold. 

Haye yoa the iron or the gold button 7 

I have neither the iroa nor the gold 


Hsve yoo yooie or mine? 

J bare n^iiMer youie nor mine. 

1 1 Tiene V. hambre 6 sed 7 

t Yo no tengo ni hambre ni sed. 

1 1 Tiene V. calor 6 frio 7 

t Ni calor at frio tengo. 

1 1 Tiene V. el boton de hierro 6 el 

de oro7 
t Ni el boton de hierro ni el do oro 

I Tiene V. el enyo 6 «1 mio 7 
Yo no tengo m el de Y. m el mio 


16 FIFTH LB880N. 

The corkscrew. 
Ttiat tunlvelUu 
The Frenchman. 
Of the carpenter. 
The wine. 
The hammer. 

£1 corohfk 

El ttraboEon. 

Eee parignaa. 

El Frances. 

Del carpintero. 

El vino. 

El martillo. ZZo.— IL 

What is the matter with yoa7 I t ^ Que tiene V.? 

Nothing 18 the matter with me. | t Yo no tengo nada, (or mada tengo.) 

What is the matter with ? i i Que ? 

Nothing ia the matter with ^— ? > Nada , (or no— nada.) 

Obs, B, The first of these phrases means — ^What have you 7 and the 
second — I have nothing ; in which what is translated ^e, and nothing, 
nada; and is the matter with is changed into tiene, tienen, or tengo, Slc, 

I am neither hungry nor thirsty. — ^Have yon my shoe or the saoe- 
maker's? — ^I have neither yours nor the shoemaker's. — ^Have you 
your pencil or the boy's ? — ^I have neither mine nor the boy's. — ^Which 
pencil have you 7 — ^I have that of the merchant. — ^Have you my choco- 
late or the merchant's 7 — ^I have neither yours nor the merchant's ; I 
have my own. — ^Have you the bread or the wine ? — ^I have neither the 
bread nor the wine. — Have you your cloth or the tailor's 7 — I have not 
the tailor's ; I ha\ e mine — ^Have y m your corkscrew or mine 7 — ^I 
have neither yours nor mine. — Which cork have you 7 — ^I have my 
neighbor's. — ^Have you the iron or the gold button 7 — I have neither 
the iron nor the gold button. — ^Are you warm or cold 7 — ^I am neither 
warm nor cold ; I am sleepy. — ^Have you my hammer or the carpen- 
ter's 7 — ^I have neither yours nor tiie carpenter's. — ^Which hammer 
have you 7 — ^I have the iron hammer. — ^Have you any thing 7 — ^I have 
someUiing fine. — ^What have you fine 7 — ^I have the Frenchman's fine 
umbrella. — ^Have you the hat or the cap 7 — ^I have nMther the hat nor 
the cap. 

Have you my gun or yours 7 —I have neither yours nor mine. — 
Which gun have you 7 — ^I have my fnend's. — Have you my cloth cap 
or that of my brother 7 — ^I have neither yours nor your brother's. — 
Which cap have you 7 — ^I have my boy's paper cap. — ^Have you the 
book of the Frenchman or that of the merchant 7 — ^I have neither the 
Frenchman's nor the merchant's. — ^Which book have you 7 — ^I have 


jmizs. — What is the nwtter with yoa ?— I am cold and huogTy. — ^Have 
joa any thing good or bad 7—1 have neither any thing good or bad. 

SIXTH LESSON— Xeecion Sexta. 

The oz. 

Of the captam. 
Of the cook. 

El bizcocha 
Del capitan. 
Dei cocinero. 


Have It 

Yon haye. 

You have not. 

Am I himgiy? 

Yoa are hangry. 

YoD are not hangiy. 


Yoaaie afraid. 

Yoa are not afraid. 

You are right 

I am right 

Yoa are wrong. 

I am wnmg. 
Am I right or wrongT 
Yoa are neither right nor wrong. 
Are yoa right or wrong ? 
I am neither wrong nor right 


V. tiene. 
y. no tiene. 
1 1 Tengo yo hambte 7 
t V. tiene bambre. 
t y. no tiene luunbra^ 
1 1 Tengo yo miedo 7 
t y. tiene miedo. 
t y . no tiene miedo. 
t y. tiene razon. 
t Yo tengo razon. 
t y. no tiene razon^ — y. bace maL 
t Yo no tengo razon. — Yo bago maL 
1 2, Tengo yo razon, 6 not 
t y . ni tiene razon ni deja de teneria. 
1 2, Tiene y. razon, 6 no7 
t (Yo) ni tengo razon ni dejo de 


O&a. I am wrong, ia rendered in Spanieh by, / am not right, or / 
«b ttt — Yo no tengo raxon, or Yo kago nud. Are yon right or wrong 7 by 
Ato you right, or not ? i Tieno V, raxon, 6 no? and, Yoa are neither rigbt 
nor wrong, word for word is. Yon have neither reason nor are in need of it, 
V, ni tiene razon ni deja de teneria. 

Have I the nasi 7 

Yoa hare it 

Yoa fare it not 

Haye I any thing good 7 

Yoa haye nothing good. 

Haye I the carpenter'a hammer ? 

Yoa haye it not 

Have yoa it ? 

I have it 


I Tengo yo el clofoo ? 

y. le tiene. 

y. no le tien& 

I Tengo yo algo (de) baeno 7 

y. no tiene nada (de) boeno. 

I Tengo yo el martillo del carpinteroT 

y. no le tiene. 

I Le tiene y. 7 

Le tmigo. 

Note teifo. 



1J16 IDIltlOD* 

Have yon the fine one T 
Haye I the ugly one 7 

The fine one. 

The ugly one. 



1 1 Tiene Y. el heimoao 7 

1 1 Tengo yo el feo 7 

t El hennoso. 


Which one have yon 7 

Which one have 1 7 
Which ofw ? 
Am I afraid or adiamed? 
You are neither afraid nor aohamed. 
Have I my knife or yonia 7 
You have neither yoon nor mine. 

I Cnal tiene V. 7 
I Cnal tengo yo 7 

I Tengo yo miedo 6 vergflenxa 7 
Y. no tiene ni miedo ni yergQensa 
I Tengo yo mi cuchillo 6 el de Y. 7 
Y. no tiene ni el wyo ni el mio. 

Thave neither the baker's dog, nor that of my friend. — Are yon 
ashamed 7 — ^I am not ashamed. — ^Are you afraid or ashamed 7 — ^I am 
neither ashamed nor afraid. — ^Have yon my knife? — ^Which one? — 
The fine one. — ^Have yon my mutton or the cook's 7 — ^I have neither 
yours nor the cook's. — ^Which (one) have you ? — ^I have that of the 
captain. — ^Have I your biscuit 7 — You have it not. — ^Am I hungry or 
thbsty 7 — You are neither hungry nor thirsty. — AA. I warm or cold 7 
— You are neither cold nor warm. — Am I afraid 7 — You are not afraid. 
— ^Have I any thing good ? — You have nothing good. — ^What have I ?- 
You have nothing. — ^Which pencil have I? — You have that of the 
Frenchman. — ^Have I your cloth or the tailor's ? — ^You have neither 
mine nor that of the tailor. — ^Which one have I? — ^You have your 
friend's. — ^Have I your iron gun 7 — You have it. 

Am I right ? — ^You are right. — Am I wrong ? — ^You are wrong. — 
Am I right or wrong 7 — ^You are neither right nor wrong ; you are 
afraid. — ^Have I the good coffee or the good sugar 7 — ^You have neither 
the good coffee nor the good sugar. — ^Have I any thing good or bad ? 
— ^You have neither any thing good nor bad. — ^What have I ? — ^You 
have nothing. — ^What have 1 pretty ? — ^You have my friend's dog. — 
Which one 7 — ^The pretty one. — ^Which corkscrew have 1 7 — You have 
the old one. — ^Have I the old one ? — Yes, Sir, you have it. — ^Have I 
your chocolate? — ^No, you have yours. — Have I the shoemaker's 
leather shoe? — ^You have not the shoemaker's; you have the cap- 
tain's. — ^Have I it? — ^Yes, you have it — ^Am I ashamed of that man? 
—No, you are not ashamed of that man ; you are afraid of his dog. 



SEVENTH LESSON.— Leccion SepHma. 

Wiohu the pencil? 
Has the boy itT 
He has it not 
Has Ae it not? 


I Quien ? 

I Quien tiene el lApii? 
I Quien le tiene ? 
^Le tiene el mnchacho? 
El no le tiene. 

fttiff^— 6 


Ofts. A, El, when it is a pRinonn» is pointed oat by an aoeent ; bat 
when it is an artide, it has it not 

Has he the hat? 
He has it 

I hare. 

Too have. 

He has. 


Have yon? 


I Tiene €1 el nnibtoro? 

£l le tiene. 

Yo tengo. 

V. tiene. 

£l tiene. 

^ Tengo yo? 

i Tiene v.? 

t Tiene A? 

The chicken. 

The chest, the tronk 

The bag. 

The wairtcoat 


The young man. 

Has the yoimg man 7 
Has my friend? 
Has that baker? 


El baol, d cofie. 

EI coital or saco. 

EI chaleoo. 


BU j6yen or moxow — Mozo 

also eeryant, waiter. 
^ Tiene el mozo? 
^ Tiene mi amigo? 
^ Tiene ese panadeio? 


The rice. 
The coontryman, the peasant 

The servant 
Is the peasant hungry ? 
He is hungry. 
Is your brother warm? 
Is he ashamed? 
What has he? 
What has my friend? 
What have I? 

EI amxE. 

El aldeano, el painuio. em. 

El criado. 

t ^ Tiene hambre el aldeano? 

t £1 tiene hambre. 

t X Tiene calor su hermano de V.? 

1 1 Tiene ^1 Teigflenza? fie. 

iQue tiene 617 

I Que tiene mi amigo? 

i Que tengo yo? 

Has he kioaboel 

Tes, Sir, ho has Am ihoe. 

^Tlene A su sapato? 

Si, eeftor, 6\ tiene so sapatou 



His eye. 

Wliicb book bu tbat man? 
He baa Ata oioh. 
His or hi§ oion. 

Haa be hia or mineT 
He baa neitber bia nor youiiL 
Haa be bia money 7 
Yea, be baa bia own. 

Haa anybody my money? 

No, Sir, nobody haa it. 
Somebody, anybody. 
Some one, any one. 
Nobody, not anybody. 
No one, not any one. 

Su. (Adjective pronoon.) 
Sn pdjoro 
Sa pi^. 
So oja 

I Que libro tiene eae bombre ? 
]|^1 tiene el ouyo, (or el ouyo fropio,) 
Bl ouyo, or el euyo propio, (Ab« 
aolnte poa oeiii ve pronoun.) 

I Tiene 6\ ei auyo 6 el mio? 
£i no tiene ni el auyo ni el do V. 
I Tiene ^1 an dinero ? 
Si, 6\ tiene el auyo. 

^ Tiene alguno (or alguien) mi di- 
No, aefior, ninguno le tioue. 


f Ninguno 

Oho, B, Alguno, Alguien, Ninguno, and Nadie, are indefinite pnmoona 
Btonding alwaya for peraontk See A|^ndjz. 

Haa anybody my bird? 
Somebody baa it 
Nobody haa it. 

^ Tiene algrimo mi pijaro? 
Alguno le tiene. — Alguien le tiene. 
Ningono le tiene.— Nadie le tiene. 


Who haa my trunk ? — ^The boy haa it — Ib be thirsty or hungry ?— 
He is neither thirsty nor hungry. — ^Has the man the chicken ? — ^He 
has it — ^Who has my waistcoat ? — ^The young man has it. — ^Hks the 
captain my ship 7 — ^He has it not. — ^Who has it 7 — The merchant has 
it— Who has the knife 7— -Which knife 7— Mine.— The servant haa 
it — Is he a&aid 7 — ^He is not afraid. — ^Is the man right or wrong 7 — 
He is neither right nor wrong. — ^Who has the countryman's rice 7 — 
My servant has it. — ^Haa he my horse 7 — ^No, Sir, he has it not — Who 
has it 7 — ^The peasant has it — ^Who has my old shoe 7 — ^The shoe- 
maker has it — ^What baa your friend ? — ^He has his good money.— > 
Has he my gold 7 — ^He has not yours ; he has his own. — Who has it ? — 
The young man has it. — Who is cold 7 — ^Nobody is cold. — ^Is anybody 
warm ? — Nobody is warm. 

SI«HTH LB880V. %$ 


Has any one my gun ? — ^No one has it — Has the yoxmg man my 
book t — He has it not — What has he ?— ^He has nothing. — ^Has he 
the hammer or the stick 7 — ^He has neither the hammer nor the stick. 
—Has be my umbrella 7 — ^He has it not — ^Who has it 7 — Nobody has 
it — ^Yes, somebody has it — ^Who? — ^That man has it — ^Has your 
baker my iHrd or his ?— He has not yours, he has his. — ^Have I yom 
bag or that of your friend 7 — ^Yoa have neither mine nor my friend's ; 
foa have your own. — Who has the peasant's bag ? — ^The old baker 
has it — Who is afraid ? — ^The tailor's boy is afraid. — ^Is he sleepy 7—^ 
He is not sleepy ; he is cold. — ^What is the matter with him 7 — Nothing. 
— ^Has the peasant my money ? — ^He has it not. — Has the captain it 7 
—He has it not — Who has it 7 — ^Nobody has it — Has yotir neighbor 
any thing good 7 — ^He has nothing good. — ^What has hie ngly 7 — ^He 
has nothing ugly. — ^Has he any thing 7 — ^He has nothing. 

Has the merchant my cloth or his 7 — ^He has neither yours nor his. 
— Which cloth has he 7 — ^He has that of my brother. — ^Which cloth 
has the tailor 7 — ^He has his own. — ^Has your brother his wine or the 
neighbor's 7 — He has neither his nor ^e neighbor's. — Which wine has 
he 7 — He has his own. — ^Has anybody my gold button 7 — ^Nobody has 
It — Who has my button 7 — ^Your good boy has it — ^Has he my paper 
or my horse 7 — ^He has neither your paper nor your horse ; he has his 
friend's horse.-^Who has the Frenchman's good chocolate? — ^The 
merchant has it — ^Haa he it 7 — ^Yes, Sir, he has it — Are you afraid or 
ashamed 7 — ^I am neither afraid nor ashamed. — ^Has your cook his 
mntton ? — ^He has it — ^Have you my bread or my cheese 7 — I have 
nehher your bread nor your cheese. — ^Have I your wine or your 
bread ? — ^You have neither my wine nor my bread. — ^What have 1 7— 
Yon have your mutton. — Has any one my gold button 7 — No one 
has it 

EIGHTH LESSON Leccum Oetava. 

The aailor. 
Hi* tree. 
The looking-gl 
Tour mattresB. 

Tlie stranger. 
The foreigner 
Tlie garden. 
My glove. 

El marinero. 


EI espejo. 

Sa eolchon de Y., or el colchon 

El eatrangero. 
El eatrangero or foraatero. 
El jardin. 
Mi guante. 



TAm hay. 
That frieud. 
That man. 

E9te buoy. 
£«!« henow 
J?M amigo. 
Aquel hombre. 

Thi9, Bate. 

That Ese, aquel 

Ob*, A, Este refen to the penona or thinga neareai to the apeakM* ; em 
to the penona or thmga neareat to the peiaon spoken to ; and aquel u used 
to point out peraona or thinga dietant, both from the apeaker and from tho 
peiaon spoken ta It it also employed when speaking of oTents, &c., paased 
long time since ; aa, In those days, en aquelloe diaa. 

Have yon this or that book? 

I have thia one, I haye not that one, 

Thia one. 
That one. 

I Tiene V. e$te libra 6 aquel 7 
Tengo esto, no tongo aquel. 


Ohe, B. One » not translated ; we only aay thia or that. 

Have I thia one or that one 7 

Tou have thia one, you have not 

that one. 
Has the man tnia hat or that one 7 

I Tengo yo eate 6 aquel 7 
V. tiene eato, no tiene aqueL 

I Tiene fH hombre eato aombraiD 6 

He has not thia one, hut that one. 

He has this one, but not that one. 

Oha. C. It is bettor to repeat the 
He has not this one, but that one. 

The billet 

The garret 

The granary. 

The ass. 

The com. 
Have yon thia billet or that one? 
I have not thia one, but that one. 
I haye thia one, but not that one. 
Haa the neighbor thia looking-gli 

or that ona 7 
He haa this one, but not that one. 

El no tiene eate, atno aqueL 
Sino* Pero* 

El tiene eato, pero no tiene aqueL 
yerb in the aecond part of the phrase. 

El no tiene esto, sine tiene aqueL 

El billete. 

El deayan. 

El granero. 

El burrow 

El grano, el trigo. 

I Tiene V. eate billete 6 aquel ? 

No tengo este, pero tongo aqueL 

Tengo eato, pero no tengo aqueL 

^ Tiene el yecino este eapejo 6 

aquel 7 
El tiene eate, pero no tiena aqaeL 

Haye you the billet that my brother 

I haye not the billet which your 

brother haa. 

^ Tiene V. el billete que mi her- 

mano tiene 7 
Yo no tengo el bikete qua an her- 

mano de V tiene. 



Wkiek. ThaL 
HtTO yoa the hone which I have 7 
I hx9% the bone which yoo have. 
I have not that which you have. 
Thmt whUh. Th€ one which. 
Have I the glove which yoa have? 
Toa have not the one which I have. 
That which he has. 
The one which yon have. 

Que. (Relative proDoun.) 

I Tiene V. el caballo que tango? 

Tengo el eaballo qne V. tiene. 

Yo no tengo el que V. tiene. 

El que. 

^Tengo yo el goanto que Y. tiene? 

V. no tiene el que yo tenga 

El que ^1 tiene. 

El que Y. tiene. 


Which hay has the stranger 7 — ^He has that of the peasant — ^Haa 
the sailor my looking-glass 7 — ^He has it not — ^Have yoa this hat 
or that one 7 — ^I have this one. — ^Have yoa the hay of my garden or 
that of yours 7 — ^I have neither that of your garden nor that of mine, 
bat I have that of the stranger. — ^Which glove have yoa 7 — ^I have 
that of the sailor. — ^Have you his mattress? — ^I have it — ^Which 
gnn has the sailor 7 — ^He has his own. — ^Who has my good billet 7— 
This man has it — Who has that stick 7 — Your fiiend has it — ^Have 
yoa the com of your granary or that of mine 7 — ^I have neither that 
of your granary nor that of mine, but I have that of my merchant— 
Who has my glove 7 — That servant has it — ^What has you servant 7 
— ^He has Uie tree of this garden. — ^Has he that man*s book 7 — ^He 
has not the book of that man, but he has that of this boy. — ^Has the 
peasant this or that ox 7 — ^He has neither this nor that, bat he has 
the Goe which the boy has. — ^Has this ass his hay or that of the horse 7 
— ^He has neither his nor that of the horse. — ^Which horse has thia 
peasant 7 — ^He has that of your neighbor. — ^Have I your hay or his 7 
— ^Yoa have neither mine nor his, bat yoa have that of your friend.— 
Have yoa this horse's hay 7—4 have not his hay, but his com. — ^Has 
your brother my wine or his 7 — ^He has neither yours nor his own, 
but he has the sailor's. — ^Has the stranger my bird or his own 7 — ^He 
has that of the captain. — ^Have you the tree of this garden 7 — ^I have 
it not — Are you hungry or thirsty 7 — ^I am neither hungry nor thirsty, 
but I am sleepy. 


Has the sailor this bird or that one 7 — ^He has not this, but that 
one. — Has your servant this sack or that one 7— -He has this one, 
but not that one. — ^Has your cook this chicken or that one 7 — ^He 
has neither this one nor that one, but he has that of his neighbor. — 
Am I right or wrong 7 — You are neither right nor wrong, but your 
good boy Is wrong. — ^Have I this knife or that one 7 — Yoa hav« iiei- 


26 NIMTH UM809. 

thisr this nor that one. — What have 1 7 — ^Yoq have nothing good, hot 
you have something bad. — ^Have you the chest which I have? — I 
have not that which yon have. — ^Which horse have yon ? — ^I have the 
one which your brother has. — ^Have yon the ass which my friend has 7 
— I have not that which he has, but I have that which you have. — 
Hu your Mend the looking-glass which yon have or that which I 
have 7 — He has neither that which you have nor that which I have, 
but he has his own. 


Which bag has the peasant 7 — ^He has the one which his boy has. 
—Have I your golden or your iron candlestick 7 — ^Yoti have neither 
my golden nor my iron candlestick. — ^Have you my waistcoat or that 
of the tailor 7 — ^I have neither yours nor that of the tailor. — ^Which 
one have you 7 — ^I have that which my friend has. — Are yon cold or 
warm 7 — ^I am neither cold nor warm, but I am thirsty. — Is your friend 
afraid or ashamed 7 — ^He is neither afraid nor ashamed, but he is 
sleepy. — Who is wrong 7 — Your friend is wrong. — ^Has any one my 
umbrella 7 — ^No one has it — ^Is any one ashamed 7^ — No one is ashamed, 
but my friend is hungry. — ^Has the captain the ship which you have 
or that which I have 7 — ^He has neither that which you have, nor that 
which I have. — Which one has he 7 — ^He has that of his friend. — ^Is 
he right or wrong 7 — ^He is neither right nor wrong. — ^Has the French- 
man any thing good or bad 7 — ^He has neither any thing good nor bad, 
but he has something pretty. — ^What has he pretty 7 — ^He has the 
pretty chicken. — ^Has he the good biscuit 7 — ^He has it not, but his 
neighbor has it 

NINTH LESSON.— I.«ccton Nona, 




Ofthetfram the. 


To the, at the. 



Rule. — ^Nouni tenninating in a short or unaccented vowel are made 
plural by adding « to the singular ; as, book, Ubro, books, Itbroe. 

Nouns ending in a long or accented vowel, or in a consonant, or in yi 
add ee to make the plural ; as, bashaw, bajd, bashawi, bajiee, captain, 
eapitan, captains, eapitaneot law, ley, laws, leyee. 

KINni LS880K. 


Wofdi ending in » add e#, and change the x into e, or retain it ; as, 
judge, j«e2, judges, ^'tMCM, oijuexet. 

l^ebook. EIlilHo + B' 

The books. 

Los libras. 

Good. Baeno -f* ■• 

Good books. 

Buenos libros. 

The stick. £1 baston + es. 

The sticks 

lios bnstonfis 

The ox. £i bney + m- 
The judge. £1 jnez -f cea. 

The oxen. 
The judges. 

Los bueyes. 
Los jueces. 

The books. 


The good books. 

Los buenos libros. 

Of the books. 

De kM libros. 

The canee. 

Los bastones. 

The good canes. 

Los buenos bastones. 

Of the canee. 

De los bastones. 

The neigfaboiB. 

Los vecinos. 

The good neigfaboia 
The friendsL 
The old friends. 
The pretty dogs. 
The ugly hats. 

Los buenos vecinos. 
Los amigos. 
Los amigos viejos. 
Los bonitos penoa. 
Los sombreros fees. 

The woods, (forest) 
The Frenchmen, (the 


Los Franceses. 

The £ngli8fanian. 
The Englishmen, (the 


El Ingles. 
Los Ingleses. 

0&#. A. Adjeetwet must agree in gender and number with the nouns 
or pronouns they qualify, and their plural is made according to the rules 
lakl down above for nouns. 

The place, the places. I £1 Ingar, los lugares. 

The nail, the nails. £1 clavo, los clavos. 

Have you the books? 
I have the books. 
Who has the hats 7 
He has the hats. 
Have I the birds T 
Yes, Sir. 

Have yon my knives 7 
I have not your knives. 



^TieneV. losribros7 
Yo tengo los libros. 
I Quien tiene los sombreros 7 
£1 tiene los sombreros. 
I Tengo yo los pdjaros 7 
Si, senor 

I Tiene V. mig cuchillos 7 

Yo no ttfngo 9u$ cuchillos de V. 



Su (n) de Y. 

£1 (n) de V. 




Sub (n) de V. 

Los (n) de V. 

(See OIm. A, Lem>n IV.) 


uratta ubssor. 

Hit or her. 







06f. B. These adjeetivef agree in number with the nooxui that come alter 
thaniy and to which they refer. 

Hie or her hooka. 


Oar book, our books. 

Nueetro libro, nneetros librae. 

The work, (labor.) 


The works. 


Our gloYee. 

Nuestioa goantes. 


Pequefio, (sing.) Pequeiios, (plor.) 


Grande, (sing.) Grandee, (plor.) 

Which hats 7 

Which anew 7 

These books. 
Those books. 



These or tnose books. 

Haye yon these or those books ? 

These birds or those. 

Have I these or those birds? 

The eyes. 

The aaes 
Which horses have you 7 
Have you the fine horses of your 

good neighbors 7 
Have I his small gloves 7 

Yon haye not his small gloves, but 
you have his large hats. 

Has your brother his iron guns 7 

He has not his iron guns. 
Which ones has he 7 

Of my gardens. 

Of your pretty horses. 

I Que sombreros 7 

I CuaUt ? 
Esos libros, aquellos hbras. 


E»M, aquellot. 

(See Obs. A, Lesson VIIL) 
Estos libros 6 aquellos. 
I Tiene V. estos libros 6 aquellos 7 
Estos pdjaros 6 aquellos. 
I Tengo yo estos pdjaros 6 aquellos? 


lios burros. 

I Que caballoB tiene V. 7 

I Tiene V. los hermosos cahallos de 

sus buenoB vecinos (de V. 7) 
^ Tengo yo sus guantes pequefios? 

(or guantecitos.) 
V. no tiene sus guantes pequefios, 

pero V. tiene sus sombreros gran- 

I Tiene el hermano de V. bus fusQes 

de hierro 7 
£1 no tiene sus f usilcs de hierro. 
I Cuales tiene 6\ 7 

De mis jardini 

De sus bonitos cahallos de Y 



Tlw FVdncluneii's fine mnbreDas. 

Of my woods. 
Of your fine trees. 
Have yoa the Frenchmen's fine om- 

I hsTe ikA their umbteUas, hat I 

have their fine canes. 
Have yoa the trees of my gardens T 

I hare not the trees of year gardena 

Have yon my leathern riioes ? 
I hsTe not yonr leathern shoM, bat 
I haTe yoor cloth caps. 

Hie bread, the loaves. 

Los hermosos ftaigaaa de loo IVaa* 

De mis boeqaes. 

De los hermosos drboles de Y. 

^Tiene Vm. los hermosos parAgnas 
de los Franceses 7 

Yo no tengo sns pariguas, pero tengo 
SOS hermosos bastones. 

^Tiene V. los irboles de mis jar- 

Yo no tengo los irboles de sos jar- 
dines de y. 

I Tiene V. mis zapatos de cordobant 

Yo no tengo sos zapatos de cordo- 
ban de V^ pero tengo soi gonos 
de pafia 

El pan, los pane& 


Have you the gloves ? — ^Yes, Sir, I have the gloves. — ^Have you my 
gloves? — ^No, Sir, I have not your gloves. — ^Have I your looking- 
glasses ? — ^You have my looking-glasses. — ^Have I your pretty books ? 
— ^You have not my pretty books. — Which books have 1 7 — ^You have 
the pretty books of your friends. — ^Has the foreigner ou/ good guns ? — 
He has not our good guns, but our good ships. — ^Who has our fine 
horses 7 — Nobody has your fine horses, but somebody has your fine 
oxen. — Has your neighbor the trees of your gardens 7 — ^He has not the 
trees of my gardens, but he has your handsome woods. — ^Have you the 
horses' hay 7 — ^I have not their hay, but their com. — ^Has your tailor 
my fine golden buttons 7 — ^He has not your fine (^olden buttons, but 
your fine golden candlestick. — ^What has the sailor 7 — ^He has his fine 
ships^— Has he my sticks or my guns 7 — ^He has neither your sticks 
nor your guns. — ^Who has the tailor's good waistcoats ?*-Nobody has 
his waistcoats, but somebody has his gold buttons. — ^Has the French- 
man's boy my good umbrellas 7 — He has not your good umbrellas, but 
your good sticks. — ^Has the shoemaker my leather shoes 7 — ^He has 
your leather shoes.— What has the captain 7 — ^He hc.s his good sailors. 


Which mattresses has the sailor 7 — ^He has the good mattresses of 

his captain. — Which gardens has the Spaniard 7 — ^He has the gardens 

of the English. — ^Which servants has the EngUshman 7 — He has the 

servants of the French. — What has your boy 7 — ^He has his pretty birds. 




—What has the merchant 7 — ^He hasour pretty chests.— -What has the 
haker ? — He has our line asses. — ^Has he our nails or oar hammers 7 — 
He has neither our nails nor onr hammers, hut he has our good loaves. 
^-Has the carpenter his iron hammers ? — ^He has not his iron hammets, 
but his iron nails. — ^Which biscuits has the baker ? — ^He has the bis- 
cuits of his friends.— Has our friend our fine pencils ? — ^He has not onr 
fine pencils.— Which ones has he ? — He has the small pencils of his 
merchants. — ^Which sticks has your servant ? — ^He has the sticks of his 
good merchants. — ^Haa your friend the small knives of oor merchants ? 
-*He has not their small knives, but their golden candlesticks. — ^Have 
yon these guns 7 — I have not these guns, but these iron knives. — ^Ha:s 
the man this or that billet 7 — ^He has neither this nor that — ^Has ho 
your book or your friend's 7 — He has neither mine nor my friend's ; he 
has his own. — Has your brother the wine which I have or that which 
yon have 7 — He has neither that which you have nor that which I have. 
-"Which wine has he 7— -He has that of his merchants. — ^Have yon 
the bag which my servant has 7—1 have not the bag which your ser- 
vant has.— Have yon the chicken which my cook has or that which 
the peasant has 7 — ^I have neither that which your cook has nor that 
which the peasant has. — ^Is the peasant cold or wann 7 — ^He is neither 
cold nor warm. 

TENTH LESSON.— jLcccion Dicima. 


Have you my books or thou of the 

I have not your books, I have those 

of the man. 

Thoie which. 
Have yon the books which I have 7 
I have those which yoa have. 
Has the Englishman the knives 

which you have, or those which 1 


He hss neither those which yoa 

have, nor those which I have. 
Which knives has he 7 
He has his own. 
Have you mint f 
No, I have not yourg 

Lo9 de, 

I Tieue Y. mis libros 6 lot del hom- 

Yo no tengo los libros de Vm., tengo 

loB del hombxe. 

Loa que, 
I Tione V. los libros que tengo 7 
Yo tengo los que V. tiene. 
I Tiene el Ingles los cuchillos que V 

tiene, 6 los que yo tengo 7 

No tiene ni los que V. tieue, ni loa 

quo yo tengo. 
I Que cuchillos tiene (^1 ?) 
£1 tiene loa auyoa* 
I Tiene V. loa mioa 7 
No, yo no. tengo loa de F. 






El mayo. 

Hif, hesi, (his own» her own.) 


Tbein, (their own.) 

Oba, Jl Theoe pranoans agree 


Lgs mioa. 

(See Ofaa A, Lenon IV.', 
El niyo. alioe anyoa. 

El noestxa Los nneitras. 

Et soya Los niyoe. 

in nnmber with the objeet 

that is, the noon they refer to or stand for 

Hayo yon yoon or mine T 
I have not yoms, I have mine. 
These, (plnr. of this one.) 
Thoee, (plnr. of that one.) 

I Tlene V. los snyos 6 los miosT 
To no tengo los de V., tengo los micNL 


Ewt, ofueUot. 

Ofts. B. Hiese words are nsed with or without sabstantives. 

I haTe nmther these nor those. 
Haye I these or those 7 
Toil haye these ; yon have not those. 
Hayo I the looking-glasns of the 
French, or those of the English? 
Ton haye neither the fonner nor the 

The former. 
The latter. 

To no tengo ni estos ni aqnellas. 
I Tengo yo estos 6 aquellos ? 
V. tiene estos ; no tiene aqnelloa. 
I Tongo yo los espojos de los Fran- 
ceses, 6 los de los Ingleses 7 
V. no tiene ni aqneUos, ni estos. 

Afuel, (sing.) AqueUow, (plnr.) 

Eeie, (sing.) Estoe, (plnr.) 

Oi«. C. In Spanish aquel and aquelloe refer always to the object fiift 
mentioned ; ette, e9to8, to the object last spoken oL 

Haye yon my canes or my gnns7 
I haye the latter, but I haye not the 

Has the man these or those trunks ? 

He has these, but not those. 
Haye yon your guns or mine 7 
I haye neither youn nor mine 
those of our good friends 


I, Tiene V. mis bastones 6 mis fnsiles 7 
To tengo estos,f)ero no tengo aquel- 
^ Tiene el homfare estos 6 aquellos 

Tiene esos, pero no aquellos. 
I Tiene V. sus fusOes 6 los mios 7 
To no tengo ni los de V. ni los mios, 
pero los de nnestros bnenos ami- 


AugmeiUatwe and Diminutive nouns, in Spanish, are those which by the 
addition of a certain termination increase or diminish the signification of 
tbdr primitiyes. 



Th« augmentative noons an formed by adding on^ ote, azo, or oucm, to 
the loaaculiDe nouns, and ona, ota, aza, or onaza to the feminme ; tap- 
their last letter, should it be a, e, or o ; as. 

A boy. Un muehacho, 

A big boy. Un muehaekon. 

A big girt 

Una nuickaeka, 
Una tnuchaehana 

On and ote, ona and ota, generatty indicate goodness in the object ; azo, 
ass, onazo, onaza, most commonly refer only to size. 

The termination ^o frequently signifies the blow, or injury caused by 
the object to which it is added ; as. 

A Tory Isrgs whip. 
A stroke with a whip. 

Un latigazo. 
Un latigazo. 

The termination azo added to the noun to expresi a Uow, or injury, has 
no change when it is fonned out of a noun feminine ; as, 


A large hand. 
A blow, or stroke with the hand. 




The diminutive nouns are fonned by adding ito, illo, uelo for the mss- 
cnline, and ita, iUa, uela for the feminine, to the noun, which drops its liit 
letter if it be a, e, or o; as, 

Un muehacho. 
Un muehaehito 
Una mMtchaeha. 
Una muehachita. 

A little boy. 

A little giii 

Ito and ita generally expresi love towards the object, and beauty in it ; 
Ulo and iUa sometimes mean pity, and sometimes contempt ; ueh and ueU 
formerly were used in the same sense as ito and ita, at present they indi- 
cate only contempt 

The greatest part of nouns ending in an, in, on, ehe, ge, fu«, re, te, ve, 
add eito, cillo, zuelo, or eita, cilia, zuela to the noun, which in- such case 
does not drop the last letter ; as, 

Pretty little lion. Leoneito. 

Good little man. Hombrecito 

Handsome little woman. Mujereita. 


' Leon. 





BsceptUn. a?"'!*'*- 

Nouns ending in z change it into c, and add cito, cita, Slc. ; as. 




Little cross. 
Little fish. 

Pececito, pececiUe 

Nouns ending in eo or ca change this syllable into quito, quita ; as. 



Little boat 
Little barge. 


Nouns ending in g'o or ga, drop the o and add uito, uita, Slc. ; so. 


FHend. Amigo. 

Friend. Amiga. 

Dear little fiiend. Atniguita, 

Dear little friend. Amiguita. 

Ncnms ending in to, ia, generally do not admit the termination, and ex- 
pren the diminati^e by tranalatiug the adjective ; aa, The little Claudiiw, 
El pequeno Claudia, or El ntno Claudio. Sometimea they drop the lait 
two Toweb and add the regular termination ; as, Julia, Julita ; tndio, in- 
dito. When the letter n precedes the said last syllables io, ia, it is generally 
changed into n ; as, AnUmio, Antoftito. 


Hare you these or those billets ? — ^I have neither these nor those. 
— ^Have yon the horses of the Spaniards or those of the English ? — I 
have those of the English, but I have not those of the Spaniards. — 
Which oxen have yon ? — ^I have those of the foreigners. — ^Have you 
the chests which I have ? — ^I have not those which yon have, bnt those 
which yonr brother has. — ^Has your brother your biscuits or mine 7— 
He has neither yours nor mine. — ^Which biscuits has he 7 — ^Ho has his 
own.-*Which horses has your friend 7 — He has those which I have. — 
Has your friend my books or his ? — ^He has neither yours nor his ; but 
he has those of the captain.— Have I your waistcoats or those of the 
tailors 7 — You have neither these nor those. — ^Have I our asses 7 — ^You 
have not ours, but those of our neighbors. — ^Have yon the birds of the 
sailors 7 — I have not their birds, but their fine sticks. — ^Which caps 
has your boy 7 — ^He has mine. — ^Have I my shoes or those of the shoe- 
makers 7 — ^You have not yours, but theirs, (those of the shoemakers.) 

Which paper has the man 7 — ^He has ours. — ^Has he our coffee 7 — 
He has it not — ^Have you our bags or those of the strangers 7 — ^I have 
not yours, bnt theirs. — ^Has your carpenter our hammers or those of 
our friends 7 — ^He has neither ours nor those of our friends. — ^Which 
nails has he 7 — ^He has his gtxxl iron nails. — ^Has any one the ships of 
the English 7 — ^No one has those of the English, but some one has 
those of the French. — ^Who has the cook's chickens 7 — ^Nobody has his 
chickens, but somebody has his mutton. — Who has his cheese 7 — ^His 
boy has it — Who has my old gun 7 — ^The sailor has it — Have I that 
peasant's bag 7 — ^You have not his bag, but his com. — Which guns 
has the Englishman 7 — ^He has those which you have. — ^Which um- 
brellas has the Frenchman 7 — He has those which his friend has.-^ 
Has he our books 7 — ^He has not ours, but those which his neighbor 
has. — ^Is the merchant's boy hungry 7 — He is not hungry, but thirsty. 
— ^Is your friend cold or warm ? — He is neither cold nor warm. — Is he 
afraid 7 — ^Ho ia not afraid, but ashamed. — ^Has the young man the sticks 



of oar servants 7 — ^He has not their sticks, but their soap. — ^Which 
pencils has he ? — He has those of his old merchants. — ^Have yon any 
thing good or bad 7 — I have neither any thing good nor bad, but some- 
thing fine. — What have you fine? — ^I have our cooks' fine wine.— 
Have yon not their fine mutton 7 — ^No, Sir, I have it not 

ELEVENTH LASSOS. --Leccian Undicma. 

The comb. 

The glaai. 

The glBM, (tumbler.) 

Have you my small combs? 

I have them. 

EI peine. 

El vidrio, (a factitious substance.) 


J I Tieue V. mis peines chiquitoe? (or 
Yo lot tengo. 

Them. I Los. 

Obs. A. Los is a pronoun when it is governed by a verb before which it 
placed ; but when 2o« is an article, it comes before a substantive. 

Has he my fine glasses? 

He has them. 

Have I them? 

You have them. 

You have them not 

Has the man my pretty combs 7 

He has them not 

Has the boy them ? 

The men have them. 

Have the men them? 

I Tiene ^1 mis hermoaos vasos ? 

£l los tiene. 

I Los tengo yo ? 

V. los tiene. 

V. no los tiene. 

I Tiene el hombre mis bonitos peines ? 

£1 no los tiene. 

I Los tiene el muchacho 7 

Los hombres los tienen. 

I Los tienen los hombres? 

They have them. 
They have them not 
Who has them? 

The Grermans. 
The Turks. 
The Germans have them. 
The Italians. 
The Spaniards. 

'EUos los tienen. 
EUos no los tienen 
I Quien los tiene ? 

Los Alemanes. 

Los TurcoB. 

Los Alemanes los tienen. 

Los Italianos. 

Los Espaiioles. 

Some or any. | 

Obs, B. Some and anyt used in an unlimited sense, are not translated, 
particularly when they are not followed by a noun ; but the noun which is 



undentood in English is aometimes ezpreaMd in Spaniah, or, what is 
ureal, we give another form to the sentence, by merely using the 
Yes, sir, Sif Menor; No, air, JVb, aeiiar, either with or without the TOib 

Hare yon any wine 7 

I hare some, (wine mdentood.) 

I have not any> (wine ondentood.) 

Will yoQ send for wine 7 

I win send for some, (wine under-' 

I win not send for any, (wine nnder- ' 

(Tiene V. vino 7 

TeugoTinow \ 

Si, tengo. 

Si, seilor. 

No tengo Tina 

No tengo. 

No, se&or. 

I Quiere V. enyiar por vino 7 

Yo qniero enyiar por yino. 

Si, qnierOb 

Si, sefior. 

No quiero enyiar por yina 

No qniera 

No, seiior. 

Same, meaning a Uttle, is ezpreased and translated by un foeo 

I haye some, (a little.) 
Some or any wine. 
Some or any bread. 
Some or any tea. 
Some or any buttons. 
Some or any kniyes. 
Some or any men. 

Haye yon any wine? 
I haye some wine. 

Has this man any cloth 7 
He has some doth. 
Has he any books7 

He has some book& 

Haye yon any money? 

I haye some money. 

No. Not any, 

I haye no^wine. 
He has not any money. 
Ton haye no books. 
Tliey haye not any friends. 

To tengo un pooa 



t Botones. 
t Cuchillos. 
t Homhres. 






tiTieneV. yino7 
t To tengo yino, or 

Tengo un pooo. 
1 1 Tiene pafio este hombra? 
t £l tiene pa&o. 
t £l tiene libros, or 

Tiene algunos libras. 
1 1 Tiene Y. dinero 7 
t Yo tengo dinero, or 

Tengo un pooo de dinero. 

No* (In a general indefinite aei 
Yo no tengo yino. 
£l no tiene dinero. 
y. no tiene libroa. 
EUos no tienen amigoft 



Same. \ ^n P^^f (^ ""^ qoBBtity.) 

r Alguno, {AlguHf before a 
y miMcnline Mnguiar.) 
I Algmnos. 

06«. C. Alguno, Algun, and Algunot are i»ed in a limited wdm. 

SouMm Any* 
Same. Onee 

Haa he any paper? 

Have you any good p^iert 

Have I any? 

Hare yon any good? 

^Tiene («1) aignn pi^iel? 
(Tiene V. algun buen papelt 
I Tengo yo alguno? 
I Tiene V. alguno buenoT 

No. Not any. None. 

Ninguno, {Ningun, before a noun 
maflculine aingular.) 

Oho. D. Ninguno, Ningun, and Ningunoe, are need in a limitad sense. 

C (£l) no tiene ningun papeli or 

< Ningun papel tiene. 

i (See Ofaa B, Leaaon III.) 

5(£l) no tiene ningun buen papel, or 
Ningun buen papel tiene. 
5 Ninguno tiene, or 
No tiene ninguno. 
I Ninguno tengo, (pi. ningnnoa tengo.) 
k No tiene ninguno boeno, or 
( No tiene ningunoa buenoa. 

J Ninguno bueno tiene, or 
Ningunoa buenoa tiene. 

He haa not any paper. 

He has not any good paper. 

He haa not any. 

I have none. 

He has not any good. 

He has none good. 

Have yon any paper? 

I have aome. 

I have aome good. 

I Tiftne Vm. algun papel? 
Tengo alguno, (or nn poco.) 
Tengo alguno bueno. 

Some old wine. 
Some badcheeee 

Vino afiejo. 
Queoo male. 

Oho. E. When malo is before a noun of person it means wickod. 

Any excellent coffee. Excelente caf6. ex.— 

The painter. El pintor. 

The picture. El cuadro. 

The picture, (likeneas.) EI retrato. 

Hie pamter haa aome pictnrea. £1 pintor tiene algunoa euadraa 



Hsre yoa my fine glasses? — I have them. — ^Have you the fine 
horaee of t) « English 7 — ^I have them not-^VVhich sticks have you 7 
—I have t loee of the foreigners. — ^Who has my small combs 7 — ^My 
boys have them. — ^Which knives have you 7 — ^I have those of your 
fiienda. — ^Have I your good guns? — You have them not, but your 
fiiends have them. — ^Have you my pretty pictures, or those of my 
brothers 7 — I have neither yours nor your brothers*, but my own. — 
Which ships have the Germans 7 — The Germans have no shipe.-^ 
Have the sailors our fine mattresses 7 — They have them not — ^Have 
the cooks them? — They have them. — ^Has the captain your pretty 
boc^s 7 — ^He has them not — ^Have I them 7 — You have thorn. You 
have them not — ^Has the Italian them 7 — ^He has them. — ^Have the 
Turks our fine guns 7 — They have them not. — ^Have the Spaniards 
them 7 — ^They have them. — ^I^ the German the pretty umbrellas of 
the Spaniards? — ^He has them. — ^Has ho them? — Yes, Sir, he has 
them. — ^Has the Italian our pretty gloves ? — ^He has them not — ^Who 
has them 7 — The Turk has them. — ^Has the tailor our waistcoats or 
those of our friends 7 — He has lieither the latter nor the former. — 
Which caps has be 7 — ^He haa those which the Turks have. — ^Which 
dogs have you ? — ^I have those which my neighbors have. 

Have you any woods 7 — ^I have some woods. — Has your brother any 
aoap 7 — ^He has no soap. — ^Have I any mutton 7 — You have no mutton, 
but you have some cheese. — ^Have your friends any money 7 — ^They 
have some money. — Have they any tea 7 — ^They have no tea, but they 
have some excellent coffee. — ^Have I any soap 7 — You have no soap, 
but you have some coal.— Has the merchant any cloth 7 — ^He has no 
cloth, but some pretty shoes. — ^Have the English any gold ? — They 
have no gold, but they have some excellent iron. — Have you any good 
coffee 7 — ^I have no good coffee, but some excellent wine. — Has the 
merchant any good books 7 — ^He has some good books. — ^Haa the young 
man any tea 7 — ^He has no tea, but some excellent chocolate. — ^Have 
the French any good gloves 7 — They have some excellent gloves. — 
Have they any birds 7 — They have no birds, but they have some pretty 
pictures. — ^Wbo has the fine knives of the English ? — ^Their friends 
have them. — ^Who has the good biscuits of the bakers 7 — ^The sailors 
of our captains have them. — ^Have they our ships 7 — Yes, Sir, they 
have them. — ^What have the Italians? — They have some beautiful 
pictures. — What have the Spaniards 7 — They have some fine asses.— 
What have the Germans 7 — ^They have some excellent com. 





Have you any friends 7 — ^I have some friends. — Have yoar fiienda 
any coal 7 — They have some. — ^Have the shoemakers any good ahoes 7 
— -Thoy have no good ahoes, but they have some excellei t leather.— 
Have the tailors any good waistcoats 7 — ^They have no good waistcoats, 
but some excellent cloth. — ^Has the painter any umbrellatf 7 — ^He has 
no umbrellas, but he has some beautiful pictures. — ^Has he the pictures 
of the French or those of the Italians 7 — ^He has neither the ]atteT nor 
the former. — ^Which ones has he 7 — ^He has those of his good friends. 
— ^Have the Russians {los Rtaos) any thing good 7 — ^They have some- 
thing good. — ^What have they good 7 — ^They have some good oxen. — 
Has any one my small combs 7 — ^No one has them. — Who has the 
peasants' fine chickens 7 — ^Your cooks have them. — What have the 
bakers 7 — ^They have some excellent bread. — ^Have your friends any 
old wine 7 — ^They have no old wine, but some good coffee. — Haa any- 
body your golden candlesticks 7 — Nobody has them. 

TWELFTH LESSON^— Leccum Duodicima. duo. 

A or an, or one. 

Of a, an, from a, an. 

To a, an, at a,, an. 

A man. 

A book. 

A stick, (of wood.) 

A stick, (a cane.) 


Of a good sailor. 

A small knife. 
A large cap. 



Have you any books 7 
Yes, Sir, I have one. 
Have you a glaas ? 
I have no glosi 
I have one. 

Have you a good hone T 
I have a good horee. 


De ufl. 
A ttff. 

Un hombre. 

Un libro. 

Un palo. 

Un baston. 

De un mni*iiacho. 

De un bnen marinero. 

Un cnchillo pequefio. 

Un cuchillito. 

Un gorro grande. 


Numeral adjectives. 



I Tiene V . algonoe libros 7 

Si, sefior, yo tengo uno. 

I Tiene V. un vaso 7 

To no tengo vaso. 

Yo tengo una 

I Tiene V. un buen caballo? 

To tengo un bnen caballa 



Have yoa any good hones? 
I have two good ones. 
Have you two good hoiaea 7 
Yea, Sir, I have two good onea 


Have yoa five honea ? 
I have none, Sir. 
Have yoa a fimall lion ? 
I haTo one. 

Have yoa any good siioea 7 
I have some good. 
I haye aome bad ones. 

Haa yoar brother a friend 7 

He bas a good one. 
Has he one 7 
He hae one. 
He has two good ones 
He has two of them. 
Have yoa five good dogs 7 
I have three good and two bad ones. 
Who has a pretty umbreUa 7 
My brother has one. 
The hatter. 

I Tiene V. boenos caballoa 7 
Tengo dos baenos. 
I Tiene V. dos baenos caballoa 7 
St, senor, tengo dos baenos. 


^ Tiene V. cinco caballoa? 
Ningnno tengo, seiior. 
I Tiene V. an leoncito 7 
Tengo nno. 

I Tiene V. baenos zapatos? 
Tengo alganos baenos. 
Tengo alganoB malos. 

I Tiene algnn amigo so hermano do 


Tiene nno bueno. 

I Tiene ano 7 

(£l) tiene ano. 

Tiene dos baenos. 

t £l tiene dos. 

I Tiene V. cinco baenos perros 7 

t Yo tengo tree baenos y dos malos. 

I Qnien tiene an bonito parigaas? 

Mi hermano tiene nno. 

El sombreiero. 



Have you any wine ? — I have some. — Have you any cofiee 7 — I 
have not any. — Have you any good wine ? — I have some good. — 
Have you any good cloth 7 — ^I have no good doth, hut I have aome 
good paper. — ^Have I any good sugar 7 — ^You have not any good.— 
Haa the man any good paper 7 — ^He has some. — ^Has he any good 
cheese 7 — He has not any. — ^Haa the American (d Americano) any 
money ? — ^He has some. — ^Have the French any cheese ? — ^They have 
not any. — Have the English any good wine 7 — ^They have no good 
wine, but they have some excellent tea. — Who has some good 
soap? — ^The merchant haa some. — ^Who has some good hread? — 
The baker has some. — ^Has the foreigner any woods 7 — ^He has somo/ 
—Has he any coal 7 — ^He haa not any. — ^What rice have yon ? — ^I 
have some good. — ^What hay has the horse 7 — He has some good.-* 
What leather has the shoemaker 7 — ^He has some excellent— Have 


you any milB? — ^I haye not any. — ^Who baa some nmila? — The 
merchant baa some. — ^Have I any ahoes ? — ^Yoa have aome aboea.—- 
Have I any hata ? — ^You have no hata. — ^Haa your friend any pretty 
knivea 7 — ^He baa aome pretty onea. — ^Haa he any good oocen ? — ^He 
baa not any good onea. — ^Have the Italiana any fine horses 7 — ^They 
have not any fine onea. — ^Who has aome fine aaaea 7 — ^The Spaniards 
have aome. 

Haa the captain any good Bailors 7 — ^He baa aome good ones.— 
Have the Bailors any good mattresses 7 — ^They have not any good 
ones. — Who has some good biscuits 7 — ^The baker of our good neigh- 
bor has some. — Haa be any bread 7 — ^He has not any. — ^Who has 
some beautiful bats 7 — ^The French have some. — Who has some 
excellent iron nails 7 — ^The carpenter has some. — ^Has he sny ham- 
mers 7 — ^Ha has some. — ^What hammers has he 7 — ^He haa some iron 
ones. — ^What is the matter with your brother 7 — ^Nothing is the matr 
terwith him. — ^Is be cold 7 — ^He is neither cold nor warm. — ^la he 
afraid 7 — ^He is not afraid. — ^Is he ashamed 7 — ^He is not ashamed. — 
What is the matter with him 7 — ^He is hungry. — ^Who has some 
beautiful gloves 7 — I have some. — Who has some fine pictures 7 — 
The Italians have some. — Have the painters any fine gardens 7 — 
They have some fine ones. — Has the hatter good or bad bats 7 — ^He 
has some good ones. — ^Has the carpenter good or bad nails 7 — ^He has 
some good. — ^Who has some pretty caps 7 — ^The boys of our mer- 
chants have some. — ^Have they any birds 7 — They have not any. — 
Who has some 7 — ^My servant has some«^ — ^Haa your servant any sticks? 
— ^He baa not any. — Who has some 7 — ^The servants of my neighbor 
have some. 


Have you a pencil 7 — ^I have one. — ^Has your boy a good book 7 — 
He baa a good one. — ^Has the German a good ship 7 — ^He has none. 
— ^Haa your tailor a good coat 7 — ^He has a good one. He has two 
good ones. He haa three good ones. — ^Has the captain a fine dog 7 — 
He has two of themi — Have your friends two fine horses 7 — They 
have four. — ^Has the young man a good or a bad bat 7 — ^He haa no good 
one. He has a bad one. — ^Have you a cork 7 — ^I have none. — ^Have I 
a friend 7 — You have a good one. You have two good frienda. — ^Haa 
the carpenter an iron nail 7 — ^He has six iron nails. Ho has six good 
ones and seven bad ones. — Who has good tea 7 — Our cook has some. 
—Who haa five good horses 7 — Our neighbor haa six. — ^Has the peas* 
ant any com 7-*-He has some. — ^Has he any guns 7 — ^He haa not any. 
— ^Who has some good frienda 7 — ^The Turks have aome. — ^Have thet 



any money ? — ^They have not any. — ^Who has their money 7 — ^Thelr 
fiieods have it — ^Are their fiienda thirsty? — ^They are not thirsty, 
bat hungry. — ^Has your servant a good dog ? — He has one. — ^Haa he 
this or that nail ? — ^He has neither this nor that — Have the peasants 
these or those bags 7 — They have neither these nor those. — Which 
bags have they 7-^They have their own. — ^Have you a good servant 7 
— I have a good one. — ^Who has a good chest 7 — ^My brother has one. 
— Has he a leather or an iron chest 7 — ^He has an iron one. 

THIRTEENTH LESSON.^jLeccion DScima tercia. 

How much ? 

How many ? 
How much bread have you? 
How much money 7 
How many knives? 
How many men? 
How many fiienda? 


I have bat one friend. 

I have bat one. 

I have but one good gon. 

I have but one good one. | 

The book is not mine, bat yoais. 

Yoa have bat one good one. 

How many hones has y oar brother ? 

He has bot one 

He has bat two good ones. 

A good dealf very much, 

Mach bread. 

Many men. 
A good deal of good bread. 
Have yoa much money 7 
I have a i;ood deal. 
Have you much good wine? 
I have a good deaL 

I Cuanto 7 

I CuanioM 7 
I Caanto pan tiene V. 7 
I Caanto dinero 7 
I Cuantoo cuchiUos 7 
l Caantoo hombres 7 



No (v) oino. 

No (v) mas que. 
Solo tengo on amigo. 
Tengo uno solameute. 
No tengo mas que an baen ftuil. 
(Yo) tengo solamente ano bneno. 
El Ulwo no 00 mio aino de V. 
V. no tjene mas que ano baeao. 
I Caantoo caballos tiene sa hemiaao 

No tiene mas qne ano. 
£1 tiene solamente dos buenos. 



Muchisimo, Muchisimos, (pt.) 

Macho pan. 
Machos hombre^ 
Machisinio pan bueno. 
^ Tiene V. mucho dinero? 
Tengo roachisimo. 
I Tiene V. mucho vino bueno 7 
Teogo muchisimo. 



Too much. 
Too many. 

Yott have too much wine. 
You have too many books 

Enough money. 
Knirea enough. 

LittU, (in aze.) 

Demooiadc, oobrado. 

Denugoiadoo, oobradoo. 
y. ttene demaMado vino, 
y. tiene demamados Ubtoa. 

Baotante, haotanU*. 
Baatante dinero. 
Baatantei cuchillc 

A littU 


Small in quantity 
or number. 

A little room. 
A little wine. 

Few friends. 

But little. 
Only a little. 

But few. 

Not much. 
Not many. 

You have not much money. 
We have few friends. 

W6 hare. 
Have we ? 
We have not. 


Poeo, pocoo. 

Unoo pocoo, unoo euantoo. 

Un poeo, (after a verb.) 

Un poeo de, (before a noon.) 

tJn cnaito pequeiio. 
Un poeo de vino. 
Udos pocos amigos. 
TJnos cuantos amigos. 

Solo un poeo. 

Solamente un poeo. . 

Muy poeo. 

Solo poeoo. 

Solamente unoa euantoo. 

Muy poeoo. 

No — mueho. 

No muchoo. 

y. no tiene mucho dineto. 
Noaotros tenemos pocos amigosL 

(NoBotros) tenemos. 
^Tenemos (no8otros7) 
(Nosotros) no tenemos. 

Oho, The pronoun sutijeetisalmostalwaysomitted in Spanish. 

Have we any vinegar 7 
We have soma 
We have not any. 
They have but little courage. 

Have you a good deal of money 7 
I have but little of it. 
You have but little of it 
He has but little of it 
We have but a little of it 

Yalor. (Animo.) 

I Tenemos vinagre 7 

Si tenemos, (or Tenemos un pooo.) 

No tenemos, (or Ninguno tenemot.) 

t Tienen muy poeo valor. 

I Tiene Y. mnchfsimo dinero 7 

Solo tengo un poca 

y. tiene solo un poeo. 

(EI) tiene solamente un pooo 

Solo tenemos un poeo. 



Have yoQ enoa^ wine ? 

I haTe bat a little» bat enoogfa. 



Some bread and meat 

Haye yoa any tea and cofiee ? 

Tlie hatter. 
The j<Mner. 

I Tiene V. baatante vino 7 
Solo tengo nn poco; tengo eolo 
el baatante. 




t Pan y came. 

t i Tiene V.t6ycaf(fi? 

El flombrerero. 
EI enaamblador. 

How many fiiends have you 7 — ^I have two good firiends. — ^Have yoa 
eight good trunks ? — ^I have nine. — Haa your servant three glasses 7 — 
He has only one good one. — ^Has the captain two good ships 7 — He 
has bnt two good ones. — ^How many shoes has the shoemaker 7 — ^He 
has only five. — How many guns has your brother 7 — ^He has only four. 
— ^Have you much bread 7 — I have a good deal. — ^Have the Spaniards 
much money 7 — ^They have but little. — ^Has your neighbor much cof- 
fee 7 — ^He has only a little. — ^Has the foreigner much com 7 — ^He has a 
good deal. — ^What has the American (el Atnericano ?) — ^He has much 
sugar. — ^What has the Russian (el Ruso 7) — ^He has a great deal of 
ham. — ^Has the peasant much rice 7 — ^He has not any. — ^Has he much 
cheese 7 — ^He has but little. — ^What have we 7 — We have much bread, 
much wine, and many books. — ^Have we much money 7 — ^We have 
only a little, but enough. — Have you many brothers 7 — ^I have only one. 
— ^Have the French many friends 7 — They have but few. — ^Has our 
neighbor much hay 7 — He has enough. — ^Has the Italian much cheese 7 
— ^He has a great deal.— Has this man courage 7 — ^He has none. — ^Haa 
the painter's boy any pencils 7 — ^He has some. — ^How many hammers 
has the carpenter 7 — ^He has only one. 


Have you much paper 7 — ^I have but little. — ^Has the cook much 

mutton 7 — ^He has but little mutton, bnt he has a good deal of ^ ham. — 

How many oxen has the German 7 — ^He has eight — How many horses 

has he 7 — ^He has only four. — Who has a good many biscuits 7— Our 


Bailors baye a good many. — How many books have we ? — ^We baira 
only three pretty ones. — Have you too mach cheese? — ^I have not 
enough. — Have our boys too many books 7 — ^They have too many. — 
Has our friend too much coffee ? — ^He has only a little, but enough. — 
Who has a good deal of tea 7 — ^The peasants have a good deal. — Have 
they many gloves 7 — ^They have not any. — ^Has the cook enough sugar ? 
— ^He has not enough. — ^Has he enough vinegar 7 — ^He has enonglL — 
Have you much soap 7 — ^I have only a Uttle. — ^Haa the merchant much 
cloth ? — ^He has a good deal. — ^Has our tailor many buttons 7 — ^He has 
k good many. — ^Has the painter many gardens 7 — ^He bas not many. — 
How many (gardens) has he 7 — ^He has but two. — ^How many knives 
has the German 7 — ^He has three of them. — ^Has the captain any fine 
horses 7 — ^He has some fine ones, but his brother has none. — ^Have we 
any buttons 7 — ^We have a good many. — What buttons have we 7 — ^We 
have gold buttons. — ^What candlesticks have our friends 7 — ^They havt 
gold candlesticks. — ^Have they gold nails 7 — They have some. 

Has the youth any pretty sticks 7 — He has no pretty sticks, but soma 
beautiful birds. — ^What chickens has our cook 7 — He has some pretty 
chickens. — How many has he 7 — He has six.— Has the hatter any hats 7 
—-He has a good many. — ^Has the joiner much work 7 — ^He has not a 
great deal, but enough. — ^Have we the horses of the French, or those ■ 
of the Germans 7 — ^We have neither these nor those. — ^Which horses 
have we 7 — ^We have our own. — ^Has the Turk my small combs 7 — ^He 
has them not. — ^Who has them 7 — ^Your boy has them. — Who has our , 
looking-glasses 7 — ^The Italians have them. — ^Has the Frenchman this 
or that umbrella 7 — ^He has neither this nor thak — ^Has he the mattress- 
es which we have 7 — ^He has not those which we have, but those which 
his friends have. — ^Is he ashamed 7 — ^He is not ashamed, but afraid. 

FOURTEENTH LESSON.— JLeccion Decima cuarta. 


A few. 


Uno» ctionlot. 

A few books. i Algonos libros, (or unos libras.) 

Have you a few -books 7 | i Tiene V. algunoe libroe? 

• . ^ S Yo tenffo aliranos. 

I have a few. i m * 

( Tengo nnos cnantos. 

You have a few I V. tiene algonos. 

He has a few. I £l tiene algnnos. 



But a few 

I haTe bat a few. 

Ton haTe bat a few booki. 
He has but a few fartbiogB. 
I have bat a few. 
You have but a few 
He baa but a few. 

One, or a farthing. 
One, or a ■hilliog. 

One, or a dollar. 





Hare you another hone? 
I baye another. 

No other hoTBe. 

I have no other hone. 

I hare no other. 

Some other. 
Any other. 

Have yoa any other hones 7 
I have some othen. 
I have no others. 

The arm. 
Hie heart 
• The foot 
The writing 

The volnme. 

(Solo (v) algume. 
Solamente algunoe. 
Solo unoe euantoe. 
Solamente unoe euantoe, 

Sdo tengo algunoe, (or unoe cnantos.) 
(To) tengo solamente algunoe. 
No tengo mas que algunoe. 
V. tjene solamente algunos libros. 
£1 tiene solamente algunos cuaitos. 
No tengo mas que algunos. 
V. no tiene mas que algunos. 
£1 no tiene mas que algunos. 



Un cuarta 
Un real 
Un peso. 
Un duro. 





^Tiene V. otro caballo? 
To tengo otro. 

Ningun otro caballo. 
No tengo otro caballa 
No tengo otro. 


I Oiroe. 

Algun otro, 
\ Algunoe otroe, 

I Tiene V. otros cabaOos 7 
I Tiene V. algunos otros cabaHos T 
To tengo otros. 
To tengo algunos otros. 
To no tengo otros. 
} No tengo ningunos otroa 




EH brazo. 
El coraxoD. 
EA tomo. 



No other. 
Not any other. 

Neither the one nor the other. 


No (t) otro. 

No (v) fitfi^n otro. 

No (t) otroe. 

No (▼) ningunoe otroe. 
"Ni el ttfio m el otro, 

Ni uno m otro, 

Ni loe unoe ni loe otroe, 
^Ni unoe ni otroe. 

What day of the month ie it 7 

(It U) the fint 

(It is) the aecond. 

(It is) the third. 

What day of the month ia this 7 

(It is) the eleventh. 


Qae dia del mea tenemoe 7 

Que dia ea hoy 7 
EI primero. 
t Eldo& 
t El tree. 

t ^ A caantoa eatamoa 7 
t A once. 

Ohe, Except the fint day of the month, all the other daya are ea 
preaMd by a cardinal number preceded by the article. 

Which Tolume hare you 7 
I have the fourth. 

The fint 
The aecond. 

The third 

The fourth. 
The fifth. 
The sixth. 
The seventh. 
The eighth. 

The ninth. 

The tenth. 
The eleventh. 
The twentieth. 
The thirtieth. 
Have yon the first or second book 7 



I Que tomo tiene V. 7 
Yo tengo el cnarto. 


El primera 
El primer.* 
El aegundou 
El tercero. 
El texx^er.' 
El cuarto. 
El quinta 
El s^ptimo. 
El octava 
El nono. 
El noveno. 
El d^cimo. 
El und^cimo. 
£1 vig^simo. 
El trig^imo. 
^ Tiene V. el primero 




















6 el segundo 

' Primero and tercero loae the o before a noun. Ex.^ — El primer tomo ; 
el tercet tomo, * 

* Henceforth the learner should write the date before his taak. Ex.— 
Niuwi'YoTk, Setiemhre veinte^ de mil oehoeientoe euarenta y eiete ; New 
York, September 20th, 1647 


Which Tolumes hare yon ? 
I hare the two fint onea. 

The twelfth. 

The thirteenth 


The American 
The Ruanan. 

I Qne tomoi tiene V. 1 
t Yo tengo loe doe primeioi. 
£1 dood^cimo. 
El d^cimo tercio. 


£1 Americano, (p2.) los Americanos. 
El RoBO, (pi) Urn Rwoi. 

Have you many knives ? — ^I have a few. — ^Have yon many pencils ? — 
I have only a few. — ^Has the painter's friend many looking-glasses 7 — 
He has ooly a few. — Has yonr boy a few fiuthings 7 — ^He has a few. 
— ^Have yon a few iarthings 7 — We have a few. — ^How many shillings 
have yon 7 — I have ten. — ^How many shillings has the Spaniard 7 — He 
hflUB not many, he has only five. — ^Who has the beantifol glasses of the 
Italians 7 — ^We have them. — ^Have the English many ships 7 — ^They 
have a good many. — ^Have the Italians many horses 7 — ^They have not 
many horses, but a good many asses. — ^What have the Germans 7 — 
They have many dollars. — ^How many dollars have they 7 — ^They have 
eleven. — ^Have we the umbrellas of the Spaniards 7 — ^We have them 
not, but the Americans have them. — Have you much coffee 7 — ^I have 
only a little, but enough. — ^Has the Frenchman many shillings 7 — ^He 
has only a few, but he has enough. — ^Has your servant many far- 
things ? — ^He has no fiuthings, but shillings enough. 


Have the Russians paper 7 — ^They have but little paper, but a good 
deal of iron. — ^Have the Turks much wine 7 — They have not much 
wine, but a good deal of coffee. — ^Who has a good deal of dollars 7 — 
nrhe Germans (have a good deal.) — ^Have you no other gun 7 — ^I have 
no other. — ^Have we any other cheese 7 — ^We have some other. — ^Have 
I no other gun 7 — ^You have another. — ^Has our neighbor no other 
horse 7 — ^He has no other. — ^Has your brother no other friends 7 — He 
has some others. — ^Have the shoeinakers no other shoes 7 — ^They have 
no others. — How many gloves have you 7 — ^I have only two. — Have 
you any other biscuits 7 — I have no other. — How many arms has this 
man 7 — He has only one, the other is of cork. — ^What heart has your 
boy 7 — He has a good heart — ^Have you no other servant 7 — ^I have 
another. — ^Has your fnend no other birds 7 — ^He has some others. — 
How many other l»rds has he 7 — He has six others. — ^How many gar- 
dens have you 7 — ^I have only one, but my friend has two of them. 




Which volume have you 7 — ^I have the first. — ^Have yoa the second 
volume? — ^I have it. — ^Have you the third or fourth hook? — ^I have 
neither the former nor the latter. — ^Have we the fifth or sixth volume ? — 
We have the fifth, but we have not the sixth volume. — Which volumes 
has your friend 7 — ^He has the seventh (volume.) — ^What day of the 
monUi is it ? — ^It is the eighth. — ^Is it not the eleventh ? — ^No, Sir, it is 
the tenth. — ^Who has our dollars ? — ^The Russians have them. — ^Have 
they our gold ? — They have it not. — Has the youth much money 7 — 
He has not much money, but much courage. — ^Have you the nails of 
the carpenters or those of the joiners ? — ^I have neither those of the 
carpenters nor those of the joiners, but those of my merchants. — Has 
the Italian a few fiirthings 7 — ^He has a few. — ^Has he a few shillings ? 
— ^He has five of them. — Have you another stick 7 — ^I have another. — 
What other stick have you 7 — ^That of my brother. — Have you a few 
other candlesticks 7 — We have a few. — lias your boy another hat 7 — 
He has another. 

FIFTEENTH LESSON.— Leccton Dicima quinta. 


Tlu one and the other. 

Neither the one nor the other* 

Have you the firrt or tho second 
volume of my dictionary 7 

I have both. 

Have you my book or my paper 7 

I have neither the one nor the other. 

Has my brother my gloves or his 

He htm both youn and his. 

Has he my books or those of the 

He has neither the one nor the other. 

Una y otto. 

El ttno y el ofrs. 

Lot ttiMW y loe otroo, (Plnr.) 

Ni el uno m el otro. 

I Tiene V. el primero 6 el segundo 

tomo de mi diccionario ? 
Tengo dmboe. 

I Tiene V. mi libro 6 mi papel ? 
Yo no tengo ni el uno ni el otro. 
I Tiene mi hermano mis guantes 6 

los suyos ? 
t £l tieue AmboB. 
^ Tiene ^I mis libros 6 los de lot 

Espaiioles ? 
£1 no tiene ni los nnos ni los otros. 

Tlie Scotchman. 


The Irishman. 

£1 Idandea. 

The Dutchman. 




nVTKRKTH iMsaov, 


A»jf more. 

Seme more. 
Any mare* 
A few more. 

Sams Dotoro wino* 

Some more money. 

A few more buttooe. 

Have yoa ajiy more wine 7 
I hare nme more wine. 
I have some more. 
Has he any more money 7 
He hai some more. 
Ha?>e I any more books? 
Yoa have eome more. 

Not any more, no more. 
Much more. 
Many more. 

I hare no more bread. 

He has no more money. 

Have yoa any more ?nne ? 

I dare no more. 

We have no more. 

Has he any mere vinegar 7 

He has no more. 

We hare no more books. 

He.has no more dog^ 

He has no more. 

Not muck more. 

Not many more. 
Have yoa much more wine 7 
I hsTe not much more. 
Htve yoa many more books? 
I have not many more. 

' In a general se 

In atimited 

t Todaoia. 

Ann ma^ 
Algunoe . 
Todaoia algunoe. 

k Bias Tina 

( Todavia vino, (or algan vino.) 

( Mas dinerOb 

( Aon dinero, (or algnn dinero.) 

JAlgunos botones mas. 
Todavfa algunos botoneiL 

I Tiene V. todavia mas vino 7 

Tengo todavia mas vino. 

t Todavfa tengo, (or aan teoga) 

I Tiene €i mas dinero 7 

Tiene algano. 

I Tengo yo mas Ubros 7 

V. tiene algnnos mas. 

No (v) mae. 
Mncho mae. 
Muchoe mae. 

Yo no tengo mas pan. 

El no tiene mas (Unero. 

I Tiene V. aan mas vino 7 

No tengo mas. 

No tenemos mas. 

I Tiene todavfa vinagre 7 

No tiene mas. 

Nosotros no tenemos mss lihros. 

£l no tiene mas peiros. 

So tiene mas. 

No (v) mueho mae. 

No (v) muehoe mae. 

I Tiene V. macho mas vhio 7 
(Yo) no tengo mncho mas. 
I Tiene Vm. machos mas Kbfos? 
No tengo machos mas. 


rmSKKTH LI880K. 

One more book. 

One more good book. 

Four more booka. 

A few more booki. 
Have you a few doUan more? 
I hare a few more. 
Have I a few farthings more 7 
Yoo have a few more. 
We have a few more. 
They have a few more. 

Tome, volume. 

t Oiro Ubro mat, 

*t Otro buen Ubio mas. 

t Otroe cuatio libios moo. 

Algonoe hbroe mas. 

I Tiene V. algunos pesos maa 7 

(Yo) tengo alganos mas. 

I Tengo yo algunos cuartos mas ? 

V. tiene algunos mas. 

(Nosotros) tenemos alganos maa. 

EUos tienen algunoe masL 

Tomo, volttmen. 


Which volume of his dictionary have you 7 — ^I have the first. — ^How 
many tomes has it 7 — It has two. — ^Have you my dictionary or my 
brother's 7 — ^I have both. — ^Has the foreigner my comb or my knife 7 
— He has both. — ^Have you my bread or my cheese ? — ^I have neither 
the one nor the other. — Has the Dutchman my glass or that of my 
fiiend 7 — ^He has neither the one nor the other. — ^Has the Irishman our 
horses or our chests 7 — ^He has both. — ^Has the Scotchman our shoes 
or our cape 7 — ^He has neither the one nor the other. — ^Wbat has he 7 
^-He has his good iron guns. — ^Have the Dutch our ships or those of 
the Spaniards 7— They have neither the one nor the other. — ^Which 
ships have they 7 — ^They have their own. — ^Have we any more hay 7 
—We have some more. — ^Has our merchant any more paper 7 — ^He 
has some more. — ^Has your friend any more money ? — ^He has not any 
more. — ^Has he any more nails 7 — He has 8o;iie more. — Have you any 
more coffee 7 — ^We have no more coffee ; but we have some more 
chocohite. — Has the Dutchman any more sugar 7 — ^He has no more 
sugar ; but he has some more tea. — ^Has the painter any more pictures 7 
• —He has no more pictures ; but he has some more pencils. — ^Have the 
suloiB any more biscuits 7 — They have not any more. — ^Have your 
boys any more books 7 — ^They have not any more. — ^Has the young 
man any more friends 7 — ^He has no more. 

Has onr cook much more ham ? — ^He has not mnch more. — ^Haa 
he many more chickens 7 — ^He has not many more.— Has the peasant 
mnch more hay 7 — ^He has not much more hay ; but he has a great 
deal more wine.— -Have the French many more horses 7 — ^Thy have 
not many moce.— Have yon much more p^^r 7 — I have much more. 
— Have we many more looking-glasses? — ^We have many more.^— 


Bxve JOB one more book ? — ^I have one more. — ^Htve oar neigfaboni 

one more garden ? — ^Thej have one more.' — ^Has our friend one more 

nmbrella ? — ^He has no more. — Have the SccAch a few more books 7 

-^Thej have a few more. — ^Has the tailor a few more buttons ? — ^He 

has Dot any more. — Has your carpenter a few more naila ? — He ha» 

no more nails ; but he has a few sticks more. — ^Have the Spaniards a 

few fiuthings more 7 — ^They have a few more. — ^Has the German a few 

more oxen 7 — ^He has a few more. — Have yon a few more shillingB 7-~ 

I have no more shillings ; bat I have a few more dollars. — What have 

pn more 7 — ^We have a few more ships and a few more good sailors. 

—Hare I a little more money 7 — ^You have, a tittle more. — ^Have 

yoit any more cooiage 7 — ^I have no more. — ^Have yoa much more 

vinegar 7—1 have not much more ; but my brother has a great deal 



Has he sugar enough 7 — ^He has not enough. — ^Have we dollan 
enough 7 — ^We have not enough. — ^Has the joiner iron enough 7 — ^He 
has enough. — ^Has he hammers enou^7 — ^He has enough. — ^Have 
you rice enough ? — ^We have not rice enough ; but we have enough 
sugar. — ^Have you many more gloves? — ^I have not many more.^ 
Has the Russian another ship 7 — ^He has another. — ^Has he another 
bag?— He has no other.— What day of the month is it?— It is the 
Bixth. — ^How many friends, have you 7 — ^I have but one good friend. — 
Has the peasant too much bread 7 — ^He has not enough. — ^Has he 
much money 7 — ^He has but little money, but he^faas enough hay.>~ 
Have we the cloth or the cotton caps of the Americans 7 — ^We have 
neither their cloth nor their cotton cape. — ^Have you any more bread 7 
— I have no more. — ^Have you any more oxen 7 — ^I have not any 

SIXTEENTH LESSON.— I.eccion Decima $exta. 


Vario9, (alguno9, or muekos,) 

Several men. 

Varioe hombrea. 

Several children 

Algunoe nifioa. 

Several knives. 

Algonoe cachiUoa. 

The father. 

El padre. 

The eon. 


The child. 


The cake. 






Am nutmf. 
Am much (n) om 
Am many (n) om. 

Am orach bread w wine. 

Aa many men as children. 


Tanto (n) como. 
TanioM (n) eotno. 

Tanto pan como vina 
Tanto hombrea como nii&oa. 

Have yon as much gold as lead 1 
I have as much of this as of that 
I have as much of the fonner as of 

the latter. 
I have as mach of the one as of thei'^Tcngo tanto del nno como del otia 


I Tiene V . tanto oio como plomo ? 
Tengo tanto do eete como de aqud. 
Tengo tanto de aqnel como de este. 

Have yon as many shoes as panta- 
I have as many of these as of those. 

I have as many of the latter as of 
the former. 

Quite (arjuMt) as muck. 
Quite (orjuet) om many. 

I have quite as much of this as of 

Quite as much of the one as of the 

Quite as many of those as of these. 
Quite as many of the one as of the 


An enemy> enemies. 
The finger. 
The eye. 


Mere (n) than. 


More bread than wina 
More knives than forks. 
More of thia than of that 
More of the one than of the other. 
More of these than of those. 
More of the ones than of the others. 
I have more of your sugar than of 

I Tiene V. tantoa zapatos como pan- 

Tengo tantos de estOB como de aque- 

Tengo tantos de estos como de aqoe- 


Tanto, justamente tanUt, 
Tantoe, juBtamente tantos. 

Tengo tanto de este como de aqoeL 

Tanto del uno como del otro. 

Tantos de aqnellos como de eatoa. 
Tantoa de loa unoa como de loa otroa 

Un enemigo, enemigos. 

Ei dedo. 



Mas (n) que. 


Mas pan que vino. 
Mas cuchillos que tenedorus. 
Mas de eate que de aqoel. 
Mas del uno que del otro. 
Mas de estos que de aquelloa. 
Mas de los unoa que de los otros. 
Tengo mas del aztlcar de V. que del 


HftliMiiiaie cC our bookfe than of 

(£]) tiene mas da naesCies 13ra qua 



Jjtf — Fewer. 


IfCM (n) than. 
Fewer (n) than. 

\ MhuM (n) pie. 

Fewer — lev than L 

HeDOB que yoi 

Fewer — ^kees than be. 

M4mm qne 6L 

Fewer — Um than we. 

M6nos que noeotraa. 

M^DOsque ▼osotras. 

Fewer — lea than yon. 

IMdob qne V., (or W.) 

Fewer — leas than thej. 

' M4nos que eOos. 

Aamnch as I 

Tanto comoya 

Am much as he. 

Tantocomo A 

Am much as we. 

Tanto como noootros. 

As mnch as yon. 

Tanto como Tosotrosy (or Toa) 

As mnch as yoo. 

Tanto como V., (or W.) 

As mnch as they. 

Tanto como ellos. 

Coat, (or ganneni.) 


A gnn, (a piece of artillery.) 

Un caSon. 

A tooth. 

Un diente. 

Have yon as much of yonr wine as 

I Tiene V. tanto de su Tino eomo dA 

of mine? 


I h&Te quite as much of youn as of 

Tengo tanto del de V. como del mia 


Have you a horse ? — ^I have sevend. — ^Who has my good cakes 7 — 
Several men have them. — Has your fiiend a child 7 — ^He has several^ — 
Have you as mnch coffee as tea 7 — I have as much of the one as of the 
other. — Has this man a son 7 — ^He has several. — ^How many sons has 
he 7 — He has four. — ^How many children have our fiiends 7 — ^They 
have many ; they have ten of them. — ^Have we as much bread as wine 7 
—You have as much of the one as of the other. — ^Has this man as many 
friends as enemies 7 — ^He has as many of the one as of the other. — 
Have we as many shoes as coats 7 — We have as many of the one 
as of the other. — ^Has your father as much gold as iron 7 — ^He has 
more of the latter than of the former. 

Have you as many guns as 1 7 — ^I have just as many. — ^Has the 
fofeigner as much courage as we 7 — ^He has quite as much. — ^Have we 



as mach good aa bod paper ? — ^We have as much of the one as of die 
other. — ^Have your scma as many cakes as books ? — ^They have more of 
the latter than of the former ; more of the one than of the other. — Uow 
many teeth has this man 7 — ^He has bat one. — How many fingers has 
he ? — ^He has several. — ^How many gmis have you 7 — ^I luve only one, 
but my father has more than I ; he has ^we. — ^Have my children as 
much courage as yours 7 — ^Yours have more than mine. — ^Have I aa 
much money as you 7 — You have less than I. — ^Uave you as many 
books as 1 7 — ^I have fewer than you. — ^Have I as many enemies as 
your father 7 — You have fewer tluin he. — ^Have the French as many 
ships as we 7 — ^They have fewer than we. — ^Have we as many combs 
as they 7 — We have fewer than they. — ^Have we fewer knives th^n 
the children of our friends 7 — ^We have fewer than they. 

Who 4ias fewer friends than we 7 — Nobody has fewer. — Have yoo 
aa much of your wine as of mine 7 — ^I have as much of yours as of 
mine. — ^Have I as many of your books as of mine 7 — You have fewer 
of mine than of yours. — ^Has the Turk as much of your money as of 
his own 7 — ^He has less of his own than of ours. — ^Has our merchant 
fewer dogs than horses 7 — ^He has fewer of the latter than of the 
former ; (fewer of the one than of the other.) — ^Has our cook as much 
bread as ham 7— He has as much of the one as of the other. — ^Has he 
as many chickens as birds 7 — He has more of the kUer than of the 

Has the carpenter as many sticks as nails 7 — ^He has just as many 
of these as of those. — Have you more biscuits than glasses 7 — ^I have 
more of the latter than of the former. — ^Who has more soap than I ? 
—My son has more. — ^Who has more pencils than you 7 — ^The painter 
has more.— -Has he as many horses as 1 7 — ^He has not so many horses 
as you ; but he has more pictures. — ^Has the merchant fewer oxen 
than we 7 — ^He has fewer oxen than we, and we have less com than 
he. — ^Have you another book 7 — ^I have another. — ^Has your son one 
more coat 7 — ^He has several more. — ^Have the Dutch as many gardens 
as we 7 — We have fewer than they. We have less bread and less 
wine than they. We have but little money, but enough bread, ham, 
cheese, and wine. — Have you as much courage as our neighbor's 
son 7—1 have just as much. 

ExrmaTKMJsrm laaBoy. 



Hiere are in Spuiklk three eonjngatioBi, wUeh m 
teraunation of the pneent of the infinitiTe, m.: 

1. Tlie fiot has its infinitire teimiiiated in as ; as: — 

* Hablar, to.,,^^, 

Compnr, toboj; 
Coftar, toeoL 

%. Theaoeood > ~ ansa; aa: — 

to eat, (to 

3. Tliethiid.....^....^..........^ Jaim; m>~ 

- * toieeeife; 



Eaeh Teib we ohall hereafter give wfll have the nmibai' of the 
to which it betongi mariud after it Hie vefba maihed with 





A mind, (or a 

To work. 
To speak. 
Have yea a mind to wok T 
I am ariiamed to qpeak. 

To cut 
To cut it 
To cut them. 
To cut some. 


VeigQenza de. 
RaxoD de. 
Vakr de, (para.) 
Gana, (or deaeo de.) 
No toner ruon de, (or haeer 
Trabajar 1. 

I Tiene V. gana de trabajar ? 
I Tengo Tei]gdenza de hablai^ 


Cortar alguiMiL 

Oftf; A. When a pronoun object is governed by a Teih in the faifinitivefe 
it ii placed after the infinitire, and joined with it, so aa to faim a ngie woid 

Haw yen Mill a mind to buy it7 

itaa, (or Todamm,) 
iTiene V. 

deno de 



HftTa yoo time to ent the bceed ? 
I have time to cat it 
Hm he a mind to cot trees 7 
He has a mind to cot aome. 

To bay. 
To hay aome mote* 
To boy one. 
To boy two. 
To bay one more. 
To buy two more. 

To break, to tear. 
To pick op. 

To mend. ^ 

To repair. 

To hwk for, to aeek. 

I Tiene V. tiempo de rebanar el pan f 
Ye tengo tiempo de rebanarie. 
I Tiene 6\ gana de cortar iibolea T 
Tiene gana de ooitar •igmm^ 

Compfar 1. 
Comprar algnnos 
Comprar ana 
Comprar doe. 
"f Comprar otro maa. 
Comprar doe maa. 

Romper SL 

Alsar del aaelo 1. 
C Remendar * 1. 
< Reparar 1. 

( Componer * 9. 
I Bwcar 1. 

I Tiene V. gana de comprar todavia 

otro caballo 7 
Tengo gana de comprar otro maa. 
I Tiene V. gana de comprar lilnoeT 
Tengo gana de comprar algano8,peio 

no tengo dinero. 
I Tiene V. miedo de romper loa Taaoa T 
Tengo micdo de rompeiios. 
I Tiene ^1 tiempo de trabajar 7 
El tiene tiempo, pero no tiene gana 

de trabajar. 
£l tiene tiempo, pero no tiene gana. 
£l tiene tiempo, peio no tiene gana 

de haeerlo, (to do it) 

06«. B. To avoid the iramodiato repetition of a iroxb in the same mood 
or tonae, it is more elegant to auppreas it, or to make oae of the veib kacer 
'm ito itead, aa in the example. 

Have you a mind to boy one mote 

I have a mind to boy one more. 
Have you a mind to bay aome hooka 7 
I have a mind to buy aome, bat I 

have no money. 
Are you afraid to break the glaaMa 7 
I am afraid to break them. 
Haa he time to woik7 

He has timoi bat no mind to woriL 

To he right 
Am I ri^t tn buying hoiaeo7 

To bo wrong, 
Yoa are wrang tn buying one. 


Tener raxon de, (or kaeer bien en ) 
I Tengo yo razon de comprar caba- 


No tener razon de, (or kaeer mal en.) 

y. no tiene razon de comprar una. 
t y. hace mal en comprar una 


Ola. C. 'When the preoent participle go? emed hy tii, fUndf for the in- 
fimUve goremed by o/, it is rendeied in Spenidi by the infinitiTe ; then, 
** t« ktofing^ xniMt be translated '* de comprcr." 

You, (Flnr.) ^ | W., (for Uttede*.) (See Leas. L) 

Have yon still a mind to bny my friend's hone ? — ^I have still a mind 
to bny it ; bat I have no more money. — ^Have you time to work ? — ^I 
have time, bnt no mind to work. — Has your brother time to cut some 
slicks ? — He has time to cut some. — ^Has he a mind to cut some bread ? 
—He has a mind to cut some, but he has no knife. — ^Have you time to 
cnt some cheese 7 — ^I have time to cut some. — Has he a desire to cut 
the tree ? — He has a desire to cut it, but he has no time. — ^Has the 
tailor time to cut the cloth ? — ^He has time to cnt it — ^Have I time to 
cut the trees ? — You have time to cnt them. — ^Has the painter a mind 
to bay a horse ? — ^He has a mind to buy two. — ^Has your captain time 
to speak 7 — ^He has time bnt no desire to speak. — ^Are you afraid to 
speak 7 — ^I am not afraid, but I am ashamed to speak. — ^Am I right in 
baying a gun 7 — ^Yon are right in buying one. — ^Is your friend right in 
baying a great ox 7 — ^He is wrong in buying one. — Am I right in buy- 
mg little oxen 7 — ^You are right in buying one. 


Have you a desire to speak 7 — I have a desire but I have not the 
courage to speak. — ^Have you the courage to cut your finger 7 — ^I have 
not the courage to cut it — ^Am I right in speaking 7 — ^You are not 
wrong in speaking, bnt you are wrong in cutting my trees. — ^Has the 
son of your friend a desire to buy one more bird 7 — ^He has a desire to 
buy one more. — ^Have you a desire to buy a few more horses 7 — ^We 
have a desire to buy a few more, but we have no more money. — ^What 
has our tailor a mind to mend 7 — He has a midd to mend our old coats. 
— ^Has the shoemaker time to mend our shoes 7 — ^He has time, but he 
has no mind to mend them. — Who has a mind to mend our hats 7 — 
The hatter has a mind to mend them. — Are yon afraid to look for my 
horse 7 — ^I am not afraid, but I have no time to look for it. — What have 
you a mind to buy 7 — ^We have a mind to buy something good. — Have 
you a mind to break my nail 7 — ^I fasve a mind to pick it up, but not to 
break it 


Who has a mind to break our looking-glasse8'7 — Our enemy has a 
mind to break them. — ^Have the foreigners a mind to break our guns 7 
—They have a mind, but they have not the courage to break them. — 



Who has a mind to hay my beautiful dog 7 — ^Nobod^ has a mind to buy 
it. — ^Have you a mind to bay my beautiful trunks, or those of the French- 
man ? — I fcuiYe a mind to buy jrours, but not those of the Frenchman. — 
Which books has the Englishman a mind to buy ? — ^He has a mind to 
buy that which you have, that which your son has, and that which mine 
has. — ^Which gloves have you a mind to seek ? — ^I have a mind to seek 
yours, mine, and our children's. 

Which looking-glasses have the enemies a desire to break ? — ^They 
have a desire to break those which you have, those which I have, and 
those which our children and our friends have. — Has your father a 
desire to buy these or those cakes ? — ^He has a mind to bay these. — 
Am I ri^t in picking up your canes ? — ^You are right in picking them 
up. — ^Is the Italian right in seeking 3^ur hot ? — ^He is wrong in seeking 
it. — ^Have yon a mind to buy another ship ? — ^I have a mind to bay 
another. — Has our enemy a mind to buy one more ship 7 — ^He has a 
mind to buy several more, but he is afraid to buy them. — ^Have you 
two horses 7 — ^I have only one, but I have a wish to buy one more. 

EIGHTEENTH LESSON.— jLeocion Dicma octavo. 

To make. 
To do. 

To be willing. 
To fcish. 

I Hdcer • 2. 
iierer *U. 


Will you? 

Are you willing 7 

Do you wish 7 

I will, I am willing, I wish. 

Will he? ii he wiUlng? does he 

He will, he is willing, he wishes. 

We will, we are willing, we wish. 

You will, you are willing, you widi. 


j,QuiereV.? ^Quereisvoe? ^Quereii 

Yo qniero. 
I Quiere ^1 ? 

£1 quiere. 

Nosotros queremos. 

V. quiere, (plar.,Vy.) quieren, voso- 

troB, or vos quereis. 
They will, they are willing, they EUos quieren. 

Do you wish to make my fire ? 
I am willing to make it 
I do not wish to make it 
Does he wish to make it ? 
He wishes to make it. 

I Quiere V. hacer mi fuegoT 
Yo quiero hacerie. 
Yo no quiero hacerie 
I Quiere ^1 hacerie? 
&1 quiere hacerie. 



be wkh to boy your bene? 
wiriM0 to bay it 

To Ihhil 
To warm. 
To tew. 
The broth. 
My fork. 

I Quiere €i comprBr sncaballo de V T 
£1 quiere comprarle. 

Qaemar 1. 

Calentar * 1. 

Desgarrar 1. Despedaxar 1. 

El caldo. 

Mi tenedor. 

Obc A, DOf doth, do€$i and did^ in qnetticHiB, in negative aentencee, and 
when eneigetically used, must not be tnuiriated ; they, howeyer, point out 
the pexBon and tenee. 



To he may be expreand in Spaniafa by Set or Ewtor ; .bat the meaning 
of these verbs being very different, the scholar most pay particolar atten- 
tion to the following rules, in order to use them properly : 

iS'<er is nsed to express the qoalities inherent, or essentia] to penons or 
things ; the state of fixed mind ; the materials of which a thing is made ; 
the condition, employment, rank, trade, &c. of pexaons ; the object, pur- 
pose, destination, &c. of pexsons or things. 

E9tar is employed to denote the accidental, or temporary qualities or 
auctions of penona or things, and is followed in English by a present 

These roles will be more easily understood by these examples : 

This man is good. 

This man is in good health. 

He was wicked during his youth. 

He was sick in his youth. 

Ink is black. 

This ink is whitish. 

He is very tall. 

He is placed very high. 

His watch is gold. 

His watch is broken. 

Este hombre e« bueno. 

Este hombre estd bueno. 

El fu^ malo en su juventud. 

£1 e$tuvo malo en su juventud. 

La tinta e» negnu 

Esta tinta ettd blanca. 

£1 e# mny alta 

£l e9td muy alta 

Su reloj e9 de oro. 

Su reloj ettd quebrada 

I Es bueno este vino 7 

Is this wine good ? 

To he, followed by an active participle, is translated Eotar ; 
They are playing. | EHos estan juganda 

To be is translated Tener in the following acceptations: 

To be five feet long. 

To be throe feet broad, wide. 

To be seven feet deep. 

To be fifty feet in circumferonce. 

To be twenty years old. 

Tener cinco pies de largo. 
Tener tree pies de ancha 
Tener siete pies de profundo. 
Tener cincuonta pies de cirounfs* 

Tener veinte aftoa. 




To be obliged to. 

To be ID good u to 

To be pradent in. 

To be right in. 

To be wrangin. 

To be cold 

To be hot, or wann. 

To be hnngiy. thinty, deepy, &o. 

Tener miedo da 
Tener precinon da 
Tener la bonded do. 
Tener pmdencuu 
Tener raion para. 
No tener razon para. 
Tener fria 
Tener calor. 
Tener hambn» aed, ioei&o, 

At the hooae of. 
To the house oil 
To be at the man's hooseb 
To go to the man, or to the 

To be at hk friend'a (boose.) 
To go to my father's (boose.) 


En la casa de, (or en casa do.) 
A la casa do, (or A casa de.) 
Estar en la casa del hombre. 
Ir 4 casa (or la casa) del hombre. 

Estar en la casa de sa amigou 

Ir 4 casa (or la casa) de mi padre. 


Estar en casa. 

Ir 4 casa. Ir 4 la casa. 

At hom€. 

To be at home. 
To go home. 

Obt. B, A eaaa means the house of the pemn who speaks. Exd — ^Do 
yon go home, (to your boose 7) iVaV» A bu eami ? — Do yoa go home, (to 
my boose 1) iVaV.d eaaa ? (the boose of him who speaks.) 

To be at my hooae. 
To be staying with mo. 
To be at oor boose. 
To be staying with ns. 
To go to my boose. 
To come to me. 
To go to oor boose. 
To oome to os. 
To be at his hoose. 
To be staying with him. 
To go to his house. 
To go to him. 
To be at yoor house. 
To be staying with yoo. 
To go to your house. 
To go to yoo. 
To be at their hoose. 
To be stoying with them. 
To go to their house. 
To go to them. 

i Estar en casa. 
Estar en mi casa. 

{ Estar en nuestra casa. 

Sir 4 casa. 
Ir (or Tenir) 4 mi casa. 

i Ir (or Tenir) 4 noestra casa. 
> Estar en so casa. 

Ir 4 80 casa. 

) Estar en so casa de V. 
) Estar en la casa de V. 

ilr 4 so casa de V. 
Ir 4 la casa de V. 

> Estar en so casa de ellos, (or dlaai) 

> Ir 4 so casa de eUos, (or ellas^ 



To be at aome one's hoon. 
To be with eome one. 
To go to Mme one's bouee. 
To go to some one. 

At who9e house ? 

To ufkoM hou§€ 7 

To whose house do you wkh to go 7 
To whom do you wish to go? 
I wish to go to no one's house. 
I wish to go to no one. 

At whose house is your brother? 
With wh<Hn is your brother? 

With whom is he ? 

He is at oar house. 
He is with us. 

Is he at home ? 
He is not at home. 

Are you? 

Are you tired ? 
I am tired. 
I am not tired. 
Is he? 
He is. 
We are. 
They are. 



Estar en la casa de algruno. 
Ir & la casa de alguna 

I En ei3a de quien ? ^ En la q^sa 

de quien ? 
I A casa de quien ? ^ A la casa de 


I A casa de quien quiere V. ir ? 
£ A la casa de quien quiere V. ir? 


No quiero ir a casa de ninguno. 

^^En casa de quien esti su hermano 

I En la casa de quien esti su hermano 

I Con quien esti 7 

I En la casa de quien esti? 

Estd en nuestra casa. 

£1 eetd con noaotros. 

Esti en nuestra casa. 

'l Estd (^l) en casa 7 

(£I) no estd en casa. 
( I Estd v.? iEstan VV.7 (plur.) 
( I Eetais vos 7 or Tosotros. 


I Estd V. can^udo ? I Estais cansados? 

(Yo) estoy cansado. 

(Yo) no estoy cansado. . 


£1 estd. 

(Nosotros) estamos. 


Beber 2. 

I En donde 7 i Donde 7) 

What do you wish to do 7 

What does your brother wish to do ? 

I Que quiere V. hacer 7 

I Que quiere hacer su hermano de V. 7 

Is your father at home? 
What will the Germans buy 7 
They wiU buy somethmg good. 
They will buy nothing. 

I Estd en casa su padre de V. 7 
I Que quieren comprar los Alemanes? 
Ellos quieren comprar algo boeno 7 
EUos no quieren comprar nada. 




Do they wish to buy a book ? 
They wish to buy one. 
Do you wish to drink any thing ? 
I do not wish to drink any thing. 

I Qoieren (ellos) comprar an lifaro 7 
Ellos quieren comprar una 
I Quiere V beber algo ? 
Yo no quiero beber nada. 

Do you wirii to look for my son? 1 1 Quiere V. bnacar a mi hijo? 

Obs. C. When the object direct of an active Teib m a person, pfoper 
noun, or any noun personified, it must be preceded by the preposition d 

I am willing to look for your son. 

To go to your friend. 
To go to his neighbor. 

Yo eetoy pronto i. (quiero) boscar il 

hijo de V. 
Ir d la casa del amigo de V. 
Ir & casa de su vecina 


Do you wish to work ? — ^I am willing to work, but I am tired. — ^Do 
you wish to break my glasses ? — I do not wish to break them. — ^Aie 
you willing to look for my son ? — ^I am willing to look for him. — ^WbAt 
do you wish to pick up 7 — ^I wish to pick up this dollar and that shil- 
ling. — ^Does that man wish to cut your finger 7 — ^He does not wish to 
cut mine. — ^Does the painter wish to bum some pap<er 7 — ^He wishes to 
bum some. — ^What does the shoemaker wish to mend 7 — ^He wishes to 
mend our old shoes. — Does the tailor wish to mend any thing 7 — ^He 
wishes to mend some waistcoats. — ^Do you wish to do any thing 7 — ^I do 
not wish to do any thing. — ^What do you wish to do 7 — ^We wish to 
warm our tea and our father's coflTee. — ^Do you wish to warm my 
brother's broth 7 — ^I am willing to warm it 


Do you wish to speak 7 — ^I do wish to speak. — ^Is your son willing 
to work 7 — ^He is not willing to work. — ^What does he wish to do ? — 
He wishes to drink some wine. — Do you wish to buy any thing ? — ^I 
wish to buy something. — What do you wish to buy 7 — ^I wish to buy 
some forks. — ^Are you willing to mend my coat 7 — ^I am willing to 
mend it. — ^Who will mend our son's shoes 7 — ^We wiU mend them. — 
What does he wish to buy 7 — ^Ho wishes to buy some ships. — ^Does 
your father wish to look for his umbrella or for his stick 7 — ^He wishes 
to look for both. — ^Do you wish to drink some wine 7 — ^I wish to drink 
some, but I have not any. — Does the sailor wish to drink some wine 7 — 
He does not wish to drink any, he is not thirsty. — ^What does the cap- 
tain wish to drink? — He doos not wish to drink any thing. — ^What 
does the hatter wish to make 7 — ^He wishes to make some hats. — ^Do 
you wish to buy a bird 7 — ^I wish to buy several. 



How many forks does your servant wish to buy ? — ^He wishes to buy 
three. — ^Do you wish to buy many caps ? — ^We wish to buy only a few, 
but our children wish to buy a great many. — ^Does any one wish to 
tear your coat ? — No one wi^es to tear it. — Who wishes to tear my 
books ? — ^Your children wish to tear them. — With whom is our father 7 
— ^He is with his friend. — ^Will you go to my house ? — ^I will not go to 
yours but to my brother's. — ^Does your fiither wish to go to his friend 7 
— ^He does not wish to go to his friend, but to his neighbor. — ^At whose 
house is your son ? — ^He is at our house. — Will you look for our hats 
or for those of the Dutch 7 — ^I will look for neither yours, nor for those 
of the Dutch, but I will look for mine, and for those of my good friends. 

Am I right in warming your broth 7 — ^You are right in warming it 
— Is my servant right in warming your tea 7 — He is wrong in warming 
it. — ^Ls he afraid to tear your coat 7 — ^He is not afraid to tear it, but to 
bum it. — Are your children at home 7 — ^They are not at home, but at 
their neighbors'. — ^Is the captain at home 7 — He is n6t at home, but at 
his brother^s. — ^Is the foreigner at our brother's 7 — He is not at our 
brother's. — ^At whose house is the Englishman 7 — He is at yours. — ^Is 
the American at our house 7— No, Sir, he is not at our house. — 
With whom is the Italian 7 — ^He is with nobody ; he is at home. — ^Do 
you wish to go home 7 — I do not wish to go home ; I wish, to go to the 
son of my neighbor. — ^Is your father at home 7 — ^No, Sir, he is not at 
home. — Will you go to any one's house 7 — ^I will go to no one's house. 

Where is your son 7 — ^He is at home. — ^Is your brother at home 7^ 
He is not at home ; he is at the foreigner's. — What will the German 
do at home 7 — ^He will work, and drink some good wine. — ^What have 
you at home 7 — ^I have nothing at home. — ^Are you tired 7 — ^I am not 
tired. — Who is tired 7 — ^My brother is tired. — Do you wish to drink 
any thing 7 — ^I do not wish to drink any thing. — ^How many chickens 
does the cook wish to buy 7 — ^He wishes to buy four. — ^Does the Span- 
iard wish to buy any thing 7 — He wishes to buy something, but he has 
no money. — Do you wish to go to our brothers' 7 — ^I do not wish to go 
to their house, but to their children's. — Is the Scotchman at anybody's 
house 7 — He is at nobody's ; he is at his own house. — ^Is this good 
paper 7 — ^It is very good. — ^Who is that man 7 — ^He is my shoemaker. — 
Is this boy in good health 7 — Yes, Sir. — ^Is he wicked 7 — No, Sir, he is 
not wicked. — ^Is your watch gold 7 — ^It is gold, but it is broken. 


^. — I^oocum DSdrna nana. 


iBmimmder iDomde? 

Tkm^ tinker. 



Ir oUi, (or ir aOL) 


Eiter oUi, (or ortar alli) 

Dio 7M wiih to go ifaflMt 


Y«i» I wirii to go IbMo. 

Si» 70 qoieio ir alU. 

To tako, to cony. 



To takrs to leod, to cottdact 


To tokn it tlioio. 


Huo. (ofcjeet oftlie Teth.) 


To Mud him thera. 

EoTiario aUL 

To take him thereu 

Condiicirie aUi. 

Trntwif (obj^cL) 

To cairy them thera. 
To cany some there. 

Will yoa aeiid him to my fether? 

I will flend him there, to him. 

Oba. A. AOf and allA are 
Do 70a wiih to go home 7 
Yea, I wirii to go thera^ 

The phyacian. 


When 7 



Somewhere, anywhere, whiiker. 

Nowhere, not anywhere. 

Do you wish to go anywhere 7 

I wish to go Bomewhere. 

I do not wadi to go anywhere. 

To write. 
At what o*clock 7 
At one o'clock. 
At two o'clock. 

Lef , (pronoott object of a Torik.) 

LleTailoe alii. 

Uevar algnno, (or algnnos alii.) 

I Qoiere V. enviarie i, caaa, (or 4 la 

caaa da mi padre 7) 
Yo le qniero enviar (alli.) 

when no ambiguity can reoolt from 

I Qoiere V. ir i cam T 
Si, yo qniero ir (alli.) 
El m^ica 
Venir • 3. 

I Caando 7 



Alguna parte. 

Ninguna parte. 

I Qaiera V. ir & algona parte T 
Yo quiero ir & algona parte. 
No quiero ir & ninguna partem 

JBeerihir 3. 

t ^ A que hora 7 
t A la una. 
t A laa doa. 




The quarter. 

Media Media, (fern) 

t Launa, 

O&e. B. The word o'clock m never tranalated. The Boan hour, kor^f 
mut be preceded by the article la before tiiui, (one o'clock,) and las before 
the real of the bonra. Half bemg an adjeetire must agrse with hora, fem- 
inine, oonseqnently it is translated media. Feminine noons will be fnlly 

t A la nna y media. 

t A la una y cuarta 

t A las dos y cuarto. 
c A la mia m^nos cuarta 
I A los tres cuartes para la una. 

A las doce de la noche. 

Media noche. 

A las dooe. 

Medio dia. 

La noche. 

En la noche, (de noche.) 


A las cnatro m^nos yeinte miuBti?*- 


At half-past one. 

At a quarter past one. 

At a quarter past two. 

At a quarter to one. 

At twelve o'clock at night. 
At twelve o'clock. 
The night 
In the night 

At twenty minutes to four. 
Note, (billet) 


Do you wish to go home 7 — ^Yes, I wish to go. — Does your son wish 
to go to my house ?— He wishes to go. — ^Is your brother at home ?^ 
He is.— Where do you wish to go 7—1 wish to go home.-^Do your 
children wish to go to my house 7 — ^They do not wish to go. — ^To 
whom will you take this note 7 — ^I will take it to my neighbor's. — ^Will 
your servant take my note to your father 7— He will take it there.^- 
To whom do our enemies wish to carry our guns, (coHones ?) — To the 
Turks. — ^Will he carry them home 7 — ^He will not carry them home. — 
Will you come 7—1 will not come, (tr.) — Where do you wish to go 7 — 
I wish to go to the good English. — ^Will the good Italians go to our 
house 7 — ^They will not go. — ^Wheie do they wish to go 7 — They will 
go nowhere. 

WiJl you take your son to my house 7 — ^Yes, I will.— When will 
yoa take him to the captain's 7 — ^I will take him there to-morrow.— 
Db yon wish to take my children to the physician 7 — I will take them 



there. — ^When will yon take them 7—1 will take them to-day. — ^At what 
o'clock ? — At half-past two. — ^When will yoa aend your servant to the 
physician? — ^To-day. — ^At what o'clock? — At a quarter past ten. — 
Will you go anywhere? — ^I will go somewhere. — ^Where will you 
go 7 — ^I will go to the Scotchman. — ^To whom does he wi^ to go 7 — 
He wishes to go to his friends. — Will the Spaniards go anywhere 7 — 
They will go nowhere.— Will our friend fi[o to any one ? — He will 
go to no one. * 

When will you take the young man to the painter 7 — ^To-day .«- 
Will he carry these birds 7 — ^He will carry them home. — ^Will you 
take the physician to this man? — ^I will take him there. — When 
will the physician go to your brother? — ^He will go there to-day. 
—Will you send a servant to my house 7 — ^I will send one there.^- 
Has your brother time to come to my house 7 — ^He has no time to 
come (tr) there. — ^Will the Frenchman write one more billet 7 — He 
will write one more. — ^Has your friend a mind to write as much as I ? 
— ^He has a mind to write quite as much. — ^To whose house does he 
wish to send them ? — To his friends*. — ^Who wishes to write little 
notes 7 — ^The young man. — ^Do you wish to carry many books to my 
father's 7—1 will only carry a few. 

Will you send one more trunk to our friend 7 — I will aend him 
several more. — ^How many more hats has the hatter? — ^He has six 
more.— Will he send them to the shoemaker 7 — He will send one. — 
Do you wish to buy as many dogs as horses 7 — ^I will buy more of the 
latter than of the former. — At what o'clock do you wish to send your 
servant to the Dutchman's 7 — ^At a quarter to six. — At what o'clock is 
your father at home 7 — ^He is at home at twelve o'clock. — ^At what 
o'clock does your friend wish to go there 7 — ^He will go there at mid- 
night.— Are you afraid to go there 7 — ^I am not afraid, but ashamed 
to go there. 

TWENTIETH LESSON.— Lcccion Vigesima. 

To, (meaning tn order to, or for,) I Para, 
To see. i Ver • 2. 

Have you any money to buy bread 7 i Tiene V. dinero para comprar pan 7 
( have some to buy some. Si, tengo para comprar un poeo. 

WiU you go to your brother in order i Qniere V. ir & la casa da su herma- 

to see him? no para verie? 


liiiBeeamy togo 
Cm yoa cut me floa 
Has ytmr braUnor ft _ 

He has Dime to cut iL 

To nit 


To fte ahU, {can) 
Can yoa? or an yoa aUe? 
I can, or I am able. 
I ranno<, I amnot afafe. 
Can yoa nol? an yoa not alilo? 
Can he? she able? 
He can, be ia able. 
He r*"~*i he is not able. 
Can he not? is he not able ? 
We can, we are able. 
Too cam, yoa are able. 
*Iliey can, they aie able. 




To see him. 
To see the man 

To see the tree- 
To kill him. 

To the, or at the. 
To the friend. 
To the man. 
To the captain. 
To the book. 


To the frieudL 
To the men. 
To the captains 
To the book& 

To Asm, to her. 

To qieak to me.' 

To apeak to him, (to her.) 

To wiite to him, (to her.> 


i SalarL \dmt 


|Peder*2. fibicr • S. 

'iPoedeV.? (; 



. I No poede V.T 


{ ^Nopoedo A? 


V. poedel-(pfar.) W, 



. Jfe, (objecL) 

1 1«, (olqect) 

j Verme, (or para ▼enne.) 

Verio, ((V para verle ) 

Ver «i hooihfe. (See Oba. C, 


Matarle, (or para mataiV ) 

Al—ijUm.) a loo. 

Al amigo. 
Al hombre. 
Al capitan. 

A loi amigaa. 
A ka capitaneo. 
A kaUfarasL 

Xtf , (complement) 
JKp, (oom]4ement) 





To ipeak to the maiL 
To ipMik to the captain. 
To writo to the raptam. 

Can yoa write to ma T 

I can write to yoo. 

Can the man speak to yoa? 

He can ipeak to me. 

Hahlar al hombieb 
Hahlar al capilan. 
Eacribir al caipitan. 

1 1 Pnede V. eacribiime ? 

To pnedo escribirie. 

To paedo eacribir 4 V. 
i ^Poede el hombre haUar AY.? 

i£l me paede haUar. 
Pnede hablaime. 


Oft«. A. When a veib golems another in the infinitiTe, the pronoon ob- 
ject may be placed either before the fint, or after the aeoond verbw 

Wm yoa write to year brother 7 1 1 Quiere V . eacribir 4 an hermano 7 

iTo le qniero 
Quiero escribirie. 

I wiU write to him. 

The floor 
The cat. 
The broom. 

Tho cazpet 

El canaato. 



La eacoba, ) Theae two words 

La alfombra, { feminine. 


Will yoa send the book to the man ? 
I will send it to him. 
When will yoa send it to him 7 
I will send it to him to-morrow. 

I Qaiere V. enviar el libro al hombn 7 
To qaiero enTi4rBeleu 
^Cuando quien V. enTiizaele? 
To qaiero enviinele mafiana. 




goTenedbyaTeilK goT. by* understood. 

Ist person, 



Me. Me. 

3d. " 


To him. 

Le. Le. 


1st •• 



N08. N09. 

2d. « 


To you. 

A' v., (d V09.) Os, (6 V.) 

3d. «« 


To them. 

Loe. Lee. 

Does he wish to speak to you? 
He does not wish to speak to me, 
hot to yoo. 

^Qaiero 61 hahlar 4 v.? 
£l no quiere hablanne, pero qmere 
haUar 4 V. 

(See Obs. C, Lesson VIIL 

Doyoniraii to 


to him, bat to 

cribir 4i 

ibiile, pMO qi 


It to me. 
It to thee. 
It to him. 
It to her. 
It torn. 

It to them. 

the order in which the penooal 

Them to me. 
Them to thee. 
Them to him. 
Them to her. 
Them torn. 


Them to yon. 
Tliem to them. 















t So lee (4 v.) 

I t Se le (4 eDoL) t 8e ki (4 flilon) 

{I Coando me qniere V. enviar el 
iCaando qoien V. ennaniie el 

--,,..- .J 5 Yo qaiero envfunle 4 V. hor. { To » b q»e» «m« hoy. 

I Qniere Y. daime panT 

Yo qoieio daiie 4 Y. im poeaw 

Are yoo wiDinjr to gire me aome 

I am willing to give yon anne, (a 


O&c B. We can SvhjeeU the nominatire caae; Object^ the diieet ob- 
jectire ease ; Cmnplementt the indirect objectire caae. When twopnooani, 
object and complement, come together, the complement iealwaya befim the 
object When they are goFomed by a veib in the infinitiTe or imperatiTa 
mood, they are added to it and ibnn a angle word with it ; bat in th*^ 
the acnte accent ahoold be written on that yowel of the 
which lies the etreaa (rf the Toice. ExmnpU — 

Yon wiih to tend them to me, \ Y. qniere emi&rmeihe. 

To hate to. 
HaTe yon any thing to do? 
I haTe nothing to do. 

To lend. 

Tener • 9 ^m. 

I Tiene Y. algo qne haeer? 
Nada tengo qne haeer. 


TWKM ' Airi ' H LE8S09. 











M 0< 

I s J J 'i f ^. 

" a « .fl .o >» .t! 

^ i Ji^Jl 

^ . 

.s s 

g, S ^ X X i» 
5 3 S S S 




. 42 -S ^ -S' 

a »^ 2 *• 

© 5 ' 

a 'B • 




sL "sJ -J ^ S: 5^ 

»t ^ ■'^l w ^ « 

H? 5 ^ -S I. .^^ 

M <■ w <■ <• w 

TWKN T urm utasoR. 


forms of Mntenoes in which pnmooiis are owd ai 
Obfeets, and €^omplement9 : — 

Do yon lend it 7 

I lend it. 

Do yoa not lend them 7 

I do not lend them. 

Does he lend it to me 7 

He lends it to yon. 

Does be not lend it to me 7 

He does not lend it to you. 

Do I lend them to yoa 7 — to him ? — 

to her 7 — to them 7 
Ton lend them to me. 
Ton lend them to him — ^to her — ^to 

Does he not lend it to her7— to 

yon 7 — to them 7 

He doee not lend it to her — to yon — 
to them. 

I Le — la presta V. 7 

Yo le— la presto. 

I No lo8 — las preata V. 7 

Yo no loi — ^las preatow 

I Me le— me la preata €1 7 

t\ 80 le— ae la preata i V. 

I No me le — ^me la preata ^1 7 

£1 no (se) le— (se) la preata & V. 

i (Se) loe— (ae) las presto yo & V. 7— 

4^7—4eUa7— &eIloa? 
V. me loB — ^me las presta (& ml.) 
v. (se) loB— (se) las presta & €1— & 

ella — i elloa. 
I No (se) le— (se) la praata ^ i eUa? 

—4 V.7— 4 W.7— 4 eUoa7— 4 

ena8 7 
El no (se) le— (se) la presta 4 eUa^— 

4 y^-4 Vy^-4 elli»-4 ellaa. 



Can the carpenter buy a hammer ? — ^He has enough money to bny 
one. — ^Has the captain money enough to buy a ship ? — ^He has not 
enough to buy one. — ^Has not your son paper to write a note ? — ^He has 
not any. — ^Does your father wish to see me ? — ^He does not wish to see 
you. — Has not your servant a (una) broom to sweep the floor ? — ^He 
has one (una) to sweep it. — ^Is he willing to sweep it ? — ^He is willing 
to sweep it. — ^Has the sailor money to buy the chocolate 7 — ^He has 
none to buy it. — ^Hias the cook money to buy some ham ? — ^He has 
some to buy some. — ^Has he money to buy some chickens ? — He baa 
some to buy some. — ^Have you salt enough to salt my ham 7 — ^I have 
enough to -salt it. — ^Has your neighbor a desire to kill his horse 7 — He 
bas no desire to kill it — ^WiU you kill your friends 7 — ^I will kill only 
niy enemies. 


Can you cut me some bread ? — ^I can cut you some. — ^Have you a 
knife to cut it 7 — ^I have one. — ^Will you speak to the physician 7 — ^I 
will speak to him. — ^Does your son wish to see me in order to speak to 
me ? — ^He wishes to see you in order to give you a dollar. — ^DNoes he 
wish to kill me 7 — ^He does not wish to kill you ; he only wishes to 
tee yoa. — Who has a mind to kill our cat 7 — Our neighboi^s boy has a 


mind to kill it— How much money can you send me ?— I can aend yon 
twenty shillings.— Will you send me my carpet 7—1 will send it to 
you.— Will you not send him your coats ? — No, I wiU send them to 
the tailor.— Are your children able to write to me 7 — ^Yes, Sir.— Will 
you lend me your basket 7 — ^Yes, Sir. 

Have you a glass to drink your wme 7— Yes, Sir, but I have no 
wine ; I have only tea. — ^Will you give me money to buy some 7— Yes, 
Sir, but I have only a little.— Will you give me that which you have ? 
—Yes, Sir.-^Can our neighbor make His fii« 7 — ^He can make it ; but 
he has no money to buy coal. — Are you willing to lend him some ?— I 
am willing to give him some.- Do you wish to speak to the German? 
—I wiah to speak to him.— Where U he 7— He is with the son of the 
American.— Does the German wish to speak to me 7— He wishes to 
speak to you. — ^Does he wish to speak to my brother or to yours 7— He 
wishes to speak to both. — Can the children of our neighbor woik ?— 
They can work, but they will not 


Do you wish to speak to the children of the Dutchman 7—1 wish to 
speak to them.— What will you give them 7—1 will give them good 
cakes. — ^Will you lend them any thing 7 — ^I am willing, but I cannot, I 
have nothing. — ^Has the cook some more salt to salt the mutton 7'~He 
has a little more. — ^Has he some more rice 7 — ^He has a great deal 
iQore. — ^Will he give me some 7 — ^He will give you some. — ^Which ox 
will he kill 7— That of the good peasant— Wiio will send us biscuits ? 
— The baker will send you (jplural) some.- Have you any thing to dot 
— ^I have nothing to do. 

To whom do you wish to speak 7— To the Italians and to the French. 

Do you wish to give them something 7 — ^I wish to give them bodic 

money. — ^Do you wish to give this man some bread 7 — ^I wiah to ff^ 
him some. — ^Will you give him a coat 7 — ^I will give him one. — Wiu 
you lend me your books 7—1 will lend them to you.— Will you lend 
your neighbors your mattress 7 — ^I will not lend it to them. — ^Will yon 
lend them your looking-glass 7—1 will lend it to them.— To whom will 
you lend your umbrellas 7 — ^I will lend them to my friends. — ^To whom 
does your friend wish to lend his horse 7— To nobody. 


TW fclNT Y-FIRST LESSON.— £«ceiofi VigUmaprimera. 

I For 
mat Qve. > 

Wham Qvien— ^ii0ne#, (pL) 

To wAom il'fiiten— ^ ^»eji««, (pL) 

For things of both fenden aad 





Wkaim JL^quien — d quit/mea, 

VHuU Que. Forpenooior 

-vFkg^^X Qt»m— ^ieiie*. Forpenoiii. 

What Que. For penoM or thingft 

I to write? 
^Hioin do yoo wirii to mat T 
To witom do yoa wvh to ipeak 7 

'Wliai does he wkh to write? 
Of wfa«t do 70a wvh to qieak ? 


I Quien qniere eecribir ? 

I A qoien ijaieie V. yer? 

I A qaien quieze V. hablar ? (Com- 

I Que quien escribir €i ? (Objeet) 

I De qae qniere V. haUar 7 (Com- 

0&*. A. Rttp&nder requires the propori ti on d after it There are in 
Spanab oome Terba that gorem, or require eeztain p rep oa iti oiM after them. 

The acfaolar will find a complete 

To answer. 

To answer the man. 

To answer the men. 
To whom do you wirii to answer? 
I vsiih to answer to my hrather. 

To answer him. 

To answer them. 

of them in the Appendix. 

Bespooder 2. 

ReqKmder al hombre. 

Responder & Um hombras. 

2 A quien quiere V. responder? 

Yo qniere reqxmder 4 mi hemianoi 



To answer the note. 
To answer it 

To it, to them. 

To answer the notes. 

To answer them. 
Win yon answer my note? 
I win anwer it 

I Responder al bOleto, (4 la mqnela.) 
Reqwnder 4 A 

AiUd eUoo. 

Responder 4 los biUetes. 
Reiponder 4 ellos. 
I Qniere V. responder 4 mi biDeto . 
I Yo quiere reqionderle. 

Tbo ptay, the Okeotre. 

£1 teatro, (2a eoHisdia, some th aso 




To orit the play. 
To or at the ball 
To or at the garden. 

The storehoaBe. 
The magasine. 
The warehooae. 
The coanting-hooM. 
The mariiet 

AI teatro, 
Al baile, 
Al jardiu. 

i loe teatroa 
& loa jardinea. 


El almacen. 

EI eacritorio, (el deapacho, or el ofiekk) 
£1 mercado. (La plaza, fern.) 

There, \ 

Oha. B, There m not tramJated when it referi to a place just men- 
tioned, and which can easily be undentood in English. 

Do you wish to go to the play T 

Yes, I wish to go (there.) 
Is your brother at the play? 
Yes, he is (there.) 
He is not there. 
Where is he? 


Is your father in his garden 7 

He is there. 

Is he in the storehouse 7 

He is (there— -in it) 

There, (meaning in tt, t» them.) 

Where is the merchant 7 
He is in the warehouse. 

To have to, (must) 
What have you to do 7 

I have nothing to do. 

Haye you any thuig to do 7 

I haye to answer a note. 

I haye to speak to your brother. 

To have to, {to meaning /or to,) 
What has the man to drink 7 

Ha has wine. 

What have yon to eat? 

We haye ham. 

I Qulere V. ir al teatro t (i la eome- 

dia ?) 
Si, yo quiero ir. 

I Esti Bu hermano de V. en el teatro 7 
Si, esti. 

No, ^I no esti aU4. 


I Esti su padre de V. en an jardin r 
Brti en 61, (or esti allf.) 
I Esti ^1 en el almacen 7 
Esti all&, or all(. 

£fi il — en eUoe. 

I I>oiide est& el oomerciante 7 
£l esti en el almaoen. 


Tener que, (It impliea obligation.) 
I Que tiene V. que hacer 7 
Yo no tengo nada que hacer. 
Nada tengo que hacer. 
I Tiene V. algo que hacer 7 
Tengo que responder d un billete. 
Tengo que hablar & su hermano de 

Tener que, or para, 

^Que tiene que (or para) beber el 

hombre 7 
£1 tiene yino. 

I Que tienen VY. que (para) oomer? 
Tenemos jamon. 

WiH yon write to me ? — ^I will write to you. — ^Wfll yon write to tlie 
ItaUan t — ^I will write to him. — ^Will you answer your friend ? — ^I wfll 
aBswer him. — ^Whom will you answer ? — ^To my good fioher. — Will 
yoiQ not answer your good friends ? — ^Yea, Sir. — ^Who wiD write to 
joa ^ — The Russian. — ^Will you answer him ? — No, Sir. — ^\^T» wfll 
write to our friends 7^ The children of our neighbor. — Will tfaej 
answer them ? — ^They will answer them. — To whom do yoa wish to 
write 7 — I wish to write to the Russian. — ^WHl he answer yoa 7 — He 
wishes to answer me, but he cannot. — Can the Spaniards answer as f 
— They cannot answer us, but we can answer tfacm. — To whom do 
TOiQ wish to send this note 7 — ^To you. Sir. 


What have you to do 7 — I have to write. — ^What have yoa to write? 
— ^A note. — To whom 7 — ^To the carpenter. — ^What has yoor fiither to 
drink 7 — ^He has some good wine. — ^What has the shoemaker to do? 
— He has to mend my shoes.^— To whom have you to speak 7 — I haf« 
to speak to the captain. — ^When will you speak to him 7 — To-day. — 
Whm will you speak to him 7 — ^At his house. — To whom has yoor 
brother to speak 7 — To your son. — ^Which note has he to answer ?— 
That of the good German. — ^Have I to answer the note in Spaniah ? 
— Yes, Sir, in Spanish. — ^Has not your father to answer me 7 — ^He has 
to answer you. — ^Who has to answer my notes? — Our cfaildreiiv-^ 
Will yoa answer the merchants' 7 — ^I wUl answer them. 

Which notes will your &ther answer 7 — He will answer only those 
of his good friends. — Who will answer my brotberB' 7 — ^Yoor friends 
will answer them. — ^Have you a mind to go to the ball 7 — ^I have a 
nund to go (there.) — When will you go (there 7) — ^To-day. — ^At what 
o'clock 7 — At half-past ten. — ^When will you take yoor boy to the 
l^y 7 — ^To-morrow. — ^At what o'clock 7 — At a quarter to six. — Where 
is your son 7 — ^He is at the play. — Is your friend at the ball 7 — He is 
there. — ^Where is the merchant? — He is at his coonting-hoaaew— 
Where do you wish to take me to7 — ^I wish to take you to my ware* 
house. — ^Where does your cook wish to go to 7 — ^He wishes to go to the 
market — ^Whero is the young man 7 — ^In the magazine. 

Where is the Datchman 7— He is in his garret— Wili you come to 
■0 m Odder to go to the pl^y 7 — ^I wiU come (tr) to yoo, bat I haive no 


mind to go to the play. — ^Whete is the Irishman 7 — ^He is at the mar- 
ket — ^To which theatre do you wish to go ? — ^To the theatre of the 
Spaniards. — Will you go to my garden or to that of the Scotchman ?— 
I will go neither to yours nor to that of the Scotohman ; I wish to go 
to that of the Italian. — ^Does the physician wish to go to our sUneboiia^ 
or to those of the Dutoh 7 — He will go neither to yours nor to those 
of the Dutch^ but to those of the French. — What do you wish to buy 
at the market 7 — ^I wish to buy a basket and some carpets. — Where 
will you take them to 7 — ^I will take them home. 

How many carpets do you wish to buy 7 — ^I wish to buy two.—- To 
whom do you wish to give them 7 — ^To my servant. — ^Has he a mind 
to sweep the floor 7 — ^He has a mind to do it, but he has no time.— 
Have the English many storehouses 7 — ^They have many. — ^Have you 
many guns in your warehouses 7 — ^We have many (there,) but we have 
but little com. — ^Do you wish to see our guns 7 — I will go into yoor 
warehouses in order to see them. — ^Do you wish to buy any thing 7— < 
do wish to buy something. — What do you wish to buy 7 — I wish to 
buy a basket, a looking-glass, and a gun. — ^Where vidll you buy your 
trunk 7 — ^I will buy it at the market. — ^Who wishes to tear my coat ?— 
No one wishes to tear it. 

Will the English give us some bread 7 — ^They will give you some.— 
Will you give this man a shilling 7 — ^I will give him several. — ^How 
many shillings will you give him 7 — ^I will give him five. — ^What will 
the French lend us 7 — They will lend us many books. — ^Have you 
time to writo to the merchant 7 — ^I wish to write to him, but I have oo 
time U>day. — ^When will you answer the German 7 — ^I will answer 
him to-morrow. — At what o'clock? — At eight. — Where does the 
Spaniard wish to go to 7 — ^He wishes to go nowhere. — ^Does your servant 
wish to warm my broth 7 — ^He wishes to warm it. — ^Is he willing to 
make my fire 7 — ^He is willing to make it. — ^Where does the baker 
wish to go to 7 — He wishes to go to the wood. — ^Whore is the boy ?— 
He is at the play. — ^Who is at the captain's ball 7— Our children and 
our friends are there. 



TWSNTY-SECOND LESSON.— Xeceion VigSnma Megunda. 

J Al or on el liacon. 
A los, en Urn rinoonee. (Flnr.) 
J Al or en el agujerou 
A lo8, en loe agnjeroe. (Flnr.) 

To or at the comer. 

To or at the hole. 

In the hole, in the holes. 

To or at the bottom. 

To or at the bottom of the bag. 

At the oonier of the garden. 
Ilie room. 

To or at the end. 
To or at the end of the road. 
To or at the end of the roadSi 
Hie road. 

To Mend for. 

To go for, to fetch. 

To fetch, to bring. 
Win yon send for some wine 7 
I wiD send lor nme, (a little.) 
WiO yoor boy go for some bread 7 

He win not (go for any.) 

I will aend for the phyrician. 

I will aend for him. 

He will aend for my brotheiHi 

He wOI aend for them. 
Wm yon aend for glaaMaT 
I win send for aome. 

Wbat have yon to do 7 

I have to go to the market 

Yoa hare to mend your coat 

What have yon to drink? 

I have (to diink aome) good wine. 

( En el agojero. 

En loo agnjeiOB. (Flnr.) 


I Al fondo, {or en el fondo.) 
Al fondo del costaL 
En el fondo del coataL 
A or en el rinoon del jaidin. 
El agajero, (or el hoya) 
El cnarto. 

Al caba 

Al cabodel camino. 

Al cabo de loe eaminoai 


Enoiar for, {mandar por, or omoi&r 

d btucar.) 
Ir por, (arird huocar.) 

I Qoiere V. enriar por vino 7 
(Yo) quiero enTiar por nn poeo. 
I Qniere ir por pan in mnchaeho de 

(£l) no qniere, (or no, aefior.) 

(See Lenon XL) 
Yo qniero enriar por el m^dica 
Yo qniero enviar por 6L 
£l qniere mandar (or enviar) por 

mis heimanoa. 
£l qniere mandar por eUoa. 
I Qniere V. enviar por vaaoe 7 
Yo qniero enviar por algnnoa. 

I Que tiene V. que bacer 7 
(Yo) tengo que ir al mercado. 
V. tiene que remendar au veatido. 
I Que tiene V. quo beber ^ 
Tengo boon vino 




Thvf have. 
What hare the men to do? 
Tliey have to fno to the atorehooBo. 

EUoB tienen. 

I Que tienen que hacer las hombieiT 

(Eliot^ tienen que ir ai aimaivm. 

TbM evening. 

The cook. 
The hearth. 
The atudj. 
In the evening. 


Thia morning. 
In the morning. 

Now, at preaent 

Estatarde. (Fern.) 
Este. Etta. (Fem.) 

EI cocinero., 


£1 eetudio. 

t For la taide, (or en la tarda.) 

EL La, (Fem.) 

Esta mafiana. (Fem.) 
t For la maftaaa, (or en la 

I Ahora. 

Thou. I Tii. 

Ofta. A. In addreasing one another the Spaniards use V. (Uated,) W. 
(Uatedoa.) The aeoond person singular is oaed by parents and chiUieDf 
hrothen and aisten, and by intimate friends, or in addressing menial serranta 
(See LesBon I.) 

Then art 
Art thou fatigued 7 
I am not fatigued. 
Are the men tired 7 

Tii tienea. 

Td estas, (or til eree.) 
^EstaatH f&tigado? 
Yo no eatoy fatigadoi. 

I Estan cansados las hombres ? 

Ofta. B. When the adjeetiye qualifies a noun or a pronoun, it agiMi 
with it in gender and number. Rule* — ^Adjectivea form Uieir pluial in tbo 
aame manner aa nouna. 

They are not tired. | Elloe no estan canaadoa. 

Thou wilt, (or wiahest) 
Thou art able, (or canat) 
Art thon willing to make my fire 7 
I am willing to make it, but I can- 

Art thon afraid 7 
I am not afraid, I am cold. 
Art thon hungry 7 

Td quierea. 

TH puedea. 

I Quierea til hacer mi fuego 7 

Yo quiero hacerie, pero no puedo. 

t ^Tienes (tH) miedo7 

Yo no tengo miedo, tengo fiio. 

I Tienes hambre 7 


To tell, to aay. 
To ten aome one, to aay to aome 

Vender 2. 
Decir • 3. 
Decir i alguno. 

TwxiiTr-SKOOin> itnnnrr 


WiU yon tell the serrani to make 

I win teU him to make it. 
To make afire. 
Thy book, tky bodes. 

Lapalabra. (Fem.) 

I Qoiero V. dedr al criado <iiie 

enda candela. 
Yd qnieio decide que la eocieiida. 
Eneender eandela, or Ivmhre. ' 
To. ;> Tue. (Flnr.) 

El tmyo. Loe fvyee. (Flnr.) 

Ta libra Tv Iflme. (Fhir.) 

Alt not thou tired 7 




Will yon send for same sugar 7 — ^I will sepd for dome. — Son, (&{k> 
mia,) wilt thou go for some oiikes ? — ^Yes, faSier, (padre^ I will go for 
flome. — ^Whers wilt thoa go 7 — ^I will go into the garden. — Who is hi 
the garden ? — ^The children of onr Mends are there. — ^Will yon send 
for the physician 7 — ^I will send for him. — ^Who will go for my brother? 
— ^My servant will go for hun. — ^Whero is he 7 — ^He is m his conntingw 
house. — ^Will yon give me my broth 7 — ^I will give it yon. — ^Where is 
it 7 — ^It is at the comer of the hearth. — ^WiU you give me some money 
to (para) fetch some bread 7 — ^I will give yon some to fetch some. — 
Where is yonr money 7 — ^It is in my counting-honse : wHl yon go for 
it 7 — ^I will go for it. — ^Will yon bny my horse 7 — ^I cannot buy it ; I 
have no money. — ^Where is your cat 7 — ^It is in the hole. — ^In which 
hole is it 7 — ^In the hole of the garret. — Where is this man's dog 7 — It 
is in a comer of the ship. — ^Where has the peasant his com 7 — ^He has 
it in his bag. — ^Has he a cat 7 — ^He has one. — ^Where is it 7— It is at 
the bottom of the bag. — ^Is your cat in this bag 7 — It is in it 

Have you any thing to do 7 — ^I have something to do.— What have 
you to do 7 — ^I have to mend my coat, and to go to the end of the road. 
— Who is at the end of the road 7 — ^My fiither is there. — Has your cook 
any thing to drink 7 — ^He has (to drink some) wine and some good broth. 
— Can yon give me as much ham as bread 7 — ^I can give you more of the 
latter than of the former. — Can our friend drink as much wine as cof- 
fee 7 — ^He cannot drink so much of the latter as of the former. — ^Have 
you to speak to any one 7—1 have to speak to several men. — ^To how 
many men have you to speak 7 — ^I have to speak to four. — ^When have 
you to speak to them?— This evening. — ^At what o'clock?— At a 
quarter to nine. — ^When can you go to the market, (la plaza ?)-— I caa 
go (thither) in the morning.— At what o'clock 7— At half-past sevens— 



When will you go to the Frenchman ? — I will go to him 
Will yon go to the phyaidan in the mondng or in the evening 7~- 
I will go (to him) in the morning. — ^At what o'clock ? — ^At a quarter 
past ten. 


Have yon to write as many notes as the Englishman 7 — ^I have to 
write fewer of them than he.— Will you speak to the German 7 — I will 
speak to him. — ^When will you speak to him 7 — At present. — Where is 
he 7 — He is at the other end of the wood. — Will yon go to the market 7 — 
Yes, I will go to (yxrd) buy some bread. — Do your neighbors not wish 
to go to the market 7 — ^They cannot go (thither ;) they are fiuigued. — 
Hast thou the courage to go to the wood in the evening ? — ^I have the 
courage to go (thither,) but not in the evening. — ^Are your children 
able to answer my notes 7 — They are able to answer them. — ^Whal do 
you vrish to say to the servant 7 — ^I wish to tell him to make the fire, 
{que enaenda^ and to sweep (que barrd) the warehouse. — ^Will yon 
tell your brother to sell (que me venda) me his horse 7 — ^I will tell him 
to sell (venda) it yon. — What do you wish to tell me 7 — I wish to ^U 
you a word, (la palabra.y— Whom do you wish to see 7 — ^I wish to see 
the Scotchman. — ^Have you any thing to tell him 7 — ^I have to tell him 
a few words. — ^Which books does my brother wish to eell 7 — He wishes 
to sdl thine and his own. 

TWENTY-THIRD LESSON— Zeccion Vigisima tercera. 

To go out. 
To rematn, to ttay. 

When do yon wiih to go oat 7 

I wirii to go out now. 

To remain (to stay) at home. 


To remain here. 
Will yoo stay hero 7 
I will stay here. 


Quedar 1, Quedaroe. (ReflectiTe 

I Cuando quiere V. salir 7 
Yo quiero salir ahora. 
Quedar or estar en caaa. 


Qoedar aqal, (or qaedaxse aqol) 
AIU, or allf. 

I Qoiere V. quedarse aquf 7 
Yo quiero quedarme aqnt 

' Hie pronominal verbs, in Spanish, terminate their present of the infini- 
tive mood by the pronoun m, which must be suppressed in order to find out 
the conjugation ; thns, aeerearee, doleree, arrepentirse, (se,) are aeercar, 1st 
oonjogation ; doler, 2d conjugation ; and arrepentir, 3d coi^agatioii. 

Twmrr-TBiRD lisbok. 81 

WiByoni frieiid TBDiBinlMfeT 

I Qniere qnedaxw mpi m amigo do 


He wiD not «lay heie. 

£l no <ialere qoedaiie aqnt 

WBl yoQ go to your brother 7 

I Qoiere V. ur A la caaa de aa hav- 


I win go tolum. 

Yo qoiero ir 4 A 


£1 placer, (or el gorta) 

The foyer. 


To giTo pleanue. 

Dar gorto 

To do a. fofor. 


Axe yoagoingT 


I am going. 


Am I not going? 

iNoToy yo? 

I am not gcnng. 

To no Toy. 

» Thoa art going. 


Is he going? 


He goea, he ia going. 

He IB not going. 

£1 nora. 

Ale we going? 


We go» we are going. 

Noaotroa Tamoa. 

What an yoQ going to do? j 


tQue vaisihacer? 

I am going to read 

Yo voy & leer. 

To read. 

Leer 2. 

Are yoa going to year brother? 

iVa v. 4 caaa de an heimaooT 

I am going there. 


Where ia he goiog to? 

I A dondeya^l? 

He is going to hia father. 

£1 va 4 caaa de an padre 

JZI, aoefy. 

Every day. 
Eyery morning. 

Every eyening. 

I Eladdado. 

Toiff, Todo9. (Flnr.) 
Toda. TodoB. (Fem.) 

-*- Todoa ioa diaa. 
t Todaa laa mafianaa. 
t Todaa laa tardea, 
t Todaa laa noehee. 

/f ta. 




OlBiL It in the impenonal Teifat, that is to aay, veils and only in tiie 
third penon angular, and when it is redundant, is not txaodated. 

1 1 Que hon ee 7 

t Son las trea. 

t Son lasdoce. 

t Son las doce y cnazto. 

t Son las seis menos coarto. 

t Es la una y media. 

What o'clock ■ it 7 

It is three o'clock. 

It is twelve o'clock. 

It is a qnaiter past twelve. 

It wants a quarter to 

It is half-past ona. 



ToUm waul of. 
I want it 
I am in want of it 
Are you in want of this knife 7 

I am not in want of it 
I am in want of them. 
I am not in want of them. 

I am not in want of any thing. 

Is he in want of money 7 
He is not in want of more. 
What are you in want of 7 
What do yon want 7 

k Tetter neeesidad de- 
( Haber t^eneoter de* 

Neeemtar 1. 

Hober meneMter, 

Le necesito. 

Le he menester. 

I Necesito V. esto euehilloT 

No le he menester. 

No le necesito. 

Los he menestor. 


No Ids he monestor. 

No los necesito. 

To no necesito nada. 

Nada he menester. 

I Necesito ^1 algun dinero 7 

No necesito mas. 

I Que necesito V. 7 

I Que ha menester V.7 


To be acquainted witkf to know. 
To be acquaintod with (to know) a 

Conoeer 2. 

Conocer & un hombre. 

(See Obs. C, Less. XVIIL) 

Is your father in want of me 7 

He is in want of you. 

Are you in want of these book87 

I am in want of them. 

Is he in want of my brothers 7 

He is in want of them. 

I Me necesito sn padre de V.7 

£1 necesito & V. 

I Necesito V. estos libras 7 

Yo los necesito. 

iNecesito €[ & ixus hennanos7 

£l los necesita. 


Win you do me a &var 7— Yes, Sir: wiii^j, (cim{.0— Win joateO 

my BeiTBnt to make (jque enciendd) the fire 7 — ^I will tell him to mike it, 

(que la encieiida.)—- Will joa tell him to sweep (fiie hmra) the wwmb- 

houses 7 — 1 will tell him to sweep (que las ham) theoL — ^Whet wiD 

yoa tell your father 7 — I will tell him to sdl yon his hone. — Hmw9 

ycm any thixig to tell me 7 — ^I haye nothiiig to tell yon. — Have yoa any 

thing to say to my ftther 7 — I have a word to aay to him^ — Do thaae 

men wish to sell their carpets 7 — They do not wish to sdl theoL — 

John * (Jvan) art thoo here 7— Yes, Sir, I am hete.— >Whai ait thoa 

going to do 7 — I am going to your hatter to tdl him to mend (qm 

contango) your haL — ^Wilt thoa go to the tailar to tell him to mend 

{que eo mp on g a) my coats 7 — ^I will go to him^ — Are yoa vriUing lo go 

to the market 7 — ^Yes, Sir. — What has your merehant to adi 7 — He 

has to sdl some beaatiM ^oves, combs, good dodi, and fine 

Has he any iron gons to sell 7 — ^Hie has aome to aeiL — Doea he 

to sdl me his horses 7 — ^He vnshes to sell them to yoo. — ^Have yon 

any thing to sell 7 — I have nothing to sdL 

Is it late 7— It is not hte.— What o'dock is it 7-^ is a qnaiter past 
twdve. — At what o'dock does the capCun wish to go out 7— -He wkdies 
to go out at a quarter to eight — What are yon going to do 7—1 am 
going to read. — What have yoa to read 7 — ^I have to read a good book. 
-—mrai yon lend it to me 7— I will lend it yoa.— When will yoa lend 
it me 7—1 will lend it yon to-morrow. — Have yoa a mind to go ootT— 

I have no mind to go oat ^Are yoa vniling to stay here, my dear 

(qumdo) friend 7 — ^I cannot remain here. — ^Where have yoa to go 7 — 
I have to go to the coondng^ose. — ^When will yoa go to the ball 7 — 
To-nigixL — ^At what o'clock 7 — ^At midnight — ^Do yoa go to the 
Scotchman in the evening or in the mocning?— I go to him in the 
evening and in the morning. — ^Where are yoa going to now 7 — I am 
going to the theatre. — ^Where is yoor son going to 7 — ^He is going im> 
where ; he is going to stay at home to write his exercises. — ^Wheve is 
yoor brother 7 — ^He is at his warehoose. — ^Does be not wish to go oat7 
— ^No, Sir, he does not wish to go out — ^What is he going to do thefe7 
— ^He is gDtng to write to his friends. — Will yoa stay here or there 7 — 
I will stay there. — ^Wheie will yoor fiither stay 7— ^He will stay there. 


At what o'clock is the Dutchman at home ? — He is at home eveiy 
erening at a quarter past nine. — ^When does oar neighbor go to the 
Irishmen ? — ^He goes to them everyday. — ^At what o'clock 7 — ^At eight 
o'clock in (<2e) the morning. — ^What do you wish to buy 7 — ^I do not 
wish to buy any thing ; but my father wishes to buy an ox. — ^Does he 
wish to buy this or that ox ? — ^He wishes to buy neither this nor that. 
— ^Which one does he wish to buy 7 — ^He wishes to buy yoor friend's. 
— ^Has the merchant one more coat to sell 7 — ^He has one more, but he 
does not wish to sell it. — When does he sell his books 7 — ^He will sell 
them to-day. — ^Where 7 — ^At his warehouse. — ^Do you wish to see my 
friend 7—1 do wish to see him in order to know him. — ^Do you wish 
to know my children 7 — ^I do wish to know them. — ^How many children 
have yon 7 — ^I have only two ; but my brother has more than I : he has 
six (of them.}— -Does that man wish to drink too much wine 7 — He 
wishes to drink too much (of it) — ^Have you wine enough to drink 7 — 
I have only a little, but enough.— Does not your brother wish to buy 
too many cakes 7— He wishes to buy a great many, but not too many. 

Can you lend me a knife 7 — ^I can lend you one. — Can your father 
lend me a book 7 — He can lend you several. — ^What are you in want 
of 7 — ^I am in want of a good gun. — Are you in want of this picture 7— 
I am in want of it — ^Does your brother want money 7 — ^He does not 
want any. — ^Does he want some shoes 7 — ^He does not want any. — 
What does he want 7 — ^He wants nothing.— Aro you in want of these 
sticks 7 — ^I am in want of theuL — Who wants some sugar 7 — Nobody 
wants any. — ^Does anybody want paper ? — ^Nobody wants any. — What 
do I want 7 — You want nothing. — ^Does your father want these or 
those pictures 7 — He wants neither these nor those. — ^Are«yon in want 
of me 7-— I am in want of you. — ^When do you want me 7 — ^At present 
— What have you to say to me 7 — ^I have a word (una palahra) to say 
to you. — Is your son in want of us 7 — ^He is m want of you and yoor 
brothers.— Are you in want of my servants 7 — ^I am in want of them. — 
Does any one want my brother 7 — ^No one wants him. — ^Does yoar 
ftther want any thing 7 — ^He does not want any thing. — ^What does the 
Englishman want 7 — ^He wants some glasses. — ^Does he not want 
some wine 7 — ^He does not want any, he has enou|^ 




In Spamah all the teomm and penooa at veriia are 
preaeoi of the infinitrre moody fay ehanginf the lail two 
the tenninatHm co ir e apondnig to each pemm in every 

See the table of tenninatiooa in the Appendix. 

CoauuGATioiM liL 9d. 

frnn Aa 


TtrmmMrnr* of the loBmliTe 

M oftheGenmd 

*■ of the PMrt Participle. 



laL per. mag. Yo. 

ad. «« Til 

3d. « £l, Ena*y^ 

laL per. plor. Noaotraa. 

ad. «• VowtraatVoa..... 
3d. « Eaoo, EUaa, VY. 



I apeak, thon ipeakeit, he ipeaka. 
We apeak, yoo ipeak, they apeak. 

mar ooiuuoATioif. 
Oerund. Injudtioo, 

^leaking. Hablar. 

PuEOEirr, Na 1. 

Yo hablo, td hablaa, €i habla, V. 

NoaoCraa ha M amo a , Toaa tioa 

elloa haUan, YY. hafaian. 


ToaoD. Selling. 

I aell, thoo aefleat, be aeOa. 

We aeH, yon aefl, they aelL 


Yo Tendo, til vendea, dl Tenda, Y. 

Noaotraa Yendemoa, voaoC i u a y e ndeia, 

elloa YondMi, YY. Yonden. 


To leoeire. Receiring. 

I nceire, tboo rocehreat, be receireo. 

We reoeiveY yon reeeire, they re- 

Recibir. Recifaiendo. 

Yo recibo, tH recibea, ^1 reeiba, Y. 

NoaoCroa recibimoa, vu a otiua reeSiiB, 

elloa reciben, YY. reciben. 

Oht. A. Tbe preceding are the regular terminationa of the praoent tenaa ; 
but aa aome iiragnlar verba have been introduced in the exeiciaea, they are 
eonjogated below in order to make the acholar arqnainted with ' 
iaritiei^ and to enable him to txauiate them propady. 




To have. Having. 

I havr, thoa hait, he has. 
We have, you iiave, they have. 

To a$kfor. Asking for. 

I ask for, thou aakeet/or, he aaks for. 
We aak for, you ask for, they ask for. 

To worm. Warming. 

I warm, thon warmest, he wanna. 
We warm, yon warm, they warm. 

To make. Making. 

To do. Doing. 

I make, thoo makeet, he makea 
I do, thon doet, he does. 
We make, yon make, they make. 
We do, you do, they do. 

To go. Going. 

I go, thon goest, be goes. 
We go, you go, they ga 

To mend. Mendmg. 

To repair. Repairing. 

I mend, thou mendest, he mends. 
I repair, thou repairest, he repaiia. 
We mend, you mend, they mend. 
We repair, you repair, they repair. 

To he. Being. 

I am, thon art, he is. 
We are, you are, they are. 

To take to. Taking to. 

To lead to. Leading ta 

^Meaning to conduct) 

Tener. Teniendo. 

Yo tengo, til tienes, €i tiene. 
Noeotros tenemoOf Tosotios teneie, el* 

los tienen. 

Pedir, Pidienda 

To pido, til pides, ^I pide. 
Nosotros pedmo9t Tosotroe pedigf el- 

Calentar. Calentando^ 

To ealiento, til calientas, ^1 ealiettta. 
Nosotros eaUntamo^, Tosotros calcs- 

taie, ellos calientan. 




i To hago, tti hacee, €1 hacew 

i Nosotros haeemoot Toaotros Ascetf, 
) ellos hacen. 

Ir. Yenda 

To Toy, td vas, ^1 ya. 
NoBotroB vamos, voeotros Tais, elloa 




Yo remiendo, ttl remiendas, fl re- 

) Nosotros remendamoe, Tosotros re- 
) mendaie, ellos remiendan. 


Eetar. Estanda 

Yo estoy, td eetae, €i est^ 

Nosotros eetamoe, Yosotros eetaie, el- 
los eetan, 
Ser. Siendo. 

Yo soy (soi,) td ores, 61 es. 

Nosotros Bomo8,vosotro8 sens, elloB too. 





Itikft, fhoa t^Mt, h« take& 
IVMd,thoii kiadiMt, he leadsL 
I eoodoGi, thoa cmwlTietat, ha ooo- 

Yo eoudiBoo*' Uk eaodnom, U 

We take, 70a take, they take. 
We kwd, yen lead, tfaej lesd. 
We eoodnet, yea eoodnct, they 

7*0 come. Comini^ 

I eoDie, thoa oomeet, he comeiL 
We come, yoa come, they come. 

, they 


leee, thoe 

wV e eee, yon 

To go out. Going ont 

I go <Nit, thoa goest oat, he goee oat 
We go oat, yoa go out, they go oat 

To he able {eon). Being able. 
I am able, thoa ait aUe, he is able. 
"We are able, yoa are able, they are 


n teH Telling. 

To esy. Saying. 

I tell, thoa teDeet, he tells. 
I say, thoa sayest, he sayi: 
Vfe ten, yoa tell, they telL 
We eay, yoa say, they say. 


Featr. Viniendo. 

Yo Tengo, tli Tienes, ^1 Tieae. 
Noaotros ventmof, Tosotras vensi^ 

elloe Yienen. 


Yo Yeo, tti vet, ^ ec 
NosotroB eeaiM, ▼osotras mm, eOsi 


Salir. Safiendou 

Yo salgo, tH oaUo, 61 oale. 
NoBotros oalimoo, Toaotras m2»«, eUos 


Poder. PodieBdo. 

Yo paedo, tA poe^ H poeda 
Noaotras podemoo, Tosotras podsts, 





> Yo digo, ttl dices, €1 dice. 

iNoBotros deetaiot, Tosotras dm», eOoi 


Any one. 
No one. 
Where (to.) 

Acabar 1. 

AlguieiL Alguno. 2 Indefinite pro- 
Nadie. Ninguno. ) noans. 
A donde. 

1 lore, I do love, I am loving. 
Thoa lovest, thoa dost love, then art 

He l« /BB, he does lore, he is loving. 

Amor 1. 
Yo ama 

Til amaa. 



' YeriiB in ueir take z before e, when e \m foDowed by a or o. (See App.) 


v. una, yy. UDUtf TMotroB 

EIlos aman. 

Tou lore, yen do lore, yea are lor- 

We lore, we do lore, we are kmng. 
They lore, they do lore, they are 


Oi$. B In Spankh the Gerand may he, aa hi Engikh, oonjngated with 
the reih eefor ; io, lam lomtig, mE9t9y mmmmdo; Yoti ore wriUmg — F. eel4 

To like, to he fond of, io pleaoe one, | Ou&tarle d uno. 

Obo, C. Thk vexh is always in the third person singolar or ploral : it agreea 
with the thing liked, which is its snbjeet, and nerer agrees with the penon 
who likes, which is its complement. 


I like, I am fond of. 
Thou likest, thon art fond of. 
He likes, he is fond of. 
We lore, we are fond of. 

Sing. You love, yon are fond o£ 

Phtr. Yon lore, yon are fond oC 

They lore, they are fond oL 

Do you like this man? 

I do like him. 

I do not like him. 

Are they fond of those children 7 

Yes, they are fond of them. 

No, they are not fond of them. 

Oba, />. Word for word : Does this man please yon? Yes, he pl< 
me. No, he does not please me. — ^Do those children please them? Yes^ 
they please them. No, they do not please them. 

(A mf) me gosta — ^me gostan. 

( A tf) te gnsta — te gnstan. 

(A €1) le (pista — le gnstan. 

(A nosoCras) nos gnsta — nos gnstan. 

A' V. le gnsta. 

A rosotros os gnsta. 

A v. le gnstan. 

A W. les gnsta. 

A W. lee gnstan. 

(A ellos) les gnsta, or les gnstan. 

I Le gnsta & V. este hombre ? 

Si, ^1 me gnsta. 

No, no me gnsta. 

^ Les gnstan estos niflos? 

Si, i. ellos les gnstan. 

No, i. ellos no les gnstan. 

What are yon fond of? 

I am fond of study. 

Do yon like him ? 

I do like fcim. 

I do not like him. 

Do you sell your hone? 

I do sell it 

Do yon sell it? 

Does he send yon the note ? 

He does send it to me. 

I Que le gusto & v.? 

A mf me gusto el estudio. 


Kl me gusta. 

£1 no me gusta. 

I Vends V. sn caballo ? 

Si, yo le rendo. 

|Le rende V.? 

^Enria €i el biUete d V.? 

ti me le envia.* 

* See for the place of prono un s what has been said in Lnsaou XXt 



Do joa open the note T 
I do not open it. 
Dooa he open his oyeoT 
He opens thorn. 
Whom do you lore T 
I knre my finther. 

3 — post poxtieipio oM^fts. 

I Abre V. el hilleto? 
Yo no le abro. 

I I Abre €i Um egos 7 
£l loB ahre. 

I A qnien ama V.T > See Obs. G, 
Yo amo d mi padre. ( Less. XVIII 

To arrange, to tet in order. 
What are you arranging? 
I am azranging my books. 
What is be drinking? 
He is drinking wine. 
Is he f<»id of wine ? 
He is fond of it 

Ordenarl, Arreglar, 

I Que esti V. arraglando? 
Estoy ordenando mis libros. 
I Que estd €i bebiendo? 
Esti bebiendo Yino. 
^Le gnsta el vino? 
A A le gnsta. 

What is the American fond of? 
He is fond of ooflbe. 

To anribor* 
Do yon answer the note ? 
Yes, I answer it 

To know. I know. 

A stick of wood. 
Yet Not yet 
It is not yet seven o'clock. 

I, Que le gnsta al Americano? 
Le gnsta el caf($. 

Retponder 3, (takee & before a noon*) 

(Responde V. al biDete? 

Si, yo le respondo. 

Saber*2. Yo stf, (the other pemm 

Un palo. 

Todavfa. No (v) todavla. 
No son todaria las sieto. 

^'*- iiStU^^"'!*^*- 

He boys more than twenty. 

The cook. 

£l compra mas do veiifte. 
£1 cocinero. 

Do yoa love yonr brother ? — I do love him. — ^Does yo^ brother love 
you ? — ^He does not love me. — ^Dost thou love me, my fkd child ? — ^I 
do love thee. — ^Doet thou love this ugly man ? — ^I do not love him.-^ 
Whom do you love ? — I love my children. — Whom do we love ? — ^We 
love our fifiends. — ^Do we like any one 7 — ^We like no one. — Does any- 
body like UB 7 — ^The Americana like us. — ^Do yon want any thing 7 — 
I want nothing. — ^Whom is your father in want of ?^He is in want of 
Us servant — ^What do you want 7 — I want the exercise. — ^Do you want 
this or that exercise 7 — I want this one. — What do you wish to do with 
it ? — ^I wish to have it, in order to read it. — Does your son read our 


exercises? — ^He does read them. — ^When does he read them? — ^He 
reads them when he sees them. — ^Does he receive as many exercises 
as I ? — He receives more of them than you. — ^What do yon give me ? 
— ^I do not give thee any thing. — ^Do you give this book to my brother ? 
— ^I do give it him. — Do you give him a bird ? — I do give him one. — 
To whom do you lend your books ? — ^I lend them to my firienda.^-Does 
your friend lend me a coat ? — ^He lends you <me. — ^To whom do you 
lend your clothes, (yestidos 7) — ^I do not lend them to anybody. 

Do we arrange any thing ? — ^We do not arrange any thing. — What 
^ does your brother set in order 7 — ^He sets in order his books. — ^Do you 
sell your ship ? — I do not sell it. — Does the captain sell his ? — ^He does 
sell it.-^What does the American sell ? — He sells his oxen. — ^Does the 
Englishman finish his tea 7 — He does finish it. — ^Which notes do you 
finish 7 — ^I finish those which I write to my friends. — Dost thou see 
any thing 7—1 see nothing. — ^Do you see my large garden 7 — ^I do see 
it — ^Does you father see our ships 7 — ^He does not see them, but we 
see them. — ^How many soldiers do you see 7 — ^We see a good many, 
we see more than thirty of them.— Do you drink any thing 7 — ^I drink 
some wine. — What does the sailor drink 7 — He drinks wine also. — 
What do the Italians drink ? — ^They drink some chocolate. — ^Do we 
drink wine 7 — We do drink some. — ^What art thou writing ? — ^I am 
writing a note. — To whom 7 — To my neighbor. — ^Does your firiend write ? 
—He does write. — ^To whom does he write? — ^He writes to his tailor. 

Do you write your exercises (eZ tema) in the evening 7 — We write 
them in the morning. — ^What dost thou say 7 — ^I say nothing. — Does 
your brothej say any thing? — ^He says something. — ^What does he 
say 7 — ^I do not know. — What do you say to my servant ? — I tell him 
to sweep (que barra) the floor, and to go (que vaya) for some bread, 
cheese, and wine. — Do we say any thing 7 — ^We say nothing. — ^What 
does your friend say to the shoemaker 7 — He tells him to mend (que 
remiende) his shoes. — ^What do you tell the tailors 7 — ^I tell them to 
make (que hqman) my clothes, (vestidoi.) — ^Dost thou go out 7 — ^I do not 
go out.— Who goes out 7 — ^My brother goes out — ^Where is he going to ? 
— He is going to the garden. — To whom are you going ? — We are 
going to the good English. — What art thou reading 7 — I am reading a 
note from (de) my friend. — ^What is your father reading ? — He is read- 
ing a book. — What are you doing 7 — We are reading. — Are your chil- 
dren reading 7 — They are not reading, they have no time to read. — ^Do 
you read the books which I read 7 — ^I do not read those which you read, 
but those which your father reads. — Do you know this man 7 — ^I do 
not know him. — Does your friend know him 7 — ^He does know him. 


Do you know my children 7 — ^We do know them . -^Do tJ ipy know you ? 
— ^They do not know ns. — ^Whom are you acquainted with ? — ^I am a&- 
q[Dainted with nobody. — Is any one acquainted with you 7 — Some one 
is acquainted with me. — ^Who is acquainted with you 7 — ^The good 
csplain kiK>ws me.—What dost thou eat 7 — ^I eat some bread. — Does 
not your son eat some cheese 7 — ^He does not eat any. — ^Do you cut 
any tlung 7 — We cut some sticks. — What do the merchants cut 7— 
Tbej cut some cloth. — ^Do you send me any thing 7 — ^I send you a good 
gun. — ^Does your father send you money 7 — ^He does send me some.-* 
I>oes he send you more than 1 7 — ^He sends me more than you. — ^How 
much does he send you 7 — ^He sends me more than fifty (cinctienta) 
dollars. — When do you receiTe your money? — ^I receive it every 
morning. — ^At what o'clock 7 — ^At half-past ten. — ^Is your son coming 7— 
He is coming. — Do you come to me 7 — ^I do not come (tr) to you, but 
to your children. — ^Where is our friend going to 7 — ^He is 
whither ; he remains at home. — ^Are you going home 7 — ^We are not 
going home, but to our friends'. — ^Where are your friends 7 — ^They are 
in their garden. — Are the Scotchmen in their gardens 7»They are there. 


What do you like 7 — ^I like study. — ^Are you fond of birds 7 — I am 
fond of them. — ^How many hones does the Grerman buy 7 — ^He buys a 
good many ; (he buys) more than twenty. — ^Wbat does your servant 
carry 7 — ^He carries a large trunk. — Where is he carrying it to 7 — ^He is 
carrying it home. — ^To whom do you speak 7 — ^I speak to the Irishman. 
— ^Do you speak to him every day 7 — ^I speak to him every morning 
and every evening. — Does he come to your house 7-W[e does not come 
to my house, but I see him at the theatre. — What has your servant to 
do 7 — ^He has to sweep the floor, and to set my books in order. — ^What 
does your boy break 7 — ^He breaks nothing, but your boys break my 
glasses. — ^Do they tear any thing 7 — They tear nothing. — Who bums 
my hat ? — Nobody bums it. — ^What is my son fond of 7 — ^He is fond of 
money. — ^What does your cook kill 7 — ^He kills a chicken. 

76. % 

To what house do you take my boy 7 — I take him to the painter. — 
When is- the painter at home 7 — ^He is at home every evening at four 
o'clock. — ^What o'clock is it now 7 — It is not six o'clock. — ^Do you go 
out in the evening 7 — ^I go out in the morning. — ^Are you afraid to go 
out in the evening 7 — I am not afraid, but I have no time to go out in 
the evening. — ^Do you work as much as your son 7 — I do not work as 
much as he. — ^Does he eat more than you 7 — ^He eats less than I. — Can 
your children write as many exercises as mine 7 — ^They can write as 
many. — ^When do our neighbors go out 7 — ^They go out every morning 



at a quarter to six. — Do yon like Spanish 7 — ^Yes, Sir, I like it. — ^Dc 
yon speak it ? — ^No, but I am going to learn it — ^Are yon fond of study f 
— I study every day, and I like it. — ^Do you like your dictionary ? — I 
do not like it ; it is not good. — ^Do you not like mine 7 — ^I like yonrs. 

%* We riioald fill Ttdumes were we to give all the ezerciKS that 
applicable to our leMons, and which the papUs may vary eaaily conpose by 
themselves. We ihall, therefore, merely repeat what we have already said 
at the commencement : — PapUs who wish to improve rapidly oogfat to com- 
pose a great many sentences in addition to those given ; but they most pio- 
noonce them alond. This is the only way in which they wiU acquire the 
habit of speaking fluently. 

TWENTY-FIFTH LESSON.— I.eccion VigSsima quinia. 

To bring. 
I bringf thou bcingest, he 

To find. 
To or at the play. 

The butcher. 
The sheep. 


Yo traigo, tA traes, 61 trae. 

Hollar 1. 

Al teatro. 
£1 camieero. 
El camero. 

What, (meaning that which, the ! 
f Atf^ which.) I 

Do you find toAs( you look for ? t 
Doyou find what |pi are looking for? ( 
I find what I look for. C 

I find what I am looking for. ^ 

He doM not find what he is looking 

We find what we look for. 
They find what they look for. 
I mend what you mend. 
I buy what yoil^y. 

Zio gas, (subject or object) 

I Halla y. lo que buses 7 

I Halla V. lo que esti bnscando? 

To hallo lo que busca 

Yo hallo lo que estoy buscanda 

£l no halla lo que esti buscando. 

Hallamos lo que estamos buscando. 
EIlos hallan lo que estan buscando. 
Yo remiendo lo que V. remienda. 
Yo compro lo que V. compnu 

Do you take him to the play 7 
I do take him thither. 

To etudy. 
Instead of. 

Instead of bringing. 

iTjo lleva V. al teatro7 
Yo le llevo alii. 

Eetudiar 1. 

En vex de. En lugar de. 

En vez de truer. 

06s. Instead o/ is in English followed by the preeeni partieiplaf but 
fai Spanidi it is followed by the preoent of the it^finitiee mood. 

TWUTTT-nrrH lesson. 


To play. 
I play, thoa playest 
He I^ya* they [day. 

To UaUn to. 

Instead of Hotening. 

Instead of playing. 
Do yon play imtead of otudying f 
I study instead of playing. 
That man qieaks instead of 2wten- 

Jugar * 1. 

Yo jaego> td joegas. ) The oChem 
£1 joega,ello8 jaegan. ) are regular. 
Eoeuehar 1. 
En Yez de eoeuehar. 
En lugar (or en vez) de jugar. 
^ Jnega V. en logar de eetudiar f 
Yo estndio en lugar de jugar. 
Este hombre habia en vei de 

To have a eore. 

Have yon a sore finger? 

I have a sore finger. 

Has your brother a sore foot ? 

He has a sore eye. 
We have sore eyes. 

The elbow. 
The ann. 
The back. 
The knee. 


Tener mal de (n). 

Tener (a) malo. 

1 1 Tieue V. el dedo malo T 

t Yo tengo un dedo malo. 

t ^Tiene su hermano de V. on pl6 

t £1 tiene mal de ojos. 
t Nosotros tenemos los ojos males. 
El code. 
El braza 

La espalda — (pi.) las espaldas, (fem.) 
La rodilla — (pi.) las rodillas, (fem.) 
Le, (mas.) La, (fem.) 
Los, (mas.) Las, (fem.) 

Do yon read instead of writing? 
Does your brother read instead of 

I Lee V. en vez de escribir ? 
I Lee su hermano de V en lugar do 

The bed. 
Does the servant make the bed? 
He makes the Bn instead of making 
the bed. 

La eama, (fem.) 
^Hace la eama el criado? 
Hace el fuego en lugar de haeor la 

To learn. 

I learn to read. 
He leanis to write. 

Aprender 2. 

Aprendo d leer. 
Aprende & escribir 



Do you go to the play this ovexung 7 — I do not go to the play.— 

What have yoo to do ? — I have to study. — ^At what o'clock do you go 

CNit 7 — I do not go out in the evening. — ^Does your fttber go out 7— 


He does not go oat — What does he do ? — ^He writes. — Does he write 
a book ? — He does write one. — ^When does he write it ? — ^He writes h 
in the morning and in the evening. — Is he at home now ? — ^He is at 
home. — Doen he not go out ? — ^He cannot go out ; he has a sore foot 
-^Does the shoemaker bring our shoes ? — ^He does not bring them. — 
Is he not able to work ? — ^He is not able to work ; he has a sore knee. 
— ^Has anybody a sore elbow 7 — ^My tailor has a sore elbow. — Who 
has a sore arm ? — ^I have a sore arm. — ^Do you cut me some bread ?— 
I cannot cut you any ; I have sore fingers. — ^Do you read your book ? 
— I cannot read it ; I have a sore eye. — Who has sore eyes ? — ^Tbe 
French have sore eyes. — ^Do they r«id too much ? — ^They do not read 
enough. — ^What day of the month is it to-day ? — It is the third, (Lesson 
XrV.) — What day of the month is it to-morrow 7 — ^To-morrow is the 
fourth. — Are you looking for any one ? — I am not looking for any one. 
— What is the painter looking for 7 — He is not looking for any thing. 
— ^Whom are you looking for 7 — ^I am looking for your son. — ^Ha?e 
you any thing to tell him 7 — I have something to tell him. 

Who is looking for me 7 — ^Your father is looking for you. — ^Is any- 
body looking for my brother 7 — ^Nobody is looking for him. — ^Dost thou 
find what thou art looking for 7 — I do find what I am looking for.— 
Does the captain find what he is looking for 7 — He finds what he is 
looking for, but his children do not find what they are looking for.— 
What are they looking for 7 — They are looking for their books.— 
Where dost Uiou take me to 7 — ^I take you to the theatre. — ^Do yon 
not take me to the market 7 — ^I do not take you thither. — ^Do the 
Spaniards find the umbrellas which they are looking for 7 — ^They do 
not find them. — Does the tailor find his thimble 7 — He does not find it 
— ^Do the merchants find the cloth which they are looking for 7 — ^They 
do find it.— What do the butchers find 7 — ^They find the oxen and 
sheep which they are looking for. — ^What does your cook find 7 — ^He 
finds the chickens which he is looking for. — ^Wbat is the phpician 
doing 7 — ^He is doing what you are doing. — ^What is he doing in his 
room 7 — ^He is reading. — ^What is he reading 7 — He is reading the 
book of your father. — ^Whom is the Englishman looking for 7 — ^He is 
looking for his friend, in order to take him into the garden. — ^What is 
the German doing in his room 7 — He is learning to read. — ^Does he 
not learn to write 7 — ^He does not learn it. — ^Does your son learn to 
write 7 — ^He learns to write aqd to read. 

Does the Dutchman speak instead of listening 7 — ^He speaks instead 
of listening.— Do yon go out instead of remaining at home 7—1 ramaiD 

TWimr-SIXTB LB880V. 95 

«1 borne inatead of going out. — Does your son pk j fmttrii of study- 
ing^ — -He studies ixistead of playing. — ^When does he study? — He 
studies every day. — ^In the morning or in the evening ?r->In the morn- 
ing and in the evening. — ^Do yon bay an umbrella instead of baying 
a book ? — I bay neither the one nor the other. — ^Does onr neighbor 
break his sticks instead of brealdng his glasses 7 — ^He breaks neither 
the ones nor the others. — What does he break 7 — He breaks lus gons. 
— ^Do the children of oar neighbor read? — ^They read instead of 
writing. — ^What does oar cook 7 — He makes a fire, instead of going 
to the market — Does the captain give yon any thing 7 — He does give 
me something. — What does he give yon 7 — ^He gires me a great deal 
of money. — ^Does he give you money instead of giving yon bread ? — 
He gives me (both) money and bread. — ^Does be give yoa mote cheese 
than bread 7 — He gives me less of the latter than of the finnner. 

Do yon give my friend fewer knives than gloves. — ^I give him more 
of the latter than of the former. — ^What does be give you ? — He gives 
me many books instead of giving me money. — ^Does your servant make 
yoar bed 7 — ^He does not make it, (2a.)— What is he doing instead of 
making yoor bed 7 — ^He sweeps the room instead of making my bed. — 
Does he diink instead of working 7 — ^He works instead of drinking. — 
Do the physicians go out 7 — They remain at home instead of going 
out. — ^I>oes your servant make cc^ee? — ^He makes tea instead of 
inaking coffee. — ^Does any one lend yon a gun 7 — Nobody lends me 
one. — ^What does your friend lend me 7 — He lends yon many books 
and many dictionaries. — Do you read the book wfaidi I read 7 — ^I do 
not read the one which yoa read, bat the one which the great captain 
reads. — ^Are you ashamed to read the books which I read ? — ^I am 
not ashamed, but I have no wish to read them. 

TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Irfaccum VigSsima texta. 

To go for, 
Somethimg, oajf thing. 
Do yoo go for any thing? 

I go for nothing. 
Ho goes for some. 

Ir por * 3, (or ir d hmoem;^ 

2,Va V. i bnscar algnna 

To no voy d bnscar nada. 
£l va i. boacar . . (or A va por. . . ..) 

(See LMson XL) 

' la * 3. For the eoojngatioa of this veib, see Appendix. 


Do yoa Idam fVoneh 7 
I do loam it 
I do not learn it 









Arabian, Arabie. 

Syrian, Syriac. 
I leam Spanish. 
My brother leama German. 

I Aprende V. el fianoea 7 
Si, yo le aprendow 
Yo no le aprendo. 
£1 fhmcea. 

£1 ingle 

Bl aleman. 

£1 italiano. 

£1 eepafiol. 

£1 polaco. 


El latin. 

£1 gnego. 

El drabe, el ar&biga 


To aprendo el eapaiioL 

Mi hermano aprwade el alemaa 

The Pole. 

The Roman. 

The Greek. 

The Arab, the Arabian. 

The Syrian. 

£1 Polaca 
£1 R oma n a 
£1 Arabe. 
£1 Siriaoou 

Ars you an Englishman 7 | ^ Es V. Ingles ?^ 

Oha, A. Where the indefinite article is used in English to demote quali- 
fies, the Spaniards make use of no article. 

No, Sir, I am a German. 

He is a Frenchman. 
Is he a tailor 7 
No, he is a shoemaker. 
Is he a fool? 

The foot 
The morning. 
The day. 

No, seftor, yo soy aleman. 

£l es Frances. 


No, (61) es zapatero. 

i Es (61) bobo, (tonto, or neo&o T) 

El bobo, or tonto, or necia 
La tarde. (Fem.) 
La mailana. (Feoa.) 

Ob9, B, The indefinite article a in Englidi is sometimes rendered by the 
definite article el, la, in Spanish, particulariy in qieaking of the parts of the 
oody. If the nouns esqpressdng these are in the plural, they often take the 
article lot, la$. Examples: — 

Are you ? — i Ea Vm. ? I am, — Yo soy. For the conjugation of thai 
verb, see Appendix ; and for the difference between Eotar and Ser, mm 
LsBBon XVIII., and also the Appendix. 



Ha has a laigo farohead. 
He baa blue eyea. 
Yoa have a beautiful foot 
They have white teeth. 

Tiene la frente andia. 
Hene ojoa (or lo$ ojoa) asnlea. 
V. tiene un pie hennonu 
Ellos tienen loa dientea bhmeoa 

The forehead. 

La frente. (Fern.) 







Laige. Big. 

Gnmde, or laigo. Larga. (F( 


Great | Grande. 

Ofta. C Grande, (great,) loses the last syllable when its meanmg m 

greatneas m quality ; as, the Great Captain, el Chan Capitan ; but it re- 
tains it whoi it is applied to nze or balk ; and even in the first meaning 
when coming before a TOwel — as» ten grande odio, a great, or implacablo 
hatred; un grande eaballOf a large hoEBe; un gran eabailo, a fiunous 

Grande, lafgo* 

Grande, (or alta) 

Un cnchillo grande. Un eochillon. 

Un hombre grande. Un hombron. 

Un gran hombre. 

Un libro espafioL 

Un libro ingles. 

Moneda espaiiola. 

Fapel ingles. 

the names of natkms are placed after 

I Lee V. nn libro aleman? 
Yo leo un libro italiano 

Big, laig9* 

A large knife. 
A large man. 
A great man. 
A Spanish book. 
An English book. 
Spanidi money. 
Englidi paper. 

O&a. D. All adjecUyes expressing 
their sobstantiYes. Example : — 
Do you read a Grerman book 1 
I read an Italian book. 

To liaten to aomething. 
To Helen to tome one. 
Whatf or the thing which. 

t Eecuehar alguna coea, or algo. 
Eaeuehar d uno, or d alguno. 
Lo que. 

Obo. Em It, not standing for a substantive, but meaning the thing which, 
is translated lo. It is an indefinite pronoun object, and has no plural number* 

Do you listen to that man 7 

Yes, I lirten to him. 

Bo you listen io what he tells youT 

Yea, I listen to t^ 

Do yoo Men to what I tell yon? 

Db yoo Ii0ten to me 7 


I Escncha V. & ese hombre 7 

Si, yo le esencho. 

I Escncha V. lo que le dice T 

Si, yo lo eseucha 

I Escucha v. lo fus le digp? 

I Me escneha V. 7 



I do listen to yoo. 
Do you listen to my brother 7 
I do not listen to him. . 
Do yon listen to the men 7 
I listen to them. 

Si, yo eeencho d V., (or le escucba) 
I EscQcha y. & mi hennano 7 
Yo no le escneha 
I Escocha y . 4 los hombres T 
Yo los escucho. 

To coirect 
To take off. 

iCoireirir • 3 J ^^*® *^® ^^^ Pedir, 
* ( in the Appendix.) 

J Quitar del medio, 
( Quitar9e~-quitar 1. 

To take away, | Uevarte — LUvar 1. 

Ohe, P. QuHar and Uewsr are used here as reflectiye or pronominal 
Teihfc (See Lesson XXIII.) 

The exercise. | EI tema. El ejercicia 

To take. 

I Tomar 1. 

t ^ Se qnita Y. el sombrero? 
Me le qoito. 
Et—loe — la — lae. 

Do yon take your hat off 7 
I take it o£ 

My — thy — hie — your. 

Ohe. O, When the adjective possessive prononns are used with a verb 
which in Spanish is a reflective verb, they mnst be changed in Spanish into 
the definite articlo— viz., el, (mas.) la, (fem.) singular ; loe, (mas.) las, (fem.) 
plnraL Examples : — 

I take my gloves offl 
Do yon take yonr shoes off 7 
I take them c^. 

Does your father correct your exer- 

He corrects them. 

Yo me quite los guantes. 

1 4 Se quita Y . los zapatos 7 

t Yo me los quito. 

I Corrije los temas de Y. sa padre 7 


OS coiTije. 

To drink eqffee. 

To drink tea* 

Do yon drink tea 7 

Yes, Sir, I drink some, (a little.) 

Do you drink tea every day 7 

I do drink some every day. 

My lather drinks co^e. 

He drinks cofl^ every morning. 

My brother drinks chocolate. 

He drinks chocolate every morning. 

t Tomar ca£$. 

t Tomar mi, (4, su, Slc, caf<6, or el 

t Tomar U, 

t Tomar mi, tu, su, &c., t6, or el t£. 
tiToma V. t^7 
Si, seiior, yo tomo nn poco. 
t ^Toma Y. su t£ (or el t^ todos los 

diss 7 
t Yo tomo un poco todos los diaa. 
t Mi padre toma caf6. 
t Toma su caf6 todas las mai&anas 
t Mi hennano toma chocolate, 
t Toma chocolate todas las maiianttB 


O&c H. When 9ome, not foDowed by a snbstantive, means a UtUe, it is 
traiMiated un poea. (See LesBon XI.) 

The nose. | La nariz, (feminine.) 

Do you go for any thing ? — I do go for something. — What do you 
go for 7 — ^I go for some wine. — ^Does yonr father send for any thing ? 
— ^He sends for some wine. — ^Does your servant go for some bread ?— 
He goes ^or some. — ^For whom does your neighbor send ? — He sends 
for the physician. — ^Does your servant take off his coat in order to make 
the fire ? — ^He takes it off in order to make it — ^Do yon take off your 
gloves in order to give me money 7 — ^I do take them off in order to give 
you some. — ^Do you learn French ? — I do learn it. — Does your brother 
learn German 7 — ^He does learn it — ^Who learns English 7 — The French- 
man learns it — ^Do we learn Italian 7 — You do learn it — ^What do the 
English learn 7 — ^They learn French and Crerman. — ^Do you speak 
Spanish 7 — ^No, Sir, I speak Italian. — Who speaks Polish 7 — ^My brother 
speaks Polish. — ^Do our neighbors speak Russian 7 — They do not speak 
Russian, but Arabic.-^Do you speak Arabic 7 — ^No, I speak Greek and 
Latin. — What knife have you? — ^I have an English knife. — ^What 
money have you there 7 Is it Italian or Spanish money 7 — ^It is Rus- 
«an money. — ^Have you an Italian hat 7 — No, I have a Spanish hat — 
Are you a Frenchman 7 — ^No, I am an Englishman. — ^Art thou a Greek 7 
— No, I am a Spaniard. 

Are these men Germans 7 — ^No, they are Russians.^ — Do the Rus- 
sians speak Polish 7 — They do not speak PoUsh, but Latin, Greek, and 
Arabic. — ^Is your brother a merchant 7 — No, he is a joiner. — ^Are these 
men merchants 7 — ^No, they are carpenters. — Are yon a cook 7 — ^No, I 
am a baker. — Are we tailors 7 — ^No, we are shoemakers. — ^Art thou a 
fool 7 — I am not a fool. — ^What is that man 7 — ^He is a physician. — Do 
you wish me any thing 7 — I wish you a good morning. — ^Has the Ger- 
man black eyes 7 — ^No, he has blue eyes.— Has that man large feet 7 — 
He has little feet, a large forehead, and a large nose. — ^Have you time 
to read my book 7 — ^I have no time to read it, but much courage to 
(jfora) study Spanish. — What dost thou do instead of playing 7 — ^I study 
instead of playing. — ^Dost thou learn instead of writing ? — ^I write in- 
stead of learning.— What does the son of our friend do 7 — ^He goes 
into the garden instead of doing his exercise. — ^Do the children of our 
neighbors read 7 — ^They write instead of reading. — What does our 
cook ? — ^He makes a fire instead of going to the market. — Does your 
father sell his ox 7 — ^He sells his horse instead of selling his ox. 



Does the Bon of the painter study English ? — ^He studies Greek in- 
Btead of studying English. — ^Does the butcher kill oxen ? — ^He kUla 
sheep instead of killing oxen. — ^Do you listen to me ? — ^I do listen to 
]ron. — ^Does your brother listen to me ? — ^He speaks instead of listening 
to you. — ^Do you listen to what I am telling you ? — ^I do listen to what 
yon are telling me. — ^Dost thou listen to what thy brother tells thee? — 
I do listen to it. — ^Do the children of the physician listen to what we 
tell them 7— They do not listen to it. — ^Do you go to the ttieatre ? — ^I 
am going to the warehouse instead of gcnng to the theatre. — ^Are yon 
willing to read my book ? — ^I am willing to read it, but I cannot ; I 
have sore eyes. — Does your father correct my exercises, or those of 
my brother ? — ^He corrects neither yours nor your brother's. — ^Which 
exercises does he correct ? — He corrects mine. — ^Do you take off your 
hat in order to speak to my father ? — ^I do take it off in order to speak 
to him. — ^Do you take off your shoes 7 — I do not take them off. — Who 
takes off his hat 7 — ^My friend takes it off. — ^Does he take off his gloves 7 
— He does not take them off. — ^What do these boys take off 7 — ^They take 
off their shoes and their hats. — ^Who takes away the glasses 7 — Yonr 
servant takes them away. — Do you give me English or (jerman paper 7 
— ^I give you neither English (repeat papeT) nor German paper ; I 
give you French paper. — ^Do you read Spanish 7 — ^I do not read Spanish, 
but German. — ^What book is your brother reading 7 — ^He is reading a 
Spanish book. — ^Do you drink tea or coffee in the morning 7 — ^I drink 
tea. — ^Do you drink tea every morning 7 — ^I do drink some every morn- 
ing. — ^What do you drink 7 — ^I drink coffee. — ^What does your brother 
drink 7 — He drinks chocolate. — ^Does he drink some (fc) every day 7 — 
He drinks some (le) every morning. — ^Do your children drink tea ? — 
They drink coffee instead of drinking tea. — ^What do we drink 7 — We 
drink tea or co£^. 

TWENTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— .Xccct<?n Vigesima septima. 

To wet, to moisten. | Mojar I. Humedeeer^^ 

_ , ( Moetrar * 1. Eneenar 1.* 

To ehouj, < WW 

^ Haeer ver, 

I show you my book. I Yo muestio (ensefio) mi libro i Y. 

You show them to me. | V. me los muestra, (me Um ensefia.) 

' See veibs in ear, cer, Slc., in the Appendix. 
* Seo the verb Aeordar, in the Appendix. 



To Aaw to aome 000. 

Same mu. 

Do ytm Aow mo your gun 7 

I do riiow it to yon. 

What do yoa show tho man? 

I ihow him my fine clothML 


To Bxnoke. 
The gardener. 
The valet 
Tlie concert 


Mofltrar i olguno. Enseiiar i «/• 

Alguno, (indefinite pranoon.) 
I Memneitra (or enieila) Y.safaiQ? 
SeleenMfioiV. (Sole maestro iV.) 
^Qu^ eneefia (or que mneskra) V. al 

Yo le mneekro ) mil hermom rei- 
Yo le enaefio ) tides. 


Tahaco de polvo. Sap& 

Fumar 1. 
£1 jaidinera 
£1 diado. 
El conciertow 

To inUnd. 

De yoa mtend to go to the ball this 

I mtend to go (there.) 

Intentar 1. Penmar • V 

I Fiensa V. ir al baile esta noche 7 

Yo pienso ir* 

To know. 

Do yoa know 7 
I know my Toibb 
What does he know7 

To swim* 
Do yon know how to swim 7 

Saher^fL (See this verb in i^) 

Yo 8^ mi Teibob 
i Que Babe ^7 

Nadar 1. 
t^SabeV. nadar7 

Oho, A. "When how does not express the manner, it is not traailated« 
•ad saber, to know, governs the infinitive withoat any prapoation. 

^SabeV. escriblr7 

Do yoa know how to write7 
Does he know how to read? 
To eonduet. 

I oondact him there. 
TVader, storekeeper. 

Condueir • 3.* 
Yo le condnzco allt 
Mercader, tendero. 

' See Alentar, in the Appendix. 

* See this verb, and the verbs ending m aeer, oeer, utftr* in the Ap- 





Do jtm oztinguiflfa the firo ? 
I do not extingukh it 
He ertingn'Mheo it. 
Tfaoa eztixunuriieBt it 

Apagarl. Extinguir^Z. (SeeAp* 
pendijc for yerfai in guirJ) 
I Apaga y. el fdego 7 
Yo no le apaga 
£l le apaga. 
Ta le apagaa 

To light, to kmdle. | Encender • 2. 


Do yon often go to the hall 7 
Am often as yoo. 
Am often as L 
Am often om he. 
Am often om they. 

Do yoa often aee my brother? 

Oftener than. 

him oftener than yon. 

Not 00 often. 
Not 00 often ao. 


A menudo, Freeuentemente. 

I Va y. frecnentemente al baile 7 
Tan frecaeutemente como V. 
Tan i. menudo como yo. 
Tan i menodo como €1. 
Tan i, menudo eomo ellos. 
iViY,^ menndo & mi hermano 7 
^y^ y. i mi hermano frecuenfte- 

Mao & menudo, 

Mao d menudo que, 

Yo le yeo moo d menudo que Y, 

No tan d menudo. 

No tan d menudo eomo. 

Obo, B, No \b separated from tan d menudo by the verb. 

I fpeak not so often as yon. 
Not so often as you. 
Not so often as I. 
Not so often as they. 

Inio, tn. 

Into, meaning to. 
To go into the garden. 

To go out. 

Yo no hablo tan & menudo como V. 
No tan & menudo como Y. 
No tan i, menndo como yo. 
No tan i menudo como ellos. 



Ir al jaidin. 


Salir * 3, or oaUr fuera, or a fuera, 
(See the verb SaUr, in the Ap- 




YAnut does your fiither want ?— He wants wae tobacoo* — WiH jaa 

go for aome ? — ^I will go for some.*— What tobacco does he want ? — 

He wants some snnfT. — ^Do yoa want tobacco^ (for smoking ?) — I do 

not want any ; I do not smoke, — ^Do yoa show me any thing 7 — ^I show 

yon gold rings. — ^Does your fiither ahow his gon to my brother 7 — He 

does show it him. — ^Does he show him his beantifnl birds 7 — ^He does 

stww them to him. — ^Does the Frenchman smoke? — He does not 

smoke. — ^Do yoa go to the ball 7 — I go to the theatre instead of going 

to the ball. — ^Does the gardener go into the .garden 7 — ^He goea to the 

market instead of goung into the garden. — ^Do yoa send yoor ^alet lo 

the tailor 7 — I send him to the shoemaker instead of sending hfan lo 

the tailor. — ^Does yoor brother intend to go to the ball this evening 7 — 

He does not intend to go to the ball, bat to the concert — When do yoa 

intend to go to the concert 7 — ^I intend to go there this eveoing. — At 

what o'clock 7 — ^At a qaarter past ten. — ^Do yoa go for my son 7 — ^I do 

go for him. — ^Where is he 7 — ^He is in the coonting-lioase. — Do you 

find the man whom yoa are looking for 7 — I do find him. — ^Do your 

sons find the fiiends whom they are looking for 7 — They do not find 


Do year friends intend to go to the theatre 7 — ^They do intend to go 
there. — ^When do they intend to go there 7 — ^They intend to go there 
to-morrow. — ^At what o'clock 7 — At half-past seven. — What does the 
merchant wish to sell you 7 — ^He wishes to sell me some cloth. — Do 
you intend to buy some 7 — I will not buy any. — ^Dost thoa know any 
thing 7 — ^I do not know any thing. — What does year little brother 
know 7 (tue the dimimaive,) — ^He knows how to read and to write. — Does 
he know Spanish 7— ^le does not know it — Do yoa know German 7 — 
I do know it — Do year brothers know Greek 7 — ^They do not know it, 
bat they intend to study it — ^Do you know English 7 — I do not know 
it, but intend to learn it — ^Do my children know how to read Italian 7 
— ^They know how to read, but not (pero no) how to speak it — Do you 
know how to swim 7 — ^I do not know how to swim, but how to pky. — 
Does your son know how to make coats 7 — ^He does not know how to 
make any, (los;) he is no tailor. — ^Is he a merchant 7 — ^He is not, (no lo 
es,) — ^Wbat is he 7 — ^He is a physician.— Do you intend to study Ara- 
bic 7 — ^I do intend to study Arabic and Syriac. — ^Does the Frenchman 
know Russian 7 — ^He does not know it ; but he intends learning it — 
Where are you going 7 — I am going into the garden in order to speak 
to my gardener. — ^Does he listen to yon 7 — ^He does listen to me. 



Do you wish to drink some tea ? — I wish to drink some wine ; have 
yon any ? — ^I have none, but I will send for it. — ^When will you send 
for it ?— Now. — ^Do you know how to make tea ? — ^I know how to 
make it — Where is your father going to ? — ^He is going nowhere ; he 
remains at home. — I>o yon know how to write a note 7 — I know how 
to write one. — Can yon write exercises ? — ^I can write some. — ^Dost 
thon conduct anybody ? — ^I condnct nobody. — ^Whom do you condnct ? 
— ^I conduct my son. — Where are you conducting him to ? — I conduct 
him to my friends.— -Does your servant conduct your child? — ^He 
conducts it — ^Where does he conduct it 7 — ^He conducts it into the 
garden.— Do we conduct any one? — We conduct our children. — 
Where are our friends conducting their sons ? — ^They are conducting 
them home. 

Do you extinguish the fire ? — ^I do not extinguish it — ^Does your 
servant light the fire 7 — He does light it, (la.) — ^Where does he light it 7 
— He lights it in your warehouse. — ^Do you often go to the Spaniard ? 
— ^I go often to him. — ^Do you go oftener to him than I ? — ^I do go 
oftener to him than you. — ^Do the Spaniards often come to you 7 — 
They do come often to me. — ^Do your children oftener go to die ball 
than we 7 — ^They do go there oftener than you. — Do we go out as 
ofted as our neighbors ? — We do go out oftener than they. — ^Does your 
servant go to the market as often as my cook 7 — ^He does go there as 
often as he. — ^Do you see my father as often as 1 7 — ^I do not see him 
as often as you. — ^When do you see him 7 — ^I see him every morning 
at a quarter to five. 

TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— Leocton YigMfna octavo. 

It mmt be remembered that an interrogative sentence, in Spanish, de- 
pends rather on emphasis, than on its grammatical coustmction. Hence, 
an inverted interrogation is placed at the beginning of such sentences, 
as a gaide to the reader in the modulation of his voice. The pronoun 
subject, therefore, may or may . not be expressed, in confonnity with 
the degree of emphasis that the writer may lay on it — ^The English 
auxiliary verbs <fo, doM, did — am, U, are, serve only to point out the per- 
son and tense, by which the principal verb must be expresMd ; but they aio 
not translated. 

Do I wish 7 
Can I? Amiable? 

I Quiero 7 i Quiero yo? 

(Pnedo? ^Paedoyo? 

I Hago 7 I Estoy haciendo 7 

What am I dobs? 
What do I say? 

"Wbere am I goias ^^ 
To whom do I ipeak ? 
When do yoa go ? 
Whore dooB ho go? 



f QueoitoyhaciMdnl 


2 A dondavoif 1 

^JL 4|nioii haliloT 





It wiD he aeen from the last two 
tlie fiiat would lead to ambiguity. 

that Hm 


When do M nnd m Englidi with a 
to ttte aaotence, the pnnoim aofaject dioiild he 

to pWB 

I>oea he apeak to yon ? 

Yea, he doea qieak to me. 

Do yon drink cider? 

I do drink dder, but my bnther 

Do yon receive a note OTory day? 
Tea, I da zeceiTe one. 


Do I begin to qieak Spankh 7 
Ton begin to apeak it 
When do yon begin ? 
I begin now. 


Si, a me haUa. 

iBebe V.aidn? 

Yo bebo adray pen an 

Sidra, (feminine.) . 

^Becibe v. un biOeta todoa ka 

Si, yo lecibo nno. 
cComtnxm'*!. (See.dZnifar,i 
^ Bmpezar * 1. Appendti. 

( Prineipiar 1. 

I Comienzo i habiar eqiaiEol? 
y. cotmema 4 hafalaile. 
^Cnando empiesa y.? 
Bmpieao ahora* 



Do yon apeak before yon listen ? 
I firten before I apeak. 
Doea be go to market before he 

To brealfatt 


The breakfaat 
Does he go there before he writea? 
He goea there before breakfast 
00 yon take off your pantaloons be- 
Igie yon take off yotir dioea 7 

Antee de. 

1 1 Habia y. intea de eacnchar ? 
t (To) eacncho inlea de habiar. 
t i ya al mercado (i la plaxa) intaa 
de almorzar? 

iiif?ior;rar * 1. (See Aeordar, in the 

Deoayunaroe, (reflective verbi) 
El desayima El almneno. 
^ t ya all4 Antes de escrilMr 7 
ya alli intee del almnexio. 
I Se qnita y. loo pantalonea <atea da 
qnitarae los zapatoa? 

Tn A..- r# f^M^^^fi Mareharoe 1, (reflectiw verk) 
To depart, to set out. ^ ^^^ . 3 p^^^ 3 



When do ymi intand to depart? 
I intend to depart to-monow. 


^Coando piensa V. aattry ( 

Fienao salir maflana. 

BieUf (adveib.) 
Malf (adTeib.) 

O&t. When an adyezb modifiea a veib, it is generally placed after 
the Teib ; when it modifiea an aiQectiTe or another adverb, it is generally 
placed before. 

Doeaheqieak well? 
He Bpeaka badly. 
Do you apeak Spanish well? 
I speak Spanish well. 

Too much. 
The tame, 

Jutt at muelL 
Ju»t the some. 


Habla mal. 

I Habla Y . bien el espanol ? 

Yo hablo bien le espafioL 

IDemaaiadoy (adverb.) ' 

Lo miemo, (adverb.) 

) Jtutamente lo miemo, (adv- ezpresa.) 
) Cabalmente lo miemo. 


Do I read well ?— ^You da read well. — ^Do I speak well ? — ^Yon do not 
speak well. — ^Does my brother speak Spanish well ? — He does speak it 
well. — ^Does he speak German well ? — He speaks it badly. — ^Do we 
speak well ? — You speak badly. — Do I drink too much ? — ^Yon do not 
drink enough. — ^Am I able to make hats ? — ^Yon are not able to make 
any ; you are not a hatter. — Am I able to write a note ? — ^You are able 
to write one. — Am I doing my exercise well 7 — ^You are doing it well. 
— ^What am I doing ? — ^You are doing exercises. — What is my brother 
doing 7 — ^He is doing nothing. — ^What do I say 7 — You say nothing. — 
Do I begin to speak 7 — ^Yon do begin to speak. — ^Do I begin to speak 
well 7 — ^You do not begin to speak well, but to read well. — ^Where am 
I going to 7 — ^You are going to your friend. — ^Is he at home 7 — ^Do I 
know, (2a ?) — ^Am I able to speak as often as the son of our neighbor 7 
^He is able to speak ofiener than you. — Can I work as much as he 7 
— You cannot work as much as he. — ^Do I read as often as you 7 — ^You 
do not read as often as I, but you speak oftener than I. — ^Do I speak as 
well as you 7 — ^You do not speak as well as I. — Do I go to you, or do 
you come to me 7 — ^You come to me, and I go to you. — ^When do you 
come to me 7 — ^Every morning at half-past six. 



Do yoQ know the Rusaiaii whom I know ? — ^I do not know the one 
joa know, but I know another. — ^Do you drink as much coffee as wine 7 
— I drink leaa of the ktter than of the former. — Does the Pole ^rinkaa 
much as the Ruaaian 7 — He drinks just as much. — Do the Germans 
drink as much as the Poles ? — ^The latter drink more than the former. 
—Dost thou receiye any thing 7 — ^I do receive something. — ^What dost 
thou receive 7 — ^I receive some money .-—Does your friend receive books ? 
— He does receive some. — What do we receive 7 — ^We receive some 
wine. — ^Do the Poles receive tobacco 7 — They do receive some.— 
From whom do the Spaniards receive money 7 — ^They receive some 
from the English, and from the French.^ — ^Do you receive as many 
friends as enemies 7 — ^I receive fewer of the latter than of the former. 
— ^From whom do your children receive books 7 — They receive some 
from me and from their friends. — ^Do I receive as much cheese as 
bread 7 — ^You receive more of the latter than of the former.r»Do our 
servants receive as many brooms as coats 7 — They receive fewer of 
the latter than of the former, — ^Do you receive one more gun 7 — ^I do 
receive ooe more. — ^How many more books does our neighbor receive? 
— He receives three more. 

When does the foreigner intend to depart 7 — ^He intends to depart 
to-day. — ^At what o'clock 7 — ^At half-past one.— Do -you intend to de- 
part this evening 7 — ^I intend to deput to^norrow. — Does the French- 
man depart to^y 7 — ^He departs now. — Where is he going to 7 — ^He U 
going to his friends. — ^Is he going to the English 7 — ^He is going to 
them. — Dost thou set out to-morrow 7—1 set out this evening. — When 
do you intend to write to your friends 7 — ^I intend to write to them to- 
day. — Do your friends answer you 7 — ^They do answer me. — ^Does your 
&ther answer your note 7 — ^He answers it — ^Do you ahswer my bro- 
thers' notes 7 — ^I do answer them. — Does your brother begin to learr 
Italian 7 — ^He begins to learn it — Can you speak Spanish 7 — ^I can 
speak it a little. — ^Do our friends begin to speak German 7 — ^They do 
begin to speak it — ^Are they able to write it? — ^They are able to write 
it — ^Does the merchant begin to sell 7 — ^He does begin. — Do you speak 
before you listen 7 — ^I listen before I speak. — Does your brother listoii 
to you before he speaks 7 — ^He speaks before he listens to me. — D<^ 
your children read before they write 7 — ^They write before they read. 

Does your servant sweep the warehouse before he goes to the mar- 
ket 7 — ^He goes to the market before he sweeps the warehouse. — ^Doyt 
thou diink before thou gocst ont ? — 1 go out before I drink. — ^Do you 



intend to go out before you break&st ? — ^I intend to breakftist before 1 
go oat.— Does yoor eon take off his shoes before he takes off his coat 7 
— 4Ie neither takes off his shoes nor his coat — Do I take off my 
gloves before I take off my hat f— Yon take off yonr hat before yon 
take off your gloves.— Can I take off my shoes before I take off my 
gloves t — ^Yon cannot take off yoor shoes before you take off your 
gloves. — ^At vdut o'clock do yon break&st ? — ^I breakfast at half^iast 
eight. — ^Atvdut o'clock does the American break&st? — ^He breakfasts 
eveiy day at nine o'clock.— At what o'clock do your children break&st ? 
— ^They breakfast at seven o'clock. — Do yon go to my father before 
yon breakftst?— I do go to him before I breakfast 

TWENTY-NINTH LESSON.— Leccion VigiMima nana. 
A flVLL Tablb or tbi OniirAawntf or Nooni, Vbui, AnnonviB, aud 

Asmneh— M. 

As many' 


Fewer— fAaii. 
Not so nmoh"- 

Not so many 
More— tAan. 



K Tanto co m o. 
( Tanta — eomo. 
i Tantos eomo, 
( Tantaa cwwo. 

V No— m^ngs—qoe. 


vM 4 i i os gufc 


I Mas— ^ue. 

Oht, A. More tk0n-4em than, in Spanish, when followed by a nomeral 
adjectiTe, change giM into de. Example : — 

More than one, twa 
horn than three, four. 

I have at much money at yoo. 
Yon hsTe ob many friends ae I. 
He has no leoo bread than ham. 
We have feat money than he. 

Mas de nno, de don 
MAios de trea, de cnatioi 

Tengo tanto dinero eomo Y. 
y. tiene tantoe amigoi como yo. 
No tiene minoe pan fue jamon. 
Tenemoa m^tioa dinero fue 6L 

rvrXNTT-lONTH I.B880H. 


Th«7 luiT» not «o many booki at f No tieiiMi tantos lihros como W. 

I have more tea than eofiee. 
Yoo have more than ten doUan. 
He has ten than four oenti; 
More than Gve yean. 
Lesa than twenty yean. 

Tengo moo t^ ^ne caf($. 

V. tiene moo <{e dies 

Tiene minot de cuatro caartot. 

Ma$ de cinoo afios. 

M6na9 de veinte afion 

Am nmch at. 
Ne t le m tiban. 

Notr-as much a«. 

Sftore taiin. 



I Tanto oomo. Tonfo ouanlo. 
I No-Hn^noa que. 


M6noB que. 
No — tanto eomo, 


I Mas que. 


Jfa#. \ 


Much, Very nnteh. 

Yon ipeak ae much a» L 
He does not aptak Uee than yon. 
They drink Uoa than we. 
He doeo not qieak ae much aa they. 
I nad more than yon. 
This is the book, that I moat like. 
He ie the man that I least esteem. 
He atudiea very much. 

Mueho. Muehiaimo. 

y. haUa tanto eomo ya 

£l no habia menoe f ue V. 

Beben menoa que noeotros. 

No habla tanto eomo ellos. 

Yo leo maa que V. 

Este es el libro que maa me gusta. 

£l es el hombre que m^nos estima 

itl estndia mueAiftmo. 


Not If 




Tan — eomoi 
No— m^noa— jne. 


M^nos — que. 
No— tan— como. 


Hon (or the tennfaiation er) — ^than. | Ma»— ^iie. 







Very, ) with a put 

Very mmek, \ participle. 

( Bien. 

I Infioitamente. 

> Muy, 


OU B. The SaperiatiTo AhwJuto is atoo fanned by adding the foUowing 
terminations to the powtire, vii. Uimo, Uima, for adjectivee ; ieimamente for 
adverfaa. In forming the Soperiatiye Aboolute, adjectivea ending m a, e, 
and 0, loMi these l«^tteiB ; and thoMi ending in hU, eo, and go, change these 
■yUablea into K/, fm and ^ Ejamplee :— Hermosa, hermosSaiinn ; atto, 
altfaamo; prodent*, ptDdentWmo; amaile, amabiKsinio ; riw, riqniaimo ; 
lar^, largniaimo. Exam|)*eaofadTerta:--hermosisimamente,alti«inamente, 
pmdentfainiamente, amabilisimamente, &c. 


. ^ -*N S El maa— la maa. "I 

The moat, (or the tarmmatian e<f .) J Loo nja»_4as maa. I For 

J El m^noa— la m^nos. | adjectiTea. 
T»»« ^"^ \ Lpa nrfnoa-laa m^noo. J 

Themoat | Lo maa. jp^j^^erba. 

The least 

Von are as good as he. 

Yon are not Uto rich than L 

We are leas pmdent than they. 

He is not so good at yon* 

Yon are richer than we. 

Yon speak as correctly as I. 

Yon speak not iess correctly than I. 

He is very ^ 

He is extremely /prudent 

He is infinitely 3 

Yon read very elegantly. 

I have the Anfidsomett 
He is the least prudent 
The most foolishly. 
The least prudently 
The more — the more. 
The leas— the leas. 
The more — ^the leas. 
The le i t he more. 


y. ea tan bueno como ^1. 
y. no es mifuts rico que yo. 
SomoB minos prudentea que elloa. 
tlXnotatan bueno eomo Y, 
y . es mas rico pte noaotroa. 
y. habla tan correctamente eomo yo. 
y. no habla m^noa correctamente 
que yo. 

C muy ^ 

£l es^ eztremamente >pnidente. 
f infinitamente ) 

k.£l ea prudentimmo. 
y. leemwyelogantemente— ele^aart- 

Yo tengo el mas hermoso. 
£s el minos prudente. 
Lo mas Imprudentemente. 
Lo meru>s prudentemente. 
Cuanto mas — ^tanto maa. 
Cuanto m^noe — tanto m^noa. 
Cuanto mas — tanto m^noa. 
Cuanto m^noa— tanto maa. 


The wan ho 


he ObbI» 




The k 

he drinkB, the Ism tiiinty . Coaato 
he piajB, tbm 
he playsy the 

So mueh the 

ham he CnaBto 
man he Coaiita 




Good — better — ^erj good — beet. 

Strang — ^rery ^tnog. 
New— ^Tcry new. 
Wiee — rery wise. 
Sacied — ^rery sacred. 
Faithful— very faithful. 
Heoeet— rery boneaL 
Healthy — very healthy. 

WeO^-better— the beat 

Bloch — more— the meat. 

Mai — peoF — lopeor. 

'Hiia book ia amall, that is amaUer, £ste libro ea pequefio, eae a 
and that is the smallest of aU- peqaeno, y aqoel ea el aa 

qneno de todosi 

AIL ! Toda. TodoB, (ad).) 

Thk hat is large, but that is larger. : E2ite sombrero ea grande, pero 

U your hat as large as mine 7 

U it larger than yours? 
It is not so large as yours. 

i £s BO sombfero de V. tan gfaade 

oomo elmio? 
I Ea mas grande que el de Y 7 
No es tan grande como el do Y. 



Are oar neigfabar's children as good 

as oun? 
Tliey are better than ooxb. 
They are not so good as oiub. 

I Sou loi niftos de nnestro Teeino tan 

baenoa como loa nueatroa 7 
Son mejoree que loa nueatroa. 
No Bon tan bnenaa como loa nneatroa. 

A very fine book. 

Very fine booka. 

A Tory pretty knife. 
Very weU, 

That man ia extremely learned. 
Thia bud ia Tory handaome. 


Un libra may hermoao, or hermoaui- 

libroa may hermoaoa, or hermoaiin- 

Un cnchillo moy bonito. 

Muy hien. 

Aquel hombre ea eztremamente aabio, 

or aapientiaimo. 
Elate p&jaro ea may hermoaoi or her- 



iDe quien? (Cuyo, euya — euyot, 

I De quien ea eate aombrero? 
Cayo aombrero ea eate 7 
Cuyo ea eate aombrera 7 

Ob$. C. Cuyo agieea in gender and number with the noon that cornea 
after it. 

To be, (meaning belonging to*) I Ser de. 


It ia my brother'a hat 
It ia the hat of my brother. 
It ia my brother^e. 
Who haa the fineat hat 7 

Whoae hat ia the fineat 7 
That of my father ia the fineat 
Whoae gun ia the handaomeri yoan 
or mine 7 

I Ea— Hie. (See Ser, 'm the Appendix.) 

> Ea el aombrero de mi hermana 

t Ea de mi hermano. 

I Quien tiene el maa hermoao aom- 

I Cuyo aombrero ea el maa hennoBo? 
£1 do mi padre ea el maa hermoao. 
I Que f unl ea el maa hermoao, el de 

V. 6elmio7 

Do you read aa often aa 1 7 
I read aa often aa you. 
Doea he read aa often aa 17 
He reada and writea aa often 


Do our children write aa much aa 

They write more than you. 
We read more than the children of 


I Lee y. tan d menudo como yo 7 
Leo tan i menudo como Y. ^ 
I Lee ^1 tan i, menudo como yo 7 
£1 lee y eacribe tan i menudo como 

I Eacriben nueatroa niiioa tanto como 

Eacriben maa que W. 
Leemoa maa qae loa nifioa da nnea- 
troa amigoa. 


To utea do ya« write T ' 
I wiito to our friflndu] 
We read sood bookfc 

i A 4|aMa Mcribo y . ? 
Eiciibo i nOMtroB amifOi. 
Iioamoi boMUMjihioiL 

Whose book b this?— It is mine.— Whose hat is that ?— It is my 
frther's. — Are yon taller (nuis alto) than I ? — ^I am taller than yon. — 
Is yoor brother as tall as you 7— ;He is as tall as I. — ^Is thy hat as bad 
as that of my father ? — ^h is better, but not so black as Ids. — Are the 
clothes (yeMtidos) of the Italians as fine as those of the Irish ? — ^They 
are finer, but not so good.^— Who have the finest gloves 7 — ^The French 
have them. — ^Who has the finest horses 7 — ^Mine are fine, yours are 
finer than mine ; bnt those of oar friends are the finest of all. — ^Is your 
horse good 7 — It is good, bnt yonre is bettor, and that of the EngUsh- 
man is the best of all the horses which we know. — ^Have yon pretty 
shoes 7 — I have very pretty ones, (2os,) bnt my brother has prettier ones 
Qos) than I. — ^From whom (de quien) does he receive them? — He 
receives them fix>m (de) his best friend. 

Is your wine as good as mine ? — It is better. — Does yonr merchant 
sell good knives 7 — ^He sells the best knives that I know, (ponocer.) — 
Do we read more books than the French 7 — ^We read more of them 
than they ; bnt the English read more of them than we, and the Ger- 
mans read the most — Hast thou a finer garden than that of our 
physician? — I have one finer than his. — ^Has the American a finer 
stick than thine ? — ^He has a finer one. — Have we as fine children as 
our nei^ibors ? — ^We have finer ones. — ^Is your coat as pretty as mine 7 
— ^It is not so pretty, but better than yours. — Do yon depart to^iay 7 — 
I do not depart to-day. — When does your ftther set out 7 — He sets out 
this evening at a quarter to nine. — ^Which of these two children is the 
better, (sabio 1) — ^The one who studies is better than the one who plays. 
— ^Does your servant sweep as well as mine 7 — ^He sweeps better than 
yours. — ^Does the Englishman read as many bad booki as good ones 7 
— He reads more of the good than of the bad ones. 

Do the merehants sell more sugar than coffee 7 — They sell more of 
the latter than of the former. — ^Does your shoemaker make as many 
shoes as mine 7 — ^He makes more of them than yours. — Can you swim 
is well (ion bien) as my son 7 — I can swim better than he, but he can 
Ipeak Spanish better than I. — ^Does he read as wel> as you 7 — ^He 
leads b^ter than I^^-Does the son of yonr neighbor go to market 7— - 




No, he lemaixis at home; he has sore feet— Do you learn as well aa 
our gardener's son ?— I leam better than he, but he works better than 
I.— .Whose gun is the finest ?— Yours is very fine, but that of the 
captain is still finer, and ours is the finest of all.— Has any one finer 
children than you ?— No one (themy has finer ones.— Does your son 
read as often as 1 7— He reads oftener than you.— ^Does my brother 
speak French as often as you ?— He speaks and reads it as often as I. 
»-Do I write as much as you ? — ^You write more than I. — Do our 
neighbor's children read German as often as we ?— ^We do not read it 
as often as they. — ^Do we write it as often as they?— They write 
oftener than we.— To whom do they write ?— They write to thwr 
friends.— Do you read English books ?— We read French books instead 
of reading English books. 

THIRTIETH LESSON.— Leccton Trigisima. 

To helieve. 
To put. 

To put on. 

Do yon put on 7 

I put on. 

I put on my hat 

He put! on hit gioveai 

Do you put on your shoes ? 

We do put them on. 

What do your brothers put on 7 

They put on their clothes. 

Where do you conduct me to 7 

I conduct you to my father. 

Do you go out 7 
I do go oat. 
Do we go out 7 
When does your father go out 7 


As early as you. 
He goes out ns early as you. 

Creer 2. (See verbs in eer, in (he 

Poner*2. (See this verb in the 

Mpteree. (Reflective verb.) 

t^Sepone V.7 

t Me pongo. 

t Me pongo el sombrero 

t Se pone loa guantes. 

t [ Se pone V. los zapatos? 

t Nos los ponemos. 

1 1 Que se ponen bus hennanos de V. 7 

t Se ponen los vestidos. 
I I A doude me conduce V. 7 
i Yo conduzco 1 V. i casa de mi padre. 
f Yo le conduzco i casa de mi padre. 

i Sale V. 7 

Yo salgo. 

I Salimos 7 

I Cuando sale su padi« de V. 7 


Tan temprano como V. 

£l sale tan temprano como Y. 


nam, to be tFUMbted 2of tieiia. 


Too late. 
Too soon, too eaily. 
Too large, too great QnmLe.) 
Too little, too small. 

Demaaiado taide. 
Demaaiado temprano. 
Demasindo laigo, or grsode. 
Demasado peqoefto, or 

Too much. 

Do yoQ speak too mach 7 

I do not speak enoagfa. 

Later than you. 
I go oat later than yon. 

I Demanado, demasiadamente. 

tHaUa v. d 

mente ? 
Yo no hablo bastante. 
Mao tarde que V. 
Salgo Inas tarde que V 

Sooner, earlier. 

Does your father go there eaitier 

He goes there loo eariy. 

Do yon apeak already? 

Not yet 

I do not speak yet 

Not yet. Sir. 

Do yon finish your lyrta 7 


I do not finish it yet 

Do yon breaktast afaeady 7 

Mae temprano. 

^ Va sa padre de V. alii mas tem* 

prano que yo 7 
£1 YtL alU. demaaiado tempranou 
Ya, todavia, aun. 
tHaUa V. aan7 
No (▼) todavia, 
Todavia no. 
Aun no. 

No hablo todavia. 
Todavia no, sefior. 
I Acaba V. sa billete 7 
No le acabo todavia. 
Ann no le acaba 
^ Alznuerza V. ya7 
Elsti V. ya almorzando7 

Who receives the most mcmey? 
Hie English receive the most 
We read more than they, bat the 
French read the most 

The letter. 

That letter. 

The letters. 

I Qoien recibe mas dinero? 
Los Ingieses son los qae redben mas. 
Leemos mas qae elloa, pero los Fran- 
ceses son los qoe leen mas. 
La carta, (feminine.) 
Aqaella (or esa) carta. 
Las cartas. 

_ , . , S Comer demaaiado es peligroso. 

To eat too much » daiigeKnn \ bi omtr i»m»6»ao m vt^^oK^ 

Oho. There is no preposition before an infinitive when it is nsed as 
tbe subject of a verb ; it b then taken sobstantively, and in Spaniah is fie- 
qnently preceded by the article el, (the,) a»— 

116 T HJm r UH f H LB880K." 

T u* fi-rL 5^1 haWar demaaiado ea muy neeio. 

7oqH»ktoomiu^aiibolidL ^ E. muy necio hablai- demaiada 

To do good to thoaa that hare ofland- I Haeer (or el haeer) bien k Vm que noa 
ed UB, ii a oommendable action. han ofendido ea ana aodon laudable 


Do you put on another coat in order to go to the play ? — ^I do pat on 
another. — Bo you put on your gloves before you put on your shoes ? — 
I put on my shoes before I put on roy gloves. — ^Does your brother put 
on his hat instead of putting on his coat ? — ^He puts on his coat before 
he puts on his hat. — ^Do our children put on their shoes in order to go 
to our friends 7 — ^They put them on in order to go to them. — ^What do 
our sons put on ? — ^They put on their clothes and their gloves. — ^Do 
you already speak Spanish ? — ^I do not speak it yet, but I begin to 
learn. — ^Does your father go out already ? — ^He does not yet go out.— > 
At what o'clock does he go out ? — ^He goes out at ten o'clock. — Does 
he breakfast before he goes out ? — ^He breakfasts and writes his notes 
Qa carta) before he goes out. — ^Does he go out earlier than you ? — ^I go 
out earlier than he. — Do you go to the play as often as I ? — I go there 
as often as you. — ^Do you begin to know {canocer) this man 7 — ^I do 
begin to know him. — ^Do you break&st early 7 — ^We do not breakfast 
late. — ^Does the Englishman go to the concert earlier than you 7 — ^He 
goes there later than I. — ^At what o'clock does he go there 7 — ^He goes 
there at half-past eleven. 


Do you not go too early to the concert 7 — I go there too late. — Do I 
write too much 7 — You do not write too much, but you speak too much. 
— ^Do I speak more than you 7 — ^You do speak more than I and my 
brother. — Is my hat too large 7 — ^It is neither too large nor too small. — 
Do you speak Spanish oftener than English 7 — ^I speak English oftener 
than Spanish. — ^Do your friends buy too much com 7 — ^They buy but 
little. — ^Have you bread enough 7—1 have only a little, but enough.— 
Is it late 7— It is not late. — ^What o'clock is it 7 — It is one o'clock. — 
Is it too late to {jpara) go to your fiither 7— It is not too late to go to 
' him.— Do you conduct me to him, {aOd ?) — ^I do conduct you to him, 
(aUd.) — ^Where is he 7 — ^He is in his counting-house^ — ^Does the 
Spaniard buy a horse 7 — ^He cannot buy one. — ^Is he poor 7 — He is not 
poor ; he is richer than you. — Is your brother as learned as you 7 — 
He is more learned than I, but you are more learned than he and I. 

Do you know that man 7 — ^I do know him. — Ib he learned 7 — He is 
(ef ) the moat learned of all men that I know. — Is your horse worse 


(pnee&ig Lesson) than mine ? — ^It is not so bod as jooia. — lis mine 
worse than the Spaniard's 7 — ^It is worse ; it is the worst iiorae tliat I 
know. — Do you give those men less bread than cheese ? — ^I gire than 
less of the latter than of the former. — ^Do you receive as much money 
as yonr neighbors.— I receive much more than they.— Who receives 
the most money?— The English receive the most— Can your soo 
already write a letter ? — He cannot write one yet, but he begins to read 
a little. — Bo yon read as much as the Russians ? — We read more than 
they, bat the French read the most — ^Do the Americans write more 
than we 7— They write less than we, bat the Italians write the least, 
(preceding Lesson.) — ^Are they as rich as the Americans 7 — ^They are 
leas rich than they. — ^Are yoar birds as fine as those of the Irish 7— 
They are less fine than theirs, but those of the Spaniards are the least 
fine. — Do yoa sell your bird 7 — ^I do not sell it ; I like it too mach to 
sell it, (para que U vendaJ) 

THIRTY-FIRST LESSON.— Lecctbii TrigeMtma pnmera. 


Hie past participle ii fonned from the infinitive mood, by changing the 
lenninalions or, er, tr, into ado, ido, tdo.— (See Lenon XXIV.) 



To lore. 








To buy. 




To sen, 




To eat, to dine. 

eaten, dined. 



To drink, 





To receive, 




To divide. 




To part. 




To be. 

*««• ^Ertar, 


To have, * 

had, (auxiliary.) 



I have, thoa hast, he has. 

Yo he, td has, €1 ha. 

We have, you have, they have. 

NoBOtroa hemoa, vowCns habeii, eOos 





Obff. When to hme is used as an active Terb, it a translated liy 
TuER ; but when H is an anxiliary verb, that is to say, a verb used to fonn 
the compound tenses of other verbs, it must be translated by Habbr. 

When the past participle follows immediately after the verb kaber, it is 
invariable ; that is to say, it neither takes the gender nor the number of the 

TV. »«.e 6e«n to. (g<»i6 to.) > ^^j^ y^ ^ 
To have gone to. y 

To have gone to. 
To have been at 
To have gone at. 
To have been in. 
Have you been to market ? 
Did you go to market ? 
I have been. 
I went 

I have not been. 
I did not go. 
1 have esteemed them. 
He has esteemed her. 
They have been esteemed. 
The sisters have been admired. 


Have you been at the ball T 

Have yon ever been at the ball T 

I have never been. 


Thou hast never been there. 
He has never been there. 
You have never been there. 

Haber ido d. Haber estado en. 

Haber ido a. 

Haber estado en. 

I Ha ido V. al mercado? 

I T\ii V. i la plaza f 

Yo he id& 

Yo fui. 

Yo no he id& 

Yo no fuf. 

Yo los he eetimado. 

1^1 la ha es^tmado. 

EUos ban sido estimados. 

Las hermanas ban Hdo admiradas. 

( Jamas. Alguna vez. 
\ En tdgun tiempo. 
No— jamas. Nunca. Nuneajamaa. 

I Ha estado V. en el baile ? 
I Ha ido V. al baile ? 
I Ha estado V. alguna vez en el baile? 
I Ha ido V. alguna vez al baile 7 
Nunca he estado. Jamas he ido. 
Nunca (jamas) has ido a]14. 
Nunca (jamas) ha ido all4. 
V. no ha ido jamas allA. 

Already f yet. 

Have you already been 

I have already been. 

Not yet. 
1 have not yet been there. 
Hast thou ever been there T 

He has not yet been thexe. 

I Ya. 

at the 4 i Ha estado V. ya en el tcatro? 

\ |,Haido V.ya al toatio,(& la com6dia?) 
I Ya he ido. Ya he estado. 

Todavia no. No — todavia. Aun no. 

iYo no he ido (estado) alU todavia. 
Todavia no he ido (estado) alii. 
I Has ido (estado) tfl jamas (alguna 

vez) all&T 
£l no ha ido (estado) alU todavia. 



Ton IttTD not been fhme yet 
We hsre not yet been tbeie. 

V. no hft ido (Mtado) alii todsTW. 
Todavia no hemoe ido (eatado) alli. 

Have yon alzeadybeen at my fa- 
ther's 7 
I bare not been yet. 
I have already been. 

^ Ha ido (estado) V. ya i 

Todavia no he ido, (eatado.) 
Yaheido. YabeeaUdo. 


Where have yon been this mom- 5 tAdonde ha ertado (ido) V. eati 

I have been in the garden. 
Where has thy brother been? 
He has been in the warehoose. 
Has he been there as eariy as 17 

He has been there eailier than yon. 

) mafiana 7 
Yo he estado en el jaidin. 
i Adonde ha estado td hennano? 
£1 ha estado en el almacieii. 
^ Ha ido (estado) €i alii tan tempnno 

£1 ha ido (estado) alli mas tempnno 

que V. 


To remain, to etay. 
Do yon go anywhere 7 
I go nowhere now ; I stay at home. 

Do yon remain in the garden? 
Yes, I remain here. 

Alguna parte. Cualquiera parte. 
Ninguna parte. 
Quedaroe. Eetaroe. 

^ Va V. i algona parte 7 

Yo no Toy & ningona parte ahore ; 

me qnedo en casa. 
I Se qneda V. en el jaidin 7 
Si, me <iaedo aqnt 

Where have yon been 7 — ^I haye been to the market — JhtYe yon 
been to the ball 7 — ^I have been. — ^Have I been to the play 7 — ^Yon have 
been there. — Hast thou been there 7 — ^I have not been there. — ^Has yonr 
Mm ever been at the theatre 7 — ^He has never been. — ^Haat tfaon already 
been in my vrarehonse 7 — ^I have never been. — ^Do yon intend to (Obs. 
By Lesson XXI.) go there 7 — ^I do intend to go there. — When will yon 
go there 7 — ^I vdll go there to-monow. — ^At what o'clock 7 — ^At twelve 
o'clock. — ^Has your brother already been in my large garden 7 — ^He 
baa not yet been there. — ^Does he intend to see it 7 — ^He does intend to 
see it — ^When will he go there 7 — ^He will go there to^lay. — ^Does he 
intend to go to the ball this evening 7 — He does intend to go. — ^Hiave 
yon already been at the ball 7 — I have not yet been. — ^When do yon 
intend to go there 7 — ^I intend to go to-morrow. — ^Have yon already 
been in the Frenchman's garden 7 — ^I have not yet been in it — ^Have 
70a been in my warehouses 7 — ^I have been there. — When did yon go 


there 7 — ^I went this mornmg. — ^Have I been in your counting-house, of 
in that of your friend 7 — You have neither been in mine, nor in that of 
my friend, but in that of the Englishman. 

Has the Italian been in our warehouses, or in those of the Dutch 7 
— ^He has neither been in ours nor in those of the Dutch, but in those 
of the Germans. — ^Hast thou already been at the market 7 — ^I have not 
yet been, but I intend to (Obs. B, Lesson XXI.) go there. — ^Has our 
neighbor's son been there 7 — ^He has been there. — ^When has he been 
there 7 — ^He has been there to-day. — ^Does the son of our gardener in- 
tend to go to the market 7 — ^He does intend to go there. — ^What does 
he wish to buy there 7 — ^He wishes to buy some chickens, oxen, com, 
wine, and cheese.— Have you already been at my brother's house ? — 
I have already been there, (olid,) — ^Has your friend already been 
there 7 — ^He ha& not yet been there. — ^Have we already been at our 
friends' 7 — ^We nave not yet been there. — ^Have our friends ever been 
at our house 7 — They have never been. — ^Have you ever been at the 
theatre 7 — I have never been. — Have you a mind to write an exercise 7 
— ^I have a mind to write one. — To whom do you wish to write a letter 7 
•^I wish to write one to my son. — Has your fether already been at the 
concert 7 — ^He has not yet been, but he intends to go. — ^Does he intend 
to go there to-day 7 — ^He intends to go there to-morrow. — ^Atwhat 
o'clock will he set out 7 — ^He will set out at half-past six. — ^Does he 
intend to leave (salir) before he breakfasts 7 — ^He intends to fareakfiist 
before he leaves. 

Have you been to the play as early as 1 7 — I have been (there) earlier 
than you. — ^Have you often been at the concert 7 — ^I have often been 
(there.)— Has our neighbor been at the theatre as often as we 7— He 
has been (there) oflener than we« — ^Do our friends go to their counting- 
house too early 7 — ^They go there too late. — ^Do they go there as latfe 
as we 7 — ^They go there later than we. — ^Do the English go to their 
warehouses too early 7 — ^They go there too early. — Is your friend as 
often in the connting4iouse as you 7 — ^He is (there) ofiener than I. — 
What does he do there 7 — ^He writes. — ^Does he write as much as you ? 
— ^He writes more than I. — ^Where does your friend remain 7 — ^He re- 
mains in his connting*house.— Does he not go out 7 — He does not go 
out — Do you remain in the garden 7 — I do remain there. — ^Do you go 
10 your friend every day 7 — ^I do go to him every day. — ^When does he 
come to you 7 — ^He comes to me every evening. — ^Do you go anywhere 
in the evening 7 — ^I go nowhere ; I stay at home. — ^Do you send for 
any one 7 — ^I send for my phjrsician. — ^Does your servant go for any 



thiiig 7 — He goes for some wine. — ^Elave yon been anywhere this morn- 
ing ? — ^I have been nowhere. — Where has your &ther been ? — ^He has 
been nowhere. — When do you drink (Lesson XXVI.) tea 7 — ^I drink 
some (d) every morning. — ^Does yonr son drink coffee 7 — ^He drinks 
chocolate. — ^Have yon been to dzink some coitee 7 — I hare been to drink 

THIRTY-SECOND LESSON.— Lsccton Trigesima segunda. 

To have — had, (anxUiary } 
To have — had, (active.) 

Have you had my bocik ? 
I have not had it 
Have I had it? 
Ton have had it. 
Have I not had it ? 
Yon have not had it. 
Thou hast not had it 
He has had it 
He has not had it 
Hast thou had the coat 7 
I have not had it 

I have had them. 
I have not had them. 
Have I had them 7 
Yon have had them. 
Yon have not had them. 
Has he had them 7 
He has not had them. 
Have you had any bread 7 
I have had some, (a little.) 
I have not had any. 
Have yon had any 7 
Have I had any 7 
You have had some. 
You have not had any. 
Has he had any 7 
He has not had any. 

Have you had any knives7 
I have had some. 
I have not had any. 

Haber — habido, 

Tener — tenido. 

I Ha tenido V. mi llbio7 

No le he tenido. 

^ Le he tenido yo 7 

V. le ha tenida 

I No le he tenido yo 7 

V. no le ha tenida 

TH no le has tenida 

I Le ha tenido €i 7 

£l le ha tenida 

£l no le ha tenida 

I Hss tenido el vestido 7 

Yo no le he tenida 

Yo loB he tenida 
No loB he tenida 
I Los he tenido yo7 
V. loB ha tenida 
V. no los ha tenida 
I him ha tenido €1 7 
£l no los ha tenida 
I Ha tenido V. pan 7 
He tenido nn poca 
Yo no he tenido ningma 
I Ha tenido V. aIguno7 
I He tenido y o algnno 7 
V. ha tenido un pooa 
V. no ha tenido ninguna 
I Ha tenido €i un poco 7 
£l no ha tenido ninguna 

I Ha tenido V. algnnos cnduUosf 
He tenido algunos, 
Ningunos he tenida 




What has he had 7 
He has had nothing. 

I Que ha tenido €1 7 

No ha tenido nada. Nada ha tenklo 

Have yon been hungry T 
I have been aiiaid. 
He has never been either right or 

1 1 Ha tenido V. hambre ? 
t Yo he tenido miedo. 
t £1 nunca ha tenidoi ni ha dejado 
de tener razon. 

To take place* 

That, (meaning that thing.) 

Does the ball take place this eyen- 

It does take place. 

It takes place thie erening. 

,dpes not take ]4ace to-day. 

When did the ball take place T 
When has the ball taken pladej 


It took place yesterday. 

It has taken place yesterday. 

\ Yesterday. 
Tlieliay before yesterday. 

How nl^y times, (how often?) 
^ Once. 
\ Twice. 
Ma^y times. 
SeTOzal times. 

- Foimeily. 

Do y«ra go sometimes to the ball? 
I go sometimas. 

Teneree. Verifiearee. 
Celebraree. Daree, Haber. (Im- 

I Eeo. AqtieUo. 

1 2, Se celebra el baile esta noche? 

t ^ Se da el baile esta noche? 

1 1 Hay baile esta noche 7 
I t Se celebra. Se da le hoy. 
4 t Se celebra esta noche. 
^ Se da esta noche, &c. 

it No se celebra hoy. No se da hoy 
No le hay hoy. 

1 1 Cuando se celebr6 7 
1 1 Caando se di6 el baile 7 
1 1 Cuando se ha tenido baile 7 
1 1 Cuando ha habido baile 7 
t Se di6 ayer. 
Se celebr6 ayer. 
Se tovo ayer. 


Anteayer. Antier. 


Una Tea. 


Machas Teces. 

Yarias Teces. Algunas yeoes. 

Antlgnamente. En otro tiempow 
En tiempo pasado. En lo pasado. 
Antes de este .tiempo. 
I Algunas yeces. 

I Ya Y. algunas yeces al bails T 
Yoy algunas yeces. 




Gooe there. 
Have yoa gome there ■ometimee ? 
I hftye gone theze often. 
Ofteuer than yon. 

Have yon not had 7 

Haye they not had any bread T 

Have the men had my trunk 7 

They have not had it 
Who has had it 7 
Have they had my knivee? 
Have they not had them 7 
They have not had them 
Who haa had them 7 

Hare I been wrong in baying books 7 
Yoo have not been wrong in baying 

When had I it, (when have I had 

it 7) 
Where had you them? (have you 

Have you had any thing 7 
I have had nothing. 

The watch. 


Ido— alii. 

I Ha ido V. alii algunas voces? 
He ido allA 4 menodo. 
Mas i menudo que V. 

^Noha tenido V.? 

I No ban ellos tenido pan 7 

I Han tenido mi cofre (mi banl) lof 

hombres 7 
No le ban tenido. 
I Quien le ha tenido? 
I Han tenido ellos mis cuchiUoi 7 
I No los ban tenido ellos 7 
No los ban tenido. 
I Quien los ha tenido 7 

t ^ He hecho mal en comprar librost 
t V. no ba hecho mal en comprar 

I Cnando le he tenido? 

I Donde los ha tenido V.? 

I Ha tenido V. algo? 
Nada he tenido. 

El reloj. Relojes, (pi.) 


Have you had my dog ? — ^I have had it. — ^Have you had my glofve ? 
—I have not had it. — ^Hast thou had my umbrella ? — I have not had it. 
— ^Have I had your knife 7 — ^You have had it — ^When had I it ? — ^You 
had it yesterday.— Have I had your gloves 7—- You have had them.^* 
Has your brother had my iron hammer 7 — ^He has had it — ^Has he had 
my golden knife 7 — ^He has not had it. — ^Have the English had my 
beautiful ship 7— They have had it. — ^Who has had my leather shoes ? 
—Your servants have had them. — ^Have we had the iron trunk of our 
good neighbor 7 — ^We have had it. — ^Have we had his fine gun 7^ — ^We 
have not had it. — Have we had the mattresses of the foreigners 7— 
We have not had them. — ^Has the American had my good watch ?-* 
He has had it. — ^Has he had my iron knife 7 — ^He has not had it — ^Has 
the young man had the first volume of my dictionary ? — ^He has not 


had tie first, but the second. — Has he had it ? — ^Yes, Sir, he has had it. 
—When has he had it 7 — He has had it this mominor. — Have yon had 
any sugar 7 — ^I have had some. — ^Have I had any good paper 7 — ^You 
have not had any. — Has the cook of the Russian captain had any 
chickens 7 — ^He has had some. — ^He has not had any. 

Has the Frenchman had good wine 7 — ^He has had some, and he has 
still (aun) some. — Hast thou had large cakes 7 — ^I have had some. — 
Has thy brother had any 7 — ^He has not had any. — ^Has the son of our 
gardener had any bread 7 — ^He has had some. — ^Have the Poles had 
good tobacco 7 — ^They have had some. — ^What tobacco have they had 7 
— They have had tobacco and snuff. — ^Have the English had as much 
sugar as tea 7 — ^They have had as much of the one as of the other. — 
Has the physician been right 7 — He has been wrong. — Has the Dutch- 
man been right or wrong 7 — He has never been either right or wrong, 
(see Lesson VI.) — ^Have I been wrong in buying a horse 7 — You have 
been wrong in buying one. — ^What has the painter had 7 — ^He has had 
fine jnctures. — ^Has he had any fine gardens 7 — ^He has not had any. — 
Has your servant had my shoes 7 — ^He has not had them. — ^What has 
the Spaniard had 7 — He has had nothing. — ^Who has had courage 7 — 
The English sailors have had some. — Have the Germans had many 
friends 7 — ^They have had many. — ^Have we had more friends than 
enemies 7 — We have had more of the latter than of the former. — ^Has 
your son had more wine than bread 7 — ^He has had more of the latter 
than of the former. — Has the Turk had more paper than com 7 — ^He 
has had less of the latter than of the former. — ^Has the Italian painter 
had any thing 7 — He has had nothing. 

Have I been right in writing to my brother 7 — Yon have not been 
wrong in writing to him. — ^Have you had a sore finger 7 — ^I have had a 
sore eye. — ^Have you had any thing good 7 — ^I have had nothing bad.— 
Did the ball take place yesterday 7 — ^It did not take place. — ^Does it 
take place to-day 7 — ^It takes place to-day. — When does the ball take 
place 7 — It takes place this evening. — Did it take place the day before 
yesterday 7 — ^It did take place. — ^At what o'clock did it take place 7 — 
It took place (it has taken place) at eleven o'clock. — ^Did you go to 
my brother's 7—1 went— How oflen have yon been at my friend's 
house 7 — ^I have been twice. — Do you go sometimes to the theatre 7 — 
I go sometimes.— How many times have you been at the theatre 7— 
I have been only once. — ^Have you sometimes been at the ball 7 — ^I have 
often been. — Has your brother ever gone to the ball 7 — ^He has never 
gone. — ^Has he gone there as oflen as you 7 — ^He has gone ofiener 


ten L — Dost thon go aometinies into the garden ? — ^I go sometimes.^— 
Haat tbon often been there 7 — ^I have often been tiiere. — ^Does your 
cild cook often go to the market 7 — ^He goes there often. — ^Does he go 
there as often as my gardener ? — ^He goes oftener than he. — Did that 
take place 7 — It did take place. — When did that take place 7 — ^I do not 

Have yon formerly gone to the ball 7 — ^I have gone there sometimes. 
— When hast thon been at the concert 7 — I was (I have been) the 
day before yesterday. — ^Didst thou find anybody (alguna genie) there 7 
— ^I fonnd nobody there. — ^Hast thou gone to the ball oftener than thy 
brothers 7 — I have not gone thither so often as they. — ^Has your friend 
often been at the play 7 — ^He has been there several times^ — ^Have you 
sometimes been hungry 7 — I have often been hungry. — ^Has your valet 
often been thirsty 7 — ^He has never been either hungry or thirsty.-^ 
Did you go to the play early 7 — ^I went late. — ^Did I go to the ball as 
early as you 7 — You went earlier than I. — ^Did your brother go there 
too late 7 — ^He went there too early. — ^Have your brothers had any 
thing 7 — ^They have had nothing. — ^Who has had my sticks and my 
gloves 7 — Your servant has had both. — ^Has he had my hat and my 
gun 7 — ^He has had both. — ^Hast thou had my horse or my brother's 7 — 
I have had neither yours nor your brother's. — ^Have I had your note or 
the physician's 7 — ^You have had neither the one nor the other. — ^What 
has the f^ysician had 7 — He has had nothing. — ^Uas anybody had my 
golden candlestick 7 — Nobody has had it. — }^ any one had my silver 
knives 7 — ^No one has had them. 

THIRTY-THIRD LESSON.— Xieccion Trigisma iercera. 

OF THE PERFECT TENSE.— Z?e/ Priterito Perfeeto Pr6ximo. 

The preterito perfeeto prdximo (the perfect tense) is formed from the 
present of haber, (to have,) and the past participle of the verb which is to 
be conjagated. 

This tense is naed to expresB a thing done at a time designated in an in- 
determinate manner, or at a time past, bat of which something yet re- 
mains I ns, Yo he aprendido la gramdtiea — I have learned grammar ; He 
estudiado ewta tnanana — ^I have studied this morning. 

To make, to do. Made, done. | Haeer. Heeho. 

What have you done? I i Que ha hecho V.7 

( No he hocho nada. 
I hayo done nothmg J j,^^ ^, ^^^ 




Hm that dioamaker made my shoes 7 

He has made them. 
He has not made them. 

To put, to put on. Put, put on. 

Have yon pnt on your shoes? 
I have pat them on. 

To take off. Taken off. 
Have yon taken off your gloves? 
I have taken them off. 

I Ha heeho mis zapatos aqoel i^m- 

£l los ha hecho. 
No los ha hecha 

Poner, poneroe. Puesto. 

(See the verb Poner in App.) 
t i Se ha pnesto V. los zapatos^ 
t Me los he puesto. 
Qtutaroe. Quitado. 

t i Se ha qnitado V. loo guantes 7 
t Yo me los he qoitado. 

To tell, to My. Told, oaid. 

Have yon said the proverbs 7 
I have said them. 
Have yoa told me the proverb 7 
I have told yon the proveib. 

I have told it yon. 

The proverbk 
That, (meaning that thing.) 
This, (meaning thi§ thing.) 

Has he told yon that ? 

He has told me that. 
Have I told yon that 7 
Yon have told me that 


Decir * 3. Dieho. 

(Seo this verb in App.) 
I Ha dicho V. los refiranes 7 
Yo los he dicha 
I Me ha dicho V. el refran 7 
Yo he dicho el refran i V. 
Yo le he dicho d V. 
Se le he dicho i V. 


El refran. El oroverbio. 

Eao. Aquello. 


I Ha dieho ^1 eao dV.I 

^ Le ha dicho eoto i V. 7 

Me ha dicho eoo. 

I He dicho yo eso & V. 7 

V. me ha dicho eso. 

It \Lo. 

Obo. Thio, that, and it, are translated as above when they do not 
rofer to a noim. Eoto, eoo, and aquello, may be either the subject or the 
object of the verb, but lo is most always the object of the verb. 

Have yon told it me? 
I have told it yon. 
I have not told it you. 
Has he told it yon 7 
He has told it me. 
He has not told it me. 
Have you told him that 7 
I have told it him, (to him.) 
You have told it him. 
He has told it him. 

I Me lo ha dicbo V. 7 
Yo se lo he dicho 4 V. 
No se lo he dicho & V. 
I Se lo ha dicho ^U V. 7 
£l me lo ha dicha 
£1 00 me lo ha dicha 
^ Le ha dieho V. eeo 7 
Yo se lo he dicha 
V. se lo ha dicbo (i €1) 
(£l) se lo ha dicho & €L 



Have yoa told it l]i«in» (to tlmnT) 
I luLTe told it them. 

Yo 98 lo he diebo 4 

Hate yoa spoken to the men? 

I have spoken to thenk 

To whom did yoa spoak, (have yon 

Which proveiha has he written? 
He has written those which yoa 

I Ha hablado V. 4 ks 

Tolas he hahladd 

I A qaien ha hablado V. Y 

I Qae lefranes ha escrito 41 T 
£l ha escrito los qae V. t^ 

To drink. Drunk 
To see. Seen. 
To read. Read. 

To be aeptatnted with. Been ae- 
fMointed wUL 






Vteto^S^ Appi) 


Which men have yoa seen 7 

I haTe seen those. 

Which books haye yon leadt 

I haTO i|^ those which yoa lent 

Have yoa been acquainted with these 

I have not been aoqaamted with 


I Qne hombres ha vkto V.7 
He Tisto d aqnellosL 
I Que librae ha leido V. T 
Yo he leido los qae V. me ha 

I Ha oonocido V. 4 estos hombnsY 

Yo no los he oonocidou 

Have yoa seen any sailon T 
I have seen somob 
I hare not seen any. 

I Ha Tisto V. 4 algonoa 
Hevkto 4 alganos. 
A ningonos he Tisto. 

To eaU. Catted. 

To throw. 

To throw away. 

Who calb me? 

Yoor father calls yon. 

Have yoa called the boys? 

I hsTe not called them. 

Do yon throw yoor money away 7 

I do not throw it away. 

Who throws away his books? 

Have yon thrown away any thing? 

I have thrown away my gloves. 

Are yoa willing? 
I am willing to 

Llamar. LUanado. 
Tirar. Arro^ar. 
Deaperdieiar. Botar. 

I Qnien me llama? 

Su padro de V. le llama. 

I Ha llamado V. 4 los muchaehost 

No los he llamado. 

I Despeidicia V. sa dinero? 

No, yo no le despeidicio, (or bote.) 

I Qaien tira sos libras?^ 

I Ha tirade V. algo? 

Yo he tirado mb goantea. 


1 1 Tiene V. gana de? 

Yo qaiero. 

t Tengo gana de. 


Are yoa ill? 
I un. 

E€tar malo, Enfemio. 

tEsUV. malo? 
SL Loettoy. 



Have yon any thing to do ? — ^I have nothing to do. — ^What hast thoo 
done 7 — ^I have done nothing. — Have I done any thing 7 — You have 
done something. — ^What have I done 7 — ^You have torn my books. — 
What have your children done 7 — ^They have torn their clothes. — ^Wbat 
have we done 7 — ^You have done nothing; but your brothers have burnt 
my fine pencils. — ^Has the tailor already made your coat 7 — ^He has not 
yet made it — ^Has your shoemaker already made your shoes 7 — ^He has 
already made them. — ^Have you sometimes made a hat 7 — ^I have never 
made one. — ^Have our neighbors ever made books 7 — ^They made some 
formerly. — How many coats has your tailor made? — ^He has made 
twenty or thirty. — ^Has he made good or bad coats 7 — ^He has made 
(both) good and bad. — ^Has your father put on his coat 7 — ^He has not 
yet put it on, but he is going to put it on. — ^Has your brothll put his 
shoes on 7 — ^He has put them on. — ^Have our neighbors put on their 
shoes and their pantaloons 7 — They have put on neither, (nt unos ni 
otros,) — ^What has the physician taken away 7 — ^He has taken away 
' nothing. — What have you taken off 7 — ^I have taken off my large hat. 
— ^Have'your children taken off their gloves 7 — They have taken them 
off. — When did the ball take place 7 — ^It took place the day before 
yesterday. — Who has told you that 7 — ^My servant has told it to me. — 
What has your brother told you 7 — ^He has told me nothing. — ^Did I 
tell you that 7 — ^You did not tell it to me. — ^Has he told it to you 7 — He 
has told it to me. — ^Who has told it to your neighbor 7 — The English 
have told it to him. — ^Have they told it to the French 7 — They have told 
it to them. — ^Who has told it to you 7 — ^Your son has told it to me. — ^Has 
he told it to you 7 — ^He has told it to me. — Are you willing to tell your 
Mends tha^f — I am willing to tell it to them. 

' Nw Are you the brother of that young man 7 — ^I am. — ^Is that young 
^ ^ man your son 7 — ^He is. — Are your friends as rich as they say 7 — ^They 
are so. — Are these men as learned as they say 7 — ^They are not so.— 
Do you sweep the warehouse often ? — ^I sweep it as often as I can. — 
Has our neighbor money enough to buy some coal 7 — ^I do not know. 
— ^Has your cook gone to the market 7--He has not gone. — ^Is he ill 7 
— ^He is. — ^Am I ill 7 — ^You are not. — ^Aro you as tall (aUo) as I ? — I 
■m. — ^Are yon as &tlgued as your brother 7 — ^I am more so than he. — 


Have yoa written a letter 7—1 have not written a letter, but an exer- 
cias. — What have your brothers written 7 — ^They have written their 
exercises. — When did they write them 7 — ^They wrote (have written) 
them yesterday. — ^Have yon written your exercises 7 — I have written 
them.— Has your friend written his 7 — ^He has not written them yet-^ 
Which exercises has your little brother written 7 — ^He has written his 
own. — ^Have you spoken to my father 7 — ^I have spoken to him. — ^When 
did you speak to him 7 — ^I spoke to him the day before yesterday. — ^How 
many times have yon spoken to the captain 7 — ^I have spoken to him 
several times. — ^Have you often spoken to his 8oo7 — ^I have often 
iipoken to him. — To which men has yonr friend si)oken7 — ^He has 
»poken to these and to those. 

Have you spoken to the Russians 7 — I have spoken to them. — ^Have 
the English ever spoken to you 7 — ^They have often spoken to me. — 
What has the German told you 7 — ^He has told me the proverbs. — 
Which proverbs has he told you 7 — ^He has told me these provertis. — 
What have yon to tell me 7 — ^I have a few proverbs to tell you.—- Which 
exercises has your friend written? — ^He has written those. — ^Which 
books have your children read 7 — ^They have read those which yon 
have lent them. — Have you seen these men or those 7 — ^I have neither 
seen these nor those. — ^Which men have you seen 7 — ^I have seen those 
to whom {d quienes) you have spoken. — ^Have you been acquainted 
with these men 7 — ^I have been acquainted with them. — With which 
boys has your brother been acquainted 7 — ^He has been acquainted with 
those of our merchant — ^Have I been acquainted with these French- 
men 7 — ^You have not been acquainted with them. — ^Which wine has 
your servant drunk 7— He has drunk mine. — ^Have you seen my bro- 
thers? — ^I have seen them. — ^Whero have you seen them? — ^I have 
seen them at their own house. — ^Have you ever seen Greeks 7 — ^I have 
never seen any. — ^Has your father seen any 7 — ^He has sometimes seen 
some. — Do you call me 7 — ^I do call you. — ^Who calls your brother ? — 
My father calls him. — ^Dost thou call any one 7 — ^I call no one. — ^Have 
voQ thrown away your hat 7 — ^I have not thrown it away. — ^Does your 
f^ither throw away any thing ? — He throws away the letters which he 
n?ceives. — ^Have you thrown away your pencils 7 — ^I have not thrown 
thorn away. — ^Dost thou throw away thy book? — ^I do not throw it 
away ; I want it to (para) study (el EnpcOoC) Spamah. 



TfflRTY-FOURTH LESSON.— Lcccion Trigisima cuaria. 

To light, (kindle,) lighted, (Ut.) 
To eztingniflb, extinguished. 

To open, opened. 

To be able, (can,) been able, (could.) 

To be willing, been willing. 

I Encender *, 
i Extinguir, 
^ Apagar, 

Poder », 
Querer *, 








In neater yerbs the action is intransitive, that is, it remains in the agent 
In Spanish, neuter yerbs form their compound tenses with kaber, (to have ^ 
therefore their past participles are invariable. 

i Partir, Pariido, 

} Salir. Salido. 

' Marckarse, Marekado. 

I Salir — Salido. Ine — ^Ido. 

I Venir. Venido. 
S 2, Se ha ido el padre de V. ? 
^ ^ Se ha marchado el padre de V. 7 
I Se han ido (marchado) loe ami^ 

To Bet out. Set out. 

To go out Gone out 
To come. Come. 

Has your father set out? 
Have your friends set out 7 

They have not set out 

No se han ido, (marchado.) 

When did your brothers go out 7 )i Cuando se han ido (marchado) lot 
When have your brothers gone out 7 ) hermanos de V. 7 
They went out at ten o'clock. ) Ellos se han ido (marchado) 

They have gone out at ten o'clock. ^ diez. 

4l las 

Have the men come to your father 7 I i Han venido los hombres i casa de 

I su padre de V. 7 

.^ , , . S Si, han venido. Han venido aquf. 

They haye com. to hnn. ^ jj^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ 

Obs. When did your brothers go out? They went out at ten 
o'clock^ — Until the learner is acquainted with the Preterito Perfecto Re- 
moto, (imperfect tense,) be must use the Spanish Preterito Perfecto PrSx' 
imo, (perfect tense ;) therefore, before translating the above two sentences, 
they must be changed into. When have your brothers gone out 7 Tbey 
have gone out at ten o'clock. — i Cuando han oalido he hermanoo de V.T 
Han Bolido d las diex, ^ 

Which fires have you extinguished 7 
Which storehouses have you opened ? 

I Que fuegos han apagado V V 7 
I Que almacenes han abierto W.? 




eondacted them to the 


I hare conducted them there. 
Which books haye yon taken ? 
How many notes haye you receiyed 7 

We haye receiyed hat one. 


I Los ha condacido V. al afanacen 1 

Lob he condacido aUi. 

I Qae libra ha tornado V. 7 

I Caantoe bOletee han recihido W.f 

HemoB recihido solamente una 

No hemoB lecibido Bino imo. 


Upon the bench. 
The bench. 
Upon it 


Under the bench. 

Under it. 
Where 'w my hat? 
It IB apon the bench. 
Are my gloyee on the bench 7 
They are under it 

Sohrtf (prep.) 
Sobre elbanoa 
El banco. 
Sobie A 

Debajo de. Bajo. 

Debajo del banco. 

Debajo de 4L Debajo. 

I En donde cBtd mi Bomhreio? 

Esti Bobre el banca 

{ Estan mk gnantee Bobre el banco? 

Efltan debaja Debajo de 6L 

Do yon learn to read 7 

I do (leain it) 

I learn to write. 

Haye yon learned to Bpeak 7 

We haye (learned that) 

In the Btorehooee. 
In the hearth. 
In it Within, 

To waoh. 

T6 get mended. To have mended. 

Oot mended. Had mended. 

To get waehed. To have waehed. 
Cfot waehed. Had waehed. 
To get made. To hone made. 
Oot made. Had made. 
To get ewept. To have ewept. 
Oot ewept. Had ewept. 
To get sold. To haioe eold. 
Oot eold. Had eold. 

I Aprende V. & leor 7 

Si, yo aprondo. Aprendo i leer. 

Yo aprendo i eecribir. 

i Han aprendklo W . i hablar ? 

Si, hemoB aprendido, (A hablar.) 

En el almaoen. 
En el hogal*. 


I Lavar 1. 

iMandar remendar, eomponer, 
Hacer remendar, reparar. 
Mandado remendar. 
Heeho remendar. 
Mandar lavar. Haeer lavar. 
MandaJUt lavar. Heeho lavar. 
Mandar haeer. Hacer haeer. 
Mandado haeer. Heeho hacer, 
Haeer barrer. Mandar harrer. 
Heeho barrer. Mandado barrer. 
Hacer vender, Mandar vender, 
Heeho vender. Mandado vender. 



To get the ooat meaded. 

To have it mended. 

To get them mended. 

Are joa getting a coat made ? 

Do yon order a coat? 

I am getting one made. 

I have had one made 

Have you had your coat mended 7 
I have had it mended. 
I have not had it mended. 
I have had my shoes mended 
I have had them mended 

To wipe. 

When? Where? 

Have you seen my books 7 
I have seen them. 
When did you see my brother 7 
When have you seen my brother 7 
I saw him the day before yesterday. 
I have seen him the day before yes- 
Where have you seen him? 
I have seen him at the theatre. 



t Hacer remendar el vestido. 
t Mandar remendar el vestido. 
t Hacerle remendar, (reparar.) 
t Hacerlos remendar, (reparar.) 
t ^ Se manda V. hacer un vestido 7 
t ^ Se hizo V. hacer nn vestido 7 
t Mando hacerme uno. 
t Hago hacerme una 
t Me he mandado hacer una 
t Me he hecho hacer uno. 
1 1 Ha hecho V. remendar su vestido 7 
t Yo le he hecho remendar, (reptirar.) 
t No le he hecho reparar. 
1 Yo he hecho remendar mis aapotca* 
t Los he hecho remendar. 
Enjugar, Enjugado, (enjuto, ir- 
regular participle.) 
I Cuando ? i Dande ? lEn donde j 

I Ha visto V. mis libros 7 
Yo los he visto. 

I Cuando ha visto V. i mi hermano i 

Yo le he visto anteayer, (antier.) 

I En donde le ha visto V. 7 
Yo le he visto en el teatro. 



Where a^ your brothers gone to ? — ^They are gone to the theatre. 
— ^WfaenJud the French boys come to your brother ? — They came to 
him yesKrday. — ^Did their friends also come? — ^They came also. — 
Has any one come to us ? — ^The good Germans have come to us. — 
Has the servant carried my note ? — ^He has carried it. — ^Where has he 
carried it ? — ^He has carried it to your friend. — ^Which books has the 
servant taken ? — ^He has taken those which you do not read. — Have 
the merchants opened their storehouses ? — ^They have opened them. — 
Which storehouses have they opened? — ^They have opened those 
which you have seen. — ^Which fires have the men extinguished ?— 
They have extinguished those which yon have seen. — Have you 
received any notes ? — ^We have received some. — How many have 3ron 
received ? — ^We have received only one ; but our brother has received 
moTB than we : he has received six. 


Where is my coat ? — ^It is npon the bench. — Are my shoes upon the 
bench ? — They are nnder it — ^Is the coal under the bench ? — It is in 
the hearth. — ^Have yon put any coal into the hearth ? — ^I have put some 
into it. — ^Are you cold 7 — ^I am not cold. — Have you not been afraid to 
bom my papers? — ^I have not been afrud to bum them. — ^Have 
yon sent your little boy to market? — ^I havew — ^When?^— This (la 
m^ana) morning. — ^Have you written to your father ? — ^I have written 
to him. — ^Has he answered you ? — He has not yet answered me.— Are 
yon getting your floor swept ? — ^I am getting it swept. — ^Have you had 
your counting-house swept ? — ^I have not had it swept yet, but I intend 
to have it swept to-day. — Have you ever written to the physician 7 — 
I have never written to him. — lias he sometimes written to you 7 — ^He 
has often written to me. — ^What has he written to you ? — ^He has 
written scHuething to me. — ^How many times have your friends written 
to you 7 — ^They have written to me more than twenty times. — ^Have 
yon seen my sons 7 — ^I have never seen them. 

Have you already seen a Syrian? — ^I have already seen one. — 
Where have you seen one 7 — At the theatre. — ^Have you given the 
book to my brother 7 — ^I have given it to him. — ^Have you given money 
to the merchant 7 — I have given him some. — ^How much have you 
given to him 7 — ^I have given to him fourteen dollars. — ^Have you given 
any gM forks to our neighbor's children 7 — ^I have given them some. 
—Wilt thou give me some wine 7 — ^I have given you some already.-^ 
When didst thou give me some 7 — ^I gave you some this morning.-* 
Wilt thou give me some now 7 — I cannot give you any ; I have none. 
— ^Has the American lent you money 7 — ^He has lent me some. — ^Has 
the Italian ever lent you money 7 — He has never lent me any. — ^Is he 
poor 7 — He is not poor ; he is richer than you. — Will you lend me a 
dollar 7 — ^I will lend you two. — ^Has he come earlier than 1 7— At what 
o'clock did you come? — ^I came at half-past five. — ^He has come 
earlier than yon. 

Has the concert taken place 7 — ^It has talien place. — Has it taken 
place late 7 — It has taken place early. — At what o'clock 7 — At twelve. 
— ^At what o'clock has the ball taken place 7 — ^It has taken place at 
midnight — ^Does your brother learn to write 7 — He does learn. — Does 
he know how (Lesson XXVII.) to read 7 — ^He does not know how yet 
— ^Do you know the Frenchman whom I know 7 — ^I do not know the 
Qoe whom you know, but I know another. — ^Does your friend know 
the same merchants as I know 7 — ^He does not know the same, but he 




kmnrs otfaersw — Omre yoo ever had joar coat mended f — I have Bome- 
dnies had h mended. — Hast thoa had thj hat or thy shoe mended ?— 
I hare neither had the one nor the other mended. — Have yoa had yonr 
eoats or yoor ^lawes washed ? — I have neither had the one nor the 
other vaahed^ — Has your fidfaer had any thing made ? — He has not had 
any thing made^ — Have yoa looked for my ^oves 9—1 have looked for 
tfaem.^ — ^Where have yoa looked lor them ? — ^I have looked for them 
upon the bed, and have found them onder (it) — ^Have yoa found my 
lettefs in the hearth ? — I have foond them in itd — Have yoa foand my 
panralnnns onder the bed ? — I have fennd them apoo it, (eZZs.) 

THKTT-FIFTH LESSON^Leccioit TrigSswia quima. 



Dtt yna f o uii w me to come? 
I do pnmin yoo* (it to you.) 
What b«fo yoa pramind the 

I havo |Buuiiwd him nothing. 
Havo yoa ever leaned SpaaahT 

I leaned it fonneriy. 

I havo leaned it ibnneriy. 





S9. n«i: 
In tku mm 

How has yoor brother written hie 

He has written it weD 

To dry. 

To pmi to dry. 

I Me pniroete V. venir 7 
So lo pcometo i V. 
I Que ha pnoietido V. al hombre ? 

J To no le he prometido nado. 
Nada le he prometido. 
I 4 Ha aprondido V. alguna veg ol 

> To le he aprondido en otro tiempo. 

Uoar. Omatar. Cotuumir. 
Rehumr. Negar *. 





t De nerU foe. 


t De eete mode, De eata manera. 


' ^Como ha eserito en tema sa her« 
mono de V. 7 
liS ha eocrito bien. 

Paner d 

eeeor, Hueer 



Do yua pot your coat to dry ? 

I do pot it to dry. 
The cQctt 
How old 7 

How old are yoa? 
I am twelre years old. 

How old ■ your brother ? 

He ■ thirteen yean old. 

He ■ afanost fourteen yean old. 

AhouL Nearly. 

I am about fifteen yean old. 
He is nearly eighteen yean old. 

• Something like. 
He ■ mnething like thirty. 

Not quite. 

I am not quite nxteen yean old. 
Art thoQ older than thy brother 7 

I am younger than he. 

Old, (in yean.) 

There it. There are. 
There Aa« been. 
There have been. 


tPone y. k aecu ra camea? 
I Hace v. eecar an caeaca 7 
Yo la pongo d aecar, (or la hago aecar.) 
La casaca, (fern.) 

I Que edad ? i Cuantoe anoe ? 

I I Qae edad tiene V. 7 
1 1 Cuantoe afioa tiene V. 7 

I t Tengo doce afioa. 

C'f I Cuantoe afioa tiene an hermano 

} deV.7 

V t j, Que edad tiene an hennano de V.7 

I Tiene trece afioa. 



Tiene caai catoree afioa. 

Cerea de. Poco mat 6 mino9 de. 
t Tengo cerca de quince afioa. 
t Tiene diez.y echo afioa poco maa 6 

Como unoSf (unae, fem.) 

t £l tiene como nnoa tremta afioa. 

I Apinae. 

I No-^todavia. Todavia no. 

)t No tengo todavla dies y aeia afioai 
t Toda^ia no tengo dies y aeia afioa. 

1 1 Erea mayor que tu hermano 7 
1 1 Erea de maa edad que tn her- 
mano 7 
t Soy menor. 
t Soy de m^noa edad que 41, 

Soy maa j^ren que 6L 
t Tengo m^noB afioa que 6\. 
i Viejo. Anciana 
\ ATanzado en afioa, (or edad.) 


> Ha habido, (paat participle.) 

How many afaillinga are there in one K t Cuantoe realea hay en un peao 7 

{ t ^ Cuantoe realee tiene un peao 7 




There mn two ■zpencea in one diil- 


Hay do0 medios en un real. 

t Un real tiene do9 medw$ (reales.) 

To underatand. 
To hear. 

To wait for. To expect 

Entender • 2. Comprender 2. 
Oir • 3. Sentir « 3. (In ^Making 

of noise.) 

Aguardar. Eoperar. 
Perder • 2. 


Do yon undentand me 7 

I do undentand yon. 

Have yon undentood the man 7 
I have undentood him. 
I hear you, but I do not understand 

J I Me comprende V. 7 
I Me entiende V. 7 
( Yo le comprendo & V. 
( Yo le entiendo d V. 
I Ha entendido V. al homhre 7 
Yo le he comprendida 
Yo oigo 4 v., pero no le comprendo, 
(or entiendo.) 

The noiae. 
The wind. 
The noise (roaring) of the wind. 

Do yob hear the roaring of the 
wind 7 

EI ruido. . EI eetruendo. El estr^pita 

El yienta 

El ouBurro (or el bramido el estm- 

endo) del viento. 
iOye V. (or siente V.) el susuno 

del viento 7 

I do hear it' 

• y 

To bark, .., 

The barking. 
Have you heard the barking of the 

I have heard it 

5 Si, le oigo. 
C Si, le sientc 

Ladrar 1. 

El ladrido. 

I Ha oido V. los ladridos de los per- 

liOB he oido. 

Some one. Somebody, 

Do you wait for somebody 7 
Do you expect some one 7 
Do you expect something 7 
Do you wait for my brother 7 
I am waiting for him. 
Do you expect some friends 7 
I do expect some here. 

How much has your brother lost 7 

He has lost about ono dollar. 
I have lost more than he. 

Alguien, Alguno. 

I Aguarda V. & alguien, (i alguno?) 

I Espera V. d alguien, (i alguno?) 

I Espera V. aigo, (alguna co^t) 

I Aguarda V. il mi herniauo ? 

Yo le estoy aguardando. 

I Espera V. i. algnnos amigos? 

Yo aguardo & algunos aqnf. 

^Cuanto ha peidido mi hermano de 

Ha perdido cerca de un peso. 
Yo he perdido mas que <n. 

TRIRTT-raTH LES80K. 137 

TV rMMtK. I Qued^arte 1, (raflaetlTe.) 

El hidalgo. 
The ndbleman. •{ El gentilhomfara. 

£1 noUe. 

Gentle. Pretty. 
Gentle. Tame. 
Where has the nobleman remained ? 
He has remained at home. 
Have you remained with him 7 
With me. 

Nobody. No one. 

What, (that which.) 

The pauper. 

Hidalgoi. Gentilhorobrea. NobI< 
Graciosa Bonita Benigno. 
Manao, (in i^waking of animals.) 
I Donde se ha quedado el hidalgo ? 
Se ha quedado en easa. 
I Se ha quedado V. con €it 

Nadie, Ninguno. 

Lo que. 

El pobre. 

Do yon promise me to come to the ball 7 — ^I do promise you. — Have 
I promised yon any thing 7 — Yon have promised me nothing. — ^What 
has my father promised you 7 — ^He has promised me a fine book. — 
Have yon received it 7 — Not yet. — ^Do you give me what (Jo' que) yon 
have promised me 7 — ^I give it you. — ^Has yonr friend received much 
money 7 — ^He has received but little. — How much has he received 7 — 
He has received but one dollar. — ^How much money have you given 
to my son 7 — I have given him thirty shillings. — ^Have yon not promised 
him more 7 — ^I have given him what I promised hiio. — ^Have you any 
Spanish money 7 — I have some. — ^Wbat money have yon 7 — ^I have 
dollars, shillings, and farthings. — How many sixpences are there in a 
shining 7 — There are two sixpences in a shilling. — Have yon any six- 
pences ? — I have a few. — How many sixpences are there in a shilling 7 
— ^There are two. — And how many are Acre in a dollar 7 — Sixteen. — 
Will yon lend me yonr coat 7 — ^I will lend it you, but it is worn out — 
Are yonr shoes worn ont 7 — ^They are not worn out — ^Will you lend 
them to my brother 7 — ^I will lend them to him. — To whom have yon 
lent yonr hat 7 — I have not lent it ; I have given it to somebody. — ^To 
whom have yon given it 7 — ^I have given it to a pauper. 


Does yonr little brother already know how to spell? — He does 

know. — Does he spell well 7 — He does spell well. — How has yonr 

Uttle boy spelt 7 — ^He has spelt so-so. — How have yonr cliildren 

wiHten their exercises 7 — They have written them badly. — ^Has my 



neighbor lent yon his gloves ? — ^He has refused to lend them to me.— - 
Do you know Spamsh ? — ^I know it — Does your son speak Italian ?— > 
He speaks it well. — How do your Mends speak ? — ^They do not speak 
badly. — ^Do they listen to what you tell them ? — ^They listen to it — 
How hast thou learned English ? — ^I have learned it in this manner. — 
Have you called me ? — ^I have not called you, but I have called your 
brother. — Is he come ? — Not yet — ^Where did you wet your clothes ? 
— ^I wetted them in the garden. — ^Will you put them to dry ? — ^I have 
already put them to dry. — ^Does the nobleman wish to give me any 
thing to do ? — ^He wishes to give you something to do. — ^How old are 
you ?^— I am hardly eighteen years old. — ^How old is your brother ? — 
He is twenty years old. — ^Are you as old as he ? — ^I am not so old. — 
How old art thou ? — I am about twelve years old. — ^Am I younger than 
you ? — ^I do not know. — How old is our neighbor ? — ^He is not quite 
thirty years old. — ^Are our friends as young as we 7 — ^They are older 
than we. — ^How old are they ? — ^The one is nineteen, and the other ia 
twenty years old. — ^Is your father as old as mine? — ^He is older 
than yours. 

Have you read my book 7—1 have not quite read it yet — Has your 
friend finished his books ? — He has almost finished them. — ^Do yoa 
understand me ? — ^I do understand you. — ^Does the Frenchman under- 
stand us ? — ^He does understand us. — Do you understand what we are 
telling you 7 — We do understand it. — ^Dost thou understand Spanish ? 
—I do Qot understand it yet, but I am learning it — ^Do we understand 
the English 7 — ^W^ do not understand them. — Do the English under- 
stand us 7 — ^They do understand us. — Do we understand them 7 — We 
hardly understand them. — ^Do you hear any noise 7 — ^I hear nothing. — 
Have you heard the roaring of the wind 7 — ^I have heard it. — ^What do 
you hear 7 — ^I hear the barking of the dogs.— Whose ^Lesson XXIX.) 
dog is this 7 — ^It is the dog of the Scotchman.— Has your father lost 
as much money as 1 7 — ^He has lost more than you. — ^IIow much have 
I lost 7 — ^You have hardly lost a dollar. — ^Did your friends remain at 
the ball 7 — ^They remained there. — ^Do you know as much as the 
English physician 7 — I do not know as much as he. — ^How many hooka 
have you read 7—1 have almost read two. — ^Do you wait for any one 7 
— ^I wait for no one. — Are you waiting for the man whom I saw this 
morning 7 — ^I am waiting for him. — ^Art thou waiting for thy book 7 — 
I am waiting for it. — ^Do you expect your father this evening 7 — I do 
expect him. — Do jrou expect some friends 7 — ^I do expect some. 



THIRTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Leocion Trigisima sexta. 

To beau BeaUn, 

To bite. Bitten. 

Why do yoa beat the dog ? 

I beat it, because it has bitten me. 

(Golpear 1. Oolpeado, 
Apalear 1. ApaUado, 
tZ>ar*l. Dado. 
Pegar 1, (familiar.) 
I Morder * 2. Mordido. 

I Porqui ? 

^ Porqui golpea V. el perro ? 


Le gcApeo (le doy) porqae me ha 

To owe. Owed, 
How much do yoa owe me ? 
I owe yoa fifty doUan. 

How moch does this man owe yoa? 

He owes me six shillings. 

Do oar neighbors owe as much as 

We owe more than they. 
How mach dost thoa owe 7 

Two hundred dollars. 

Five hundred dollars. 

One thousand dollars. 

A hundred. One hundred. 

Deber 2. Debido. 

I Cuanto me debe V. 7 

Yo le debo d V. cincaenta pesos, (or 

I Cuanto debe tf. V. este hombre 7 
£1 me debe seis reales. 
I Deben nuestros yecinos tanto como 

Debemos mas que ellos. 
I Cuanto debes ttk 7 
DoscienCos pesos. 
Quinientos pesos. 

Obo, Ciento, (hundred,) when inunediately followed by a noun, drops 
the last syllable ; as. There are places for one hundred men, and for one 
hundred women — Hay plazae para cien hombree, para cien mujeree. The 
numeral adjectives doecientoo, &c., retain the syllable, but change its 
termination to agree with the noun they refer to ; as, doecientoa bueyes, 
dooeientao yacas. 

To have to. 

To be to, 

I am to. 
Where are you to go this morning 7 
I am to go to the warehouse. 
Is your brother to come here Uy-d&y 7 

Soon, Shortly, 
He is to come here soon. 

Tener que, Deber, 
Haber de. 
He de, 

y iK donde ha de ir V. esta mailana 7 

t He de ir al almacen. 

t j, Ha de venir hoy aquf su hermano 

Pronto, iMegOfprontamente. 
t £l ha de yonir aqni pronto. 



To return, (to come back.) 

At what o'clock do you ratam from 

I return at twelve o'clock. 
I>oe0 the eenrant retom eaily from 

the warehoQse 7 
He xetuma at nz o'clock in the 
At nine o'clock m the morning. 
At five o'clock in the evening. 
At eleven o'clock at night 

Volver * 2. Vuelto. 

I A que hora vuelve V. del mercado^ 

(de la plaza?) 
Yo vuelvo & laa doce. 
I Vuelve el criado temprano del al- 

Vuelve A las seie de la manana. 

t A las ntieve de la mafiana. 
t A las cinco de la tarde. 
t A las once de la noche. 

How long? 

For, (relating to time.) 
How long has ho remained there ? 

A minute. 

An hour. 

A day. 

A month. 

A year. 

The summer. 

The winter. 
During the summer. 
For one mouth. 

To live, > -, . „ 
^ . [To dweH 

To remain, ) 

To rende. 

Where do you live ? 

I live in Troy-street, number one 
hundred and twenty-two. 

Where did your brother live ? 

Where has your brother lived ? 

He lived in Rivoli-street — he has lived 
in Rivoli-street — number forty- 

Dost thou live at thy brother's house ? 

I do not live at his, but at my father's 

Does your friend still live where I 
have lived? 

He lives no longer where you lived. 

He lives no longer where you have 

I I Cuanto tiempo ? 

I Durante, 

i Miintras, todo el, toda la. 

For, Durante. 

[, Cuanto tiempo se ha quedado alld? 

Un minute. 

Una hora, (fern.) 

Un dia. 

Un mes 

Un afio. 

El estfo. El verano. 

El inviemo. 

Durante el verano. 

For un mos. 




I En donde vive V. 7 

Yo vivo en la calle de Troya, ndmero 

ciento vcintidos. 
I Eu donde ha vivido su hormano de 


Ha vivido en la calle de RivoU, nil- 
mere cuareuta y nneve. 

^ Vives td en casa de tu hermano? 

Yo no pare en la casa de mi herma- 
no, pero vivo eu casa do mi padre. 

j,Vive todavia su amigo de Y. en 
donde yo he vivido 7 

^ Vivir, ) 


Ya no vive 

mas eu' donde V. ha 



No longer. 

Do yon ipeak to that man ? 

I apeak to him no longer. 

How long have you been speaking to 

that man ? 
1 haye apoken to him for two boon. 
Did you remain long with my father? 
Hare you remained long with my 

1 remained with him an honr. 

Long, (relating to time.) 
Not long, (relating to timo.) 
The number. 

Other. Others. 

Do yon see the men whom I see ? 
I do not see those whom you see, 
but I see others. 


I Habia V. i eee hombre 1 

Ya (yo) no le haUo ma& 

^Cnanto tiempo ha estado V. ha- 

Uando i este hombre ? 
Yo le he hablado dorante doe hoias. 

[Ha parado V. largo (or mncho) 
tiempo en casa de mi padre ? 

t Me detuve una hora en su casa. 

Largo tiempo. Mueho tiempo. 

No mucho (largo) tiempo. 
El ndmera 

Otro. OtroB. 

l\€\.i. los hombres que yo veo ? 
Yo no TOO i los que V. t6, pero yeo 
i otros. 



Why do yoQ not drink 7 — ^I do not drink because I am not thinty. — 

Why do you pick up this nail ? — I pick it up because I want it. — ^Why 

do yoa lend money to this man ? — ^I lend him money because he wants 

some. — ^Why does your brother study 7 — ^He studies, because he wishes 

to learn Spanish. — Has your cousin drunk already 7 — ^He has not yet 

drunk, because he has not yet been thirsty. — ^Does the servant show 

you the floor which he sweeps 7 — ^He does not show me that which he 

sweeps now, but that which he swept (he has swept) yesterday. — 

Why do you love that man 7 — ^I love him, because he is good. — ^Why 

does your neighbor beat his dog 7 — ^Because it has bitten his boy. — 

Why do our friends loye us 7 — ^They love us because we are good. — 

Why do you bring me wine 7 — ^I bring you some because you are 

thirsty. — ^Why does the sailor drink 7 — ^He drinks because he is thirsty. 

— ^Do you see the sailor who is in the ship 7 — ^I do not see the one who 

is in the ship, but the one who is in the market — ^Do you read the 

books which my father has given you 7 — ^I do read them. — ^Do you 

understand them T — ^I understand them so-so. — ^Do you know the 

Italians whom we know 7 — ^We do not know those whom you know, 

but we know others. — ^Does the shoemaker mend the shoes which 

you have sent him7-*He does not mend them, because they are 

worn out. 



Is your servant returned from market ? — ^He is not yet returned.-' 
How long do you intend to remtun at the ball ? — ^I intend to remain 
there a few minutes. — ^How long did the Frenchman remain with you ? 
— ^He remained with me for two hours. — ^How long did your brothers 
remain in town, {la ciudad f) — ^They remained there (en e22a) during 
the winter. — ^Do you intend to remain long with us ? — ^I intend to 
remain with you during the summer. — ^How much do I owe you ? — 
You do not owe me much. — ^How much do you owe your tailor? — 
I owe him eighty dollars. — ^How much dost thou owe thy shoemaker ? 
— ^I owe him already eighty-five shillings. — ^Do I owe you any thing ? — 
You owe me nothing. — ^How much does the Englishman owe you ? — 
He owes me more than you. — ^Do the English owe as much as the 
Spaniards? — ^Not quite so much. — ^Do I owe you as much as my 
brother ? — ^You owe me more than he. — ^Do our friends owe you as 
much as we ? — ^They owe me less than you. — ^How much do they 
owe you ? — They owe me two hundred and fifty dollars. — ^How much 
do we owe you ? — You owe me three hundred dollars. 

Why do you give money to the merchant 7 — ^I give him some, be- 
cause he has sold me something. — ^Where are you to go ? — I am to go 
to the market — ^Is your friend to come hither to-day ? — ^He is to come 
hither. — When is he to come hither ? — ^He is to come hither soon.^ 
When are our sons to go to the play ? — They are to go (there) to-night 
— ^When are they to return (from it ?) — ^They are to return from it at 
half-post ten. — When are you to go 'to the phjrsician 7 — ^I am to go to 
him at ten o'clock kt night — When is your son to return from the 
painter's 7 — ^He is to return from him at five o'clock in the evening.— 
Where do you live ? — ^I live in Rivoli-etreet, number forty-seven. — 
Where does your father live 7 — ^He lives at his friend's house. — ^Where 
do your brothers live? — ^They live in William-street, number one 
hundred and twenty. — ^Dost thou live at thy brother's house 7—1 live 
at his house.— Where does he live at present 7— He lives at his father's 
house.— Do you still live in Broadway 7— Yes, Sir.— Does your friend 
live in John-street 7 — ^No, Sir. 

THIRTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— Leccion Trigisima septima. 

C I Htuta euando ? 
How long ? ^f I Cuanto iUmpo f 

( t ^ Haata que kora ? 
TOL Until \Hatta, ' 



"mi twelTe o'clock, (till noon.) 

TUl to-morrow. 

Till the day after to-monow. 

TiU Sunday. 

Till Monday. 

Till this erening. 

Till evening. 

Until morning. 

Until the next day. 

Until that day. 

Until that moment 

Till now. Hitherta 

Until then. 


Tuesday. Wednesday. 
Thuraday. Friday. 

Hasta medio dia, (las doce del dia.) 

Hasta maiiana. 

Hasta pasado manana. 

Hasta el Domingo. 

Hasta el LOnes. 

Hasta esta tarde. 

Hasta la tarde. 

Hasta la manana. 

Hasta el dia siguiente. 

Hasta aquel dia. 

Hasta aquel memento. 

Hasta ahora. Hasta aquf. 

Hasta entdnces. 


EI M^uies. El Mi^reoles. 
ElJn^yes. El Vi^mes. 

Ofts. A. The names of the days- of the week, months, and seasons of 
the year, are of the masculine gender, except la pnmaverOf the spring, 
which is feminine. 

Till my return. 


Tdl my brother's return. 

Till my brother returns. 

TiU four o'clock in the morning. 

Till midnij^t, (twelve o'clock at 

The return, (or returning— coming 


) Hasta mi vuelta. 

) t Hasta que yo Tuelra. 

> Hasta la vnelta de mi hermana 

t Hasta las cuatro de la maiiana. 
Hasta media noche, (las doce de la 

La Yuelta, (fem.) 

How long did you remain at my 
father's house 7 

I remained at his house tOl eleven 

o'clock at night 
One, People, They* Any one. 

1 1 Hasta que hora so ha quedado 
(ha estado) V. en casa de mi 

To me he quedado (yo he estado) 
hasta las once de la noche. 

8e, (or a verb in tho third person.) 

Ohe. B, They, people, any one, one, not referring to any person already 
mentioned, but used in a genera] and unlimited sense, are rendered by «e, 
translating the verb in the third person singular, or by the third person 
plural of the verb without any pronouiL jOne may also be translated uno * 
as, One is not always master of his pasrions — Uno no ea aiempre dueHo de 
no aeeUmeo, 



Have they brought my riioas? 
They have brought them. 
They have not brought them. 

What have they said 7 
They have said nothing. 
What have they done 7 

They have done nothing. 

To he willing, (to with.) 
Been wUlingt (wished.) 

Have they been willing to mend my S I Han qaerido remendar mi vestido t 
coat 7 \ ^ Han qnerido oomponer mi vestido? 

They have not been willing to mend I No han qaerido remendarie, (com* 
,it I ponerle.) 

I Han traido mis zapatos t 

Los ban traido. 

No los han traido. 

I Que se ha dicho 7 

I, Que han dicho 7 
i Nada se ha dicho. 
\ Nada han dicha 

I Que se ha hecho 7 

I Que han hecho 7 
( Nada se ha hecha 
\ Nada han hecha 



Querer • 2. 

To be able, (can.) 
Been able, (could.) 

Have they been able to find 

They could not find them 

Can they find them now 7 

One cannot find them. 
They cannot find them. 
Can you road, (aro you able 7) 
I cannot road, (I am not able.) 

They, (meaning one.) One. 

Can they do what they wish 7 
Can one do what he wishes 7 

iPoder*^. Podido. 

\ Saber. Sabido, 
the ( t ^ Se han podido hallar los libios? 

( I^Han podido hallar los libros 7 

( t Np se han podido hallar. 

\ No han podido hallarlos. 
1 1, Se pueden hallar ahore 7 
I Pueden hallarlos ahora 7 

( No se pueden hallar. 

\ No pueden hallarlos. 

I t iSabeV. Ieer7 
t Yo no s6 leer. 


Uno, (in a ^neral unlimited sensed 
> I Puede hacer uno lo que quiero 7 

They do what they can, but not 

what they wish. 
One does what he can, but not what ' 

he wishes. 

'' Haeen lo que pueden, pero no lo qns 

Se hace lo que se puede, pero no lo 

que se quiero. 
Uno hace lo que puede, pero no lo 

que quiere. 

What is said new 7 
Nothing new is said. 
Wine is sold hero. 
Spanish is spoken hero. 

1 1 Que se dice de nuevo 7 

t No se dice nada nuevo, (denueva^ 

t Aqul se vende vina 

t Aquf se habla EspafioL 



ObB. C To form thMe and Bunilar aentencea, in which • pMnhre 
Eogliah is made use of, the Spaniards oae the reflective pronoun m 
Terb m the third penon. 

and a 

Something new. 
Any thing new. 
Nothing new. 
Not any thing new. 

My new coat 
My new friend. 

TliiB fine man. 
Those fine trees. 

Do they believe that? 
They do not believe it 
Do ^ey apeak of that? 
They do apeak of it 
They do not apeak of it 


Aigo (de) ttoevo. 

Nada (de) nneva 


Mi veatido nnevo. 
Mi noevo amigo. 

AeepiUar. AeepiUado. 

Elate hermoao hombre. 
Aquelloa hennoaoa irbolea. 

I Se cree eao 7 i Creen eao ? 
No ae cree eao. No lo creen. 
I Se haUa de eao ? 
Si, ae habia de ello. 
No ae habIa de ello. 

(See IieaB0D8XX.,XXVL,Oba. E, 
and Oba., Lev. XXXIIL) 

Father and aon. 
French and Italian. 


Padre 6 hijo. 
Francea 6 Italiano. 

06jl D. Y (and) changea into i before nouna beginning with t or hi. 



How long have you been writing 7 — ^I have been writing nntO mi^ 

night. — ^How long did I work 7 — ^Yon worked (have worked) till fonr 

o'clock in the morning. — ^How long did my brother remain with you 7 

— ^He remained with me nntil evening. — ^How long hast thon been 

working 7 — ^I have been working till now. — ^Hast thou still long (largo 

tiempo) to write 7 — I have to write till the day after to-morzow. — Has 

the physician still long to work 7 — ^He has to work till to-morrolir. — 

Am I to remain long here 7 — ^You are to remain here till Snnday. — ^Is 

my brother to remain long with yon 7 — ^He is to remain with ns till 

Monday. — ^How long are we to work 7 — ^Yon are to work till the day 

after to-morrow. — ^Have you still long to speak? — I have still an honr 

to speak. — Did you speak long 7 — ^I spoke (have spoken) till the next 

day. — ^Did yon remain long in my connting4ionse 7 — ^I remained in h 



till this moment^^-Have yon still long to live at the Frenchman's 
house 7 — ^I have still long to live at his house. — How long have you 
still to live at his house ? — Till Tuesday. — ^Has the servant brushed 
my coats ? — He has brushed them. — ^Has he swept the floor ? — ^He has 
swept it. — ^How long did he remain here? — ^Till noon. — ^Does your 
friend still live with you ? — He lives with me no longer. — ^Have you 
remained in the garden till now ?— I have remained there till now. 

What do you do in the morning ? — I read. — ^And what do you do 
then 7—1 breakfast and work. — Bo you breakfast before you read 7 — 
No, Sir, I read before I breakfast — ^Dost thou play instead of work- 
ing 7 — I work instead of playing.— What do you do in the evening 7 — 
I work. — ^What hast thou done this evening 7 — ^I have brushed your 
clothes, and have gone to the theatre. — ^Didst thou remain long at the 
theatre 7 — ^I remained (there) but a few minutes. — Are you willing to 
wait here 7-^How long am I to wait 7 — ^You are to vmi till my father 
returns. — ^Has anybody come 7 — Somebody has come. — ^Have you 
waited for me long 7 — ^I have veaited for you two hours. — ^Uave you 
been able to read my note 7 — ^I have been able to read it. — ^Have 
you understood it 7 — ^I have understood it. — ^Have you shown it to any 
one 7 — ^I have shown it to no one. — ^Have they brought my fine clothes 7 
— ^They have not brought them ye^. — ^Have they swept my floor and 
brushed my clothes 7 — ^Yes, Sir. — ^What have they said 7 — ^They have 
said nothing. — ^What have they done 7 — ^They have done notldng. — 
Has your little brother been spelling 7 — ^He has not been willing to 
spell. — ^Has the merchant's boy been willing to work 7 — ^He has not 
been willing. — ^What has he been willing to do 7 — ^He has not been 
willing to do any thing. 

Has the shoemaker been able to mend my shoes 7 — ^He has not been 
able to mend them. — Why has he not been able to mend them 7 — 
Because he has had no time. — ^Have they (se) been able to find my 
gold buttons 7 — ^They have not been able to find them. — ^Why has the 
tailor not mended my coat 7 — ^Because he has no good thread. — ^Why 
have you beaten the dog 7 — ^Because it has bitten me. — ^Why do you 
drink 7 — ^Because I am thirsty. — What have they wished to say 7 — 
They have not wished to say any thing. — ^Have they said any thing 
new 7 — ^They have not said any thing new. — What do they {se) say 
new in the market 7 — They say nothing new there.^ — ^Do they believe 
that 7— They do not beUeve it.— Do they speak of that 7— They do 
speak of it — ^Do they speak of the man that has been killed 7 — ^They 
do not speak of him. — Can they do what they wish 7 — ^They do what 



ibej can ; \mt they do not what they wish. — ^What have they bioog^ht ? 
— ^Tbey bare brought your new coat. — ^Do you like your new fnends 7 
—I do like them. — ^Is Spanish spoken here ? — Yes, Sir, Spanish, 
French, and Italian are spoken here* — ^What is sold here 7 — Spanish 
books are sold here. — ^What is said new 7 — ^Nothing new is said. — Do 
they not say that the city (la cmdad) of Mexico has been taken 7 — 
Yes, Sir, they say so. 

THIRTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— Leccion Triginma ocUna. 

How far ?• 

Up to. As far a*. 

As &r as my bRither'& 
Afl far as here, hither. 
As far as there, thither. 

As far -as London. 

As far as Paris. 

To, at, or in Madrid. 
To, at, or in Cadiz. 

To, at, or in Spain. 
To, at, or in England. 

As far as England. 
As far as Spain. 
As far as France. 
As far as Italy 

As far as my hrase. 

As far as the warehoose. 

As far as the comer. 

As far as the end of the road. 

As far as the middle of the road. 

Above, or np stairs. 
Below, or down staiiB. 
As far as above. 
As far as below. 

This side. 

That side. 
On this eide of the road. 
On thai aide of the road. 

I Hasta donde ? 

Hosta la casa do mi heimano. 

Hasta aqaf. 

HasU aUd. HaaU allL 

Hasta LondnSi 

HaaU Paris. 

A' Madrid. En Madrid. 
A' Cadiz. En Cadiz. 

A Espaiia. En Espaiia. 

A loglaterra. En Inglaterra. 

Hasta Inglaterra. 
Hasta Espa&a. 
Hasta Francia. 
Hasta Italia. 

Hasta mi casa. 
Hasta el almaeen. 
Hasta el rincon, (la esqnina.) 
Hasta el fin del camino. 
Hasta el medio del camina 


Hasta arriba. 
Hasta abajo. 

De este lado. Por este lada 
De aqnel lado. Por aqoel lada 
De (por) este lado del camino. 
De (por) aqoel lado del oamimx 



This ade of the road. 

That Bide of the road. 


El lado de aci del camino. 
Maa acA del camino. 
( £1 lado de alii del camino. 
Maa aI14 del camino. 



La Alemania. 
La America. 
La Espana. 
La Holanda. 

O&f. A, The names of empiree, kingdoms, states, provinces, cities, &c, 

are generally feminine when they terminate in a, and mascoline when they 

end in other letten ; as, Spain lays in the south of Europe — Espana estd 

tituada al swr 'de Europa. But when they refer to a common noun, such 

as retao, (kingdom,) &«., they are masculine ; as. The United States of 

America are prosperoos— Los Ettadoe Utddoe de la America son prdS' 


To go to Spam. \ Ir d Eapana. 

( Venir de Francia. 
To amf. to rttumfrom France. ^ y^^ ^ ^^,^ 

Ohe. B. When the names of countries are governed by verbs ezpressinK 
to go to, to come from, to return to or from, ^,, they do not admit the 

Do yon intend to go to Spain 7 
Yes, Sir, I intend to go (there) in 

the spring. 
Does he return from France 7 
No, Sir, he returns from Germany. 

i Piensa V. ir d EspaiiaT 

Si, sefior, yo pienso ir en la prima- 

vera, (fem.) 
i y uelve (^I) de Francia 7 
No, sefior, (61) vnelve de Alemania. 

To go on one aide. 
To go on the middle. 

The middle, half. 

The well 

The cask. 

Tho castle. 

To travel 

To travel in, (through,) 

Do you go to Paris 7 
Do you travel to Paris 7 
I travel (I go) there. 
Is he gone to England 7 

He is gone there. 

How far is he gone 7 
How far has he travelled 7 
He is gone as iar as Siberia. 

Ir por un lado. 

Ir por el medio. 

EU medio. La mitad, (la media) 

EI poza 

El barril. El toneL 

El Castillo. 


Viajar 1. Caminar 1. Ir * 3. 
Viajar en (por.) 

iVaV, 4Pari87 

Si, voy allA. Si, voy i. Paris. 

I Ha ido 4\ d Ingtaterra 7 

Si, ha ido alii. 

Ha ido i, luglaterra. 

I Haata donde ha ido 7 

I Hasta donde ha viajado 7 

t\ ha ido haata Siberia. 




Rohar 1. Hmrtar 1. 

_ _ , ., . ^ S Rohar algo (alguna co§a) d algutw. 

To steal 99methtng from some one. } a 

HtTB they itolen your hat from you 7 

They have stolen it firom me. 

Hw the man atolen the books fram 

He has stolen them from me. 
What haTO they stolen from yon ? 

1 1 Le han robado i Y. el sombrer6T 

t Me le han robado. 

t i Te ha robado los libras el horn* 

t £ll me loB ha robado. 
1 1 Que le ban robado i V. 7 

AH the wine. 
All the booksL 
AQ the men. 

How do yott i^B this word 7 
How is tluB word written 7 

It is writton thus, 
rrho word. 
My word. This word. 

7odo. TodoOf (pL) 

Todo el Tina 
Todoo los libros. 
Todos los hombres. 


I Como deletna V. esta palafara7 

I I Como 8€ deUirea esta palabra7 
1 1 Como Be escribe esta palabra 7 
t Se escribe asL De esta manera. 
La palabra, (fern.) 

Mi palabra. Esta palabra. 

To dye. To color. 

To dye black. 
To dye red. 
To dye green. 
To dye blue. 
To dye yellow. 

Oic C. AdjeetiTes denoting color 

My bhie coat 

His new watch. 

His round hat 

Thii white hat 
Do yoQ dye your coat bhie7 
I dye it green. 
l¥hat color will you dye your coat? 

I win dye it bhie. 
The dyer. 


Tenir • 3. Tenido, (past part) 
CoUtrar 1. 

t Tedir de negro. 

t Tei^ir de Colorado^ (de encamado.) 

t Tefiir de verd^ 

t Teiiir de azuL 

t Teiiir de amarillo. 

or riiape are placed after the noon- 
Mi Tostido azuL 
Su reloj nnero. 
Su sombrero redondo. 
Este sombrero Uauca 
1 1 Tifte y. su Yestido de aznl? 
t Yo le tiflo de yerde. 
t £ De que cdor quiere V. tefUr su 

t Yo le quiero teiiir de azuL 
El tintorero. 

_, , , ^ , , t + Maeer ierUr. Heeho tenir. 

Togetdj^d. Oct dyed. \ f Mandar tfnir. Mnndado teiUr. 

What color have yon had your hat 

I have got it dyed white. 

I De que color ha hecho V. teiiir su 

sombrero ? 
t Le he hecho tef&ir de blanoo. 





Colonda Rojo. Eneamado 
Moreno. Pardo. Ca£4 
Pardo. GriB. 



The etocking, the stockingB. 

La media, lai mediae, (feminine.) 

My thread Btockinge. 

Mis mediae de hilo. 


La primavera, (feminine.) 



How far have yoa travelled ? — ^I have travelled as far as Germany. 
— Has he travelled as for as Italy? — ^He has travelled as far as 
America. — ^How far have the Spaniards gone 7 — They have gone as 
far as London. — How far has this poor man come 7 — ^He has come as 
far as here. — ^Has he come as for as your house 7 — ^He has come as 
far as my father's. — ^Have they stolen any thing from you 7 — ^They 
have stolen all the good wine from me. — ^Have they stolen any thing 
from your father 7 — ^They have stolen all his good books from him. — 
Dost thou steal any thing 7 — I steal nothing. — Hast thou ever stolen 
any thing 7 — ^I have never stolen any thing. — Have they stolen your 
good clothes from you 7 — They have stolen them from me. — What 
have they stolen from me 7 — ^They have stolen all the good books from 
you. — ^Have they ever stolen any thing from us 7 — They have never 
stolen any thing from us. — ^How far do you wish to go 7 — I wish to 
go as far as the wood. — ^Have you gone as far as there 7 — ^I have 
not gone as far as there. — ^How far does your brother wish to go 7 — 
He wishes to go as far as the end of that road. — ^Where art thou going 7 
— ^I am going to the market — ^How far are we going 7 — ^We are going 
as far as the theatre.^ — ^Are you going as far as the well 7 — ^I am going 
as far as the castle. — ^Has the carpenter drunk all the wine 7 — He has 
drunk it — ^Haa your little boy torn all his books 7 — He has torn them 
all. — Why has he torn them 7 — Because he does not wish to study. 

How much have you lost 7 — I have lost all ray money. — ^Do you 
know where my father is 7 — I do not know. — ^Have you not seen my 
book 7 — ^I have not seen it — Do you know how this word is written 7 
— ^It is written thus.— Do you dye any thing 7—1 dye my hat.— What 
color do you dye it 7 — ^I dye it black.— Wliat color do you dye youf 
clothes 7 — ^I dye them yellow. — Do you get your thread dyed 7 — ^I get 
^ dyed. — What color do you get it dyed 7 — ^I get it dyed greens- 
What color dost thou get thy thread stockings dyed 7 — I get them dyed 


fed.— Does yoor son get his cloth dyed? — ^He does get it dyed. — 
Does he get it dyed led ?— He gets it dyed gray* — What color hare 
yoar friends got their coats dyed 7 — ^They have got them (las) dyed 
green. — What color have the Italians had their hats dyed 7 — They 
have had them dyed brown.— Have yon a white hat 7 — ^I have a black 
one. — ^What hat has the nobleman 7 — ^He has two hats ; a white one 
and a black one. — ^What hat has the American 7 — ^He has a round hat 
— Have I a white hat 7 — ^You have several white and black hats. — ^Haa 
yoor dyer already dyed your cloth 7— He has dyed it — ^What color 
has he dyed it ? — ^He has dyed it green. — ^Do yon travel sometimes 7-^ 
I travel o^n. — Where do yon intend to go to this summer 7 — I intend 
to go to Paris. — ^Do you not go to Italy 7^ — ^I do go thither*— >Hast thou 
sometimes travelled 7 — ^I have never travelled. — Have your friends a 
mind to go to Holland 7 — ^They have a mind to go (thither.)-r-Wlien 
do they intend to depart 7 — ^They intend to depart the day after to- 
morrow. • 



Is yoar brother already gone to Spain 7— -He is not yet gone 

(thither.) — ^Have yon travelled in Spain 7 — ^I have travelled there. — 

When do you depart 7 — ^I depart to-morrow. — ^At what o'clock 7 — At 

five o*c¥ock in the morning. — ^What have the Spaniards done 7 — ^They 

have bvumt all our good ships. — ^Have you finished all your exercises 7 

— I have finished them all. — ^How fiur is the Frenchman come 7 — He is 

come as far as the middle of the road.— Where does your fnend live 7 

— ^He lives on this side of the rbad. — Where is your warehouse 7*-^ 

It is on that side of the road. — ^Where is the counting-house of our 

friend 7 — ^It is on that side of the theatre. — Is the garden of your friend 

on this or that side of the wood 7 — ^It is on that side. — Is our warehouse 

not on this side of the road 7 — ^It is on this side. — ^Where have you 

been this morning 7 — ^I have been at the castle. — ^How long did yon 

remain at the castle 7 — ^I remained there an hour. — Is your brodier 

below or above 7 — ^He is above. — How far has your servant carried my 

trunk 7 — ^He has carried it as far as my warehouse.— Has he come as 

far as my house 7->-No, Sir. — ^Have you been in France 7 — ^I have been 

(there) several times. — Have your children already been in Germany 7 

—They have not yet been (there,) but I intend to send them there in 

the spring. — ^Will you go on this or that side of the road 7-^1 will go 

neither on this nor that side ; I will go in the middle of the road.-* 

How far does this road lead 7 — ^It leads as far as London. 

Fod- the use of the verb to he, see LeoKHi XVIIIm page 50. 



THIRTY-NINTH LESSON.— Xieccion Trigesima nana. 

_ . ' ■# « 5 ^^ menestert } an iiragular imper- 

To be nee^smny. MmL \ ger nteesario,) aonal verb. 

Iiitii«ce«ary? if iE« menertcr? ^EflnecMario? 

MnitlT Must we? \ " 

It M necMBary. | t Es menester. Es necesario. 

It it necMsaiy to go to the market? ^ t ^ 
Most I, must we, g;o to market? f t [ 

Es menester ir al mercado? 
Es necesario ir al mercado? 

It is not necessary to go (there.) 
What most be done to learn Spanish ? 

It is necessary to study a gieat deaL 
Mutti (implying obligation.) 

What must I do? 

Yon most stay stilL 

Where must he go? 
He must go home. 

yf^ must. 

No es menester (necesario) ir (alll.) 
I Que es menester (necesario) hacer 

pan aprender el EBpafiol ? 
Es menester estndlar mnchlsimo. 
Deber, Sermenetter. Seriucemrria, 

I Que debo yo hacer? 

I I Que es menester (necesario) ha- 

V. debe quedaise quieto, (estar quieto^) 
t Es menester (necesario) quedazae 

qnieto, (estar quieto.) 
I Adonde debe ir ^ ? 
£1 debe ir 4 su casa, (4 casa.) 



Es menester. Es necesario. 
{ yy. deben. 

( t Es menester. Es necesario. 
I Que debemos hacer 7 

Que es menester (necesario) hacer? 
Debemos escribir la carta, 
t Es menester escribir la carta, 
t Es necesario escribir la carta. 
yy. deben escribir sus temas, (maa.) 
t Es menester (necesario) escribir sua 

> Haher menester, Neeeeiiar. 
lET Mind that have is not translated. 

Yon moat 

What must we do? 

We must write the letter. 

Yon miMt write your exercises. 

Jifiisl have. 

To want To need. 

What must yon have? 
I miMt have some money. 
Must you have one shilling? 

1 1 Que ha menester V. ? 
Que necesita Y. ? 


5 t He menester algun dinero. 
( Necesito algun dinero. 

Jt 4 Ha menester V. un real? 
I Necesita Y . un real ? 

THnnrr-NiNTH lesson. 


Most yon bxwe ft great deal? 
I miBt hAYo a great deal 
1 want only one penny. 

Ii that all yon want? 

That M all I want 

How much maiit thoa haYO ? 
How moch dost thoa want? 

I want only a ahilling. 

I Ha moneeter V. mi 

^NeoMita V. mncUnmo? 

He menetter machUmo. 

Necento muchlnma 

Solo he meneeter nn cnarta 

Sdo necento nn coaito. 

I El caanto ha meneeter V.? 

I No ha meneeter V. maa qne eao? 

I, No neceeita V. maa que eao? 

Eao ea caanto he meneeter. 

Eao ee cnanto neceaito. 

I Caanto haa meneater? 

£ Caanto neceaitaa? 

No he meneater maa qne nn real 

No neceaito maa de nn reaL 

^Caanto ha meneater an hennano 

How moch moat your hrother have? "j ^ ^Caanto neoeaita an harmano da 


Ha meneater doe realea aola- 


Neceaita doa realea aolamente. 

He wanti only two dullmga. 

Have yon what yon want 7 
I hare what I want. 

He has what he wanta 
They have what they want 


I Tiene V. lo qae ha meneater ? 

I Tiene V. lo qae neoeaita 7 

Tengo lo que he meneater, (or ne 

Tiene lo qne ha meneeter, (or ne- 

Tlenen lo que han meneater, (or ne- 
ceaitan, qaieren.) 

Mare. No mare. 
Do yon not want more? 

I do not want more. 

He doea not want more. 


Ifoa. No — maa. 

I No ha meneater V. (or no neoeaita 

v., or no qaiere V.) maa 7 
No he meneater (or no neceaito, or 

no qniero) maa. 
No ha meneater (or no neeeaiU^ 

To be to — mtiat 
To have to — mttat. 

What am I to do? 
Yon mnat work. 

Haher de, 
Tener pie. 


I Que he de hacer ? 
V. ha de trabajar. 



Am I to gotiierBT 

Yoa maj9 nr yoa can go thare. 

I He de ir yo alli T 
V. puede ir all^ 


How moch can that hono be worth? 
He may be worth a bundled doUan. 
How much are yoa worth? 
We cannot be worth moch. 
He may be worth aomething. 


I Poder • 3. 
VaUr • 3. Poaeer. 

I Coanto paede valer eae caballoT 

Poede valer cien peaos. 

t tCnanto tienen W.? 

t No podemoB tener macho. 

t £1 paede tener algon caodal. 

How much ii that gnn worth ? 
It is worth bat one dollar. 
How much ifl that worth? 
That is not worth moch. 
Tliat ii not worth any thing. 
Thia is worth more than that 
The one m not worth ao moch 
the other. 

I Coanto Tale eae fusil ? 

No vale mas que on peaa 

I Coanto vale eso ? 

Eso no vde macho. 

Eso no vale nada. 

Este Tale mas que aqaeL 

El uno no vale tanto oomo el otro 

TV 6e better, (worth moie.) 
Am I as good as my brother? 

Yoo are better than be. 

I am not so good as you. 

1 1 Voter mof , («er mejar.) 

1 1 y algo yo tanto oomo mi her^ 

I Soy tan baeno como mi hermano? 
t y. vale mas qae Hi 
y. es mejor que €i» 
t Yo no valgo tanto como y. 
Yo no aoj tan baeno como y. 

To give hack, 

« Volver • a. 

\ Restituir, (See veibs in iftr.) 

Jt ^ Le ynelve A i Y. el libio ? 
t ^ Le restituye 6\ A Y. el libra? 
J£l me le vuelve. 
£l me le restituye. 
Vf M !.« «;«*» ««« k-^v ««.,- -J , 5 ''' i I^ 'i* vuelto d y. los gaantes 7 

H. h» giy«. >n. than l»ck. j f ! """ 1" II' r!!?!"-^ 

( £1 mo los ha restituido. 

0oes he restore yoa your book ? 

He does restore it to me. 

Has your brother already com- 
menced his exercises ? 
He has not yet commeoced them. 

I Ha empezado ya sus temas el her- 
mano de y. ? 
No los ha empexado todavla. 



The praent, (gift) 

Hsn joa receired a present 7 

I hsTB receired aeronl. 
Have joa received the books I 
I have receiTed them. 



El presente. 

La didiva, (fern.) 

I Ha xecibido V. nn legalo* (i 

sente) 7 
He ledbido algimos. 
Yo los he leeSado. 

JPVoni isiWiit 7 
Fram whom hare yoa receiyed 

From my faemnn- 

Where from? 

Wheie do yoa come from 7 
I come {ram the garden. 
Wheito is he come from 7 
He is come from the theatre. 
Where haro they come from? 

fVom which? 

From, which ? 
The tame. 

^rom which garden do yoa come? 
From mine. 
From which 7 
Fiom the nme where yoo ga 


Thenme ones. 

/ De qmcn f 

^De qmen ha redbido V. pnsentes, 

(regales) 7 
De mii amigoB. 

ilDe donde ? 

I De donde Tiene Y. 7 

Yo Tengo del jardin. 

I De doode ha venido (^)7 

(£l) ha venido del teatro. 

I De donde han yenido (ell«)7 

{iDeleual? > (not followed hy 
( iDehe eualee ?S a noon.) 

iVequel (followed by a noon.) 


I De qne jardin yiene ¥.7 


I Del coal 7 

Del misino adonde Y . ya. 

£1 mismo. 


Is it necessary to go to the market?— It is not necessaiy to go 
thither.— What must you buy ?— I most buy some mutton.— Mart I 
go for some wine?— You must go for some.— Am I to go to the ball ? 
—You must go.— When must I go?— You must go this eyemng^ 
Must I go for the carpenter ?— You must go for him.— What must bt^ 
done to learn Russian ?— It is necessary to study a gr^t deal— Is 
H necessary to study a great deal to learn Gennan?-It is ne^s- 
sary to study a great deal.-What must I do?-You must buy a 
good book.— What is he to do ?-He must stay stiU.— What are we to 


do ? — Yon miut woik. — Most yon woik much in oider to learn the 
Arabic ? — I most work much to learn it — Why must I go to market ? 
— ^YoQ must go to boy some mntton and wine. — ^Most I go anywhere 7— 
ThoQ mi|st go into the garden. — Most I send for any thing ? — ^Thoa 
must send for some wine. — ^Wh&t must I do ? — You must ivrite an 
exercise. — ^To whom must I write a letter ? — ^You must write one to 
your Mend. — ^What do you want. Sir ? — I want some cloth. — ^How 
much is that hat worth ? — ^It is worth four dollars. — Do you want any 
stockings 7 — I want some, (algunas.) — ^How much are these stockings 
worth 7 — ^They are worth two shillings. — Is that all you want 7 — ^That 
is all. — Do you not want any shoes 7 — ^I do not want any. — ^Doet thou 
want much money 7 — I want much. — ^How much must thou have 7 — 
I must have five dollars. — ^How much does your brother want ? — ^He 
wants but sixpence. — ^Does he not want more ? — ^He does not want 
more. — Does your fiiend want more 7 — He does not want so much as L 
— ^What do you want 7 — I want money and clothes. — ^Have yon now 
what you want 7 — I have what I want — ^Has your father what he 
wants 7 — He has what he wants. 

Have the neighbor's boys given you back your books 7 — ^They have 
given me them back. — ^MHien did they give themback to you 7 — ^Yester- 
day. — ^Has your little boy received a present? — He has received 
several. — ^From whom has he received any 7 — ^From my father and 
from yours. — ^Have you received any presents 7 — ^I have received 
some. — ^What presents have you received 7 — ^I have received fine 
presents. — ^Do you come from the garden 7—1 do not come from the 
garden, but from the warehouse. — ^Where are you going to 7^ — ^l am 
going to the garden. — Whence does the Irishman, come 7 — ^Ile comes 
fhnn the garden. — Does he come firom the garden from which you 
come 7 — He does not come from the same. — ^From which garden does 
he come 7 — ^He comes from the garden of our old friend. — ^Whence 
comes your boy 7 — ^From the play. — ^How much may that horse be 
worth 7 — ^It may be worth five hundred dollars. — ^Is this book worth as 
much as that 7 — ^It is worth more. — ^How much is my gun worth 7 — 
It is worth as much as that of your fnend. — Are your horses worth as 
much as those of the English 7 — ^They are not worth so much. — ^Uow 
much is that knife worth 7 — ^It is worth nothing. 

Is your servant as good as mine 7 — ^He is better than yours. — ^Are 
you as good as your brother 7~He is better than I. — Art thou as good 
■a thy fiiend 7 — ^I am as good as he.^ — ^Are we aa good as our neigh- 

roftnxTH LBSSOV. 157 

bofs ? — ^We aie better than they. — Is yonr umbrella worth as much aa 
mine t— It is not worth so mndL — ^Why is it not worth so much as 
mine 7 — ^Becanae it is not so fine as yours. — ^How much is that gun 
woftB ? — ^It is not worth much. — Do yon wish to sell your horse ?— 
I do wish to sell it. — ^How much is it worth? — ^It is worth two 
hundred doUais. — ^Do you wish to buy it 7 — ^I have bought one already. 
— ^Does your father intend to buy a horse 7 — He does intend to buy 
one, but not yonrs. — ^Have your broUiers commenced their exercises 7^ 
They have commenced them. — Have you received your letters 7— 
We have not yet received them, (las.) — ^Have we what we want 7 — ^We 
have not what we want. — ^What do we want 7 — ^We want fine horses, 
several servants, and much money. — ^Is that all we want 7 — ^That is all 
we want. — ^What must I do 7 — You must write. — ^To whcnn must I 
write 7 — ^You must write to your friend. — ^Where is he 7 — ^He is in 
America. — Where am I to go 1 — ^Yon may go to France. — ^How ftr 
must I go 7 — Yon may go as fiir as Paii8.-^Which dogs has your 
servant beaten 7 — He has beaten those that have made much ncHse. 

FORTIETH LESSON.— jLeccion Cvadragenma. 

Then are in Spanish two teosee comsponding to the Engiish Imperfect, 
vis : the Imperfect, Preterito Imperfeeto, Na 2 ; and the Preterit, Prete- 
riio Perfeeto Remoto, N& 3. 

The Imperfeeto, Na 2, repreeenti the action as present, or still going on 
at the time spoken of, and corresponds to the English teas, ot were, fol- 
kvwed by the present participle. Example : — I etudied my lesso n when yon 
came in ; that is, / voaa studying, &c : Yo estndiaba mi leccion euando 

It also ezpresees habitual actions, and in this case answeis to the Eng- 
bih a«ed to. Example : — ^When I wae at Madrid, I went to the Prado 
every day ; that is, / ttsed to, &c : Guaudo yo estaba en Madrid, iba al 
Prado todoB los dias. 

Tlie Preterito Perfeeto Remoto, No. 3, expreoses an action that has 
taken place in a time entirely past, but that may be specified by some 
circumstances ; it corresponds to the Engtish did, followed by an infini* 
thre. Example : — I read yonr letter yesterday, (I did read :) Yo lei sn carta 
de y. ayer. I stayed two hours in my room, (I did stay :) Yo ma ^iisd^ 
dfls honui en mi cuarta 




I had. 


In all cases in which the English Imperfect can be turned into used tOf 
and an infinitive, or waa, were, and a present participle, use Na 2 in 
Spanish ; in all other cases, use No. 3. Example : — I wrote letters 'every 
morning, (that is, I used to write.) Here use No. 2, and say : Yo eseribia 
cartas todoe loa dias. — I wrote a letter when you came in, (I was writing 
when yon did come in.) In this case use No. 2 for the firet verb, and No. 3 
for the second, and say : Yo escribia una carta cuando V. enird. — I was 
throe days in Madrid. In this example we cannot say / need to be; there- 
fore, use Na 3, and say : Yo eetuve tres dfas en Madrid. 

For the formation of these two tenses, see the table in the Appendix. 

To have, (active.) | Tener, (activo.) 

52. r Tenia, tenias, tenia ;tenfamoB,teniai8, 

I tenian. 
3. I Tuve, tttviste, tuvo ; tuvfmos, tovis- 
I teis, tuvi^ron. 
To have, (auxiliary.) | Haber, (auxiliar.) 

2. ^Habia, habias, habia ; habfamaa, 
habfais, habian. , ^ 

Hube, hubiste, hubo ; hubimos, ha- 
bisteis, hubieron. 
I Ser and Estar. 

f Era, eras, era ; ^ramos, ^rais, eran. 
2. I < Estaba, estabas, estaba ; estiba- 
l^ moe, est&bais, estaban. 

fFuf , fuiste, fu^ ; fuimos, fnisteis* 
Estuve, estuvirte, estuvo ; estuvf- 
mos, estuvlsleis, estnvi^ion. 
To make. | Hacer. 

2. rHacia,hacia8,hacia ; hacfamos,ha- 

I did, made, or did make. 3 j HiceThic^rhlxo ; hidmos, hicisteia, 

L hici^ron. 
To be able, (can.) | Foder. 

2. r Podia, podias, podia ; podiamoa, 
I was able. I podlais, podian. 

I could. 3. I Pttde, pudiste, pudo ; pudimos, pu- 

L dbteis, pudi^ron. 

I had. 

To be. 

I waa. 


Last night 
Did you go to the ball last night ? 

Yes, Sir, I went with your son and 
my brother. 

Anoche. Ayer noche. 

I Fu^ v. al baile anoche, (or ayer 

noche) ? 
Si, Boiior, yo ful con sa hijo de V. y 




Did ymi ttfty vdIO the end of the • ^ Sa qnediron W. baita el fin del 

No, Sir, we left the room as your 

brother was coming in. 
Had yon any thing to do thk mom- 

I had some letters to write, bat I had 

no paper. 
Could yoa not ask for some? 
I waa going to ask for rntme iHien 

yoa called me. 


No, sefior, dejimos la saJa cnaodo 

entraba sa hermano do Y. 
I Tenia V. algo que hacer esta mft- 

Yo tenia que escribir algnnas cartasy 

pero no tenia popel. 
I No podia V. pedir algono 7 
Yo se 2e iba & pedir 4 V. cnando me 

Le. La. 

Ob9. A. When aome, need in an unlimited sense, is not followed hy a 
noan» it is rendered by one of the persons le, 61, ella, &^Je, la,6Le. 

I have no wine, but I am giHng to 
send for some. 

Yo no tengo yino, pero Toy i enTiar 
por ^L 


DBroirrB akticli — rtrnmnn. 

The. Of tha 
To the. 

Tbe woman. 
Of the woman. 
To the woman. 
The mother. 
To the' sister. 

The women. 
Of the women. 
To the women. 
Of the mothera 
To the sistera 


La. De la. 



I La mujer. 

De la mi:yer. 
' A la major. 
^ La madre. 
, A la hermana. 

Las. Delas. 
A las. 

Las mojeres. 
De las mnjerea 
A las mnjeres. 
De lasmadres. 
A las heimaaas. 

She. They. 

Has she? 
She has. 
She has not 
Have they 7 (fem.) 
They have, (fem.) 
They have not, (fem.) 

EUa. Ellaa 

(See Table of Penonal IVono un s, 
Ella tjene. 
Ella no tiene. 
^Tienen ellas? 
Ellas tienen. 
Ellas no tienen. « 


Rule. The Spanish PosBesMTe Adjectives, or Pronouns, are always alike 
for both genders ; and they agree in number, not with the posMssor, as in 
Eugliah, hot with the thing posBessed, or substantive that follows after 





Her. Its. 



Mi. Mi& 

To. Tub. 

Their. Su. Sua. 

Vaestio, (mas.) Vueatraa. 

Vueetra, (fem.) Vueetraa. 

Nneetro, (muB.) Naestros. 

Nuestra, (fem.) Nuestrao. 

S7 In colloquial polite conTezaation the following are used : 

(Su, or el — de V., or de W. 
Sua, or loa — de V.. or de W. (pL) 
Su, or la — de V., or de W. 
Sua, or las — de V., or de VV 



7%ey aold their share, (in stocka.) 

She aold her houaea. 

The father and hie son, or hie 

The mother and. her aon, or her 

The child and ite brother, or ite 


Ellos vendi^ron eu aeeion. 

Ella Tendi6 eue eaeae. 

El padre y eu hijo, or eu hija. 

La madre y eu hijo, or eu hija. 

El niilo y tic hermano, or eu her- 

My pen. 
My apoon. 
Hia or her nut 
Our hand. 

Your window. 
Their door. 

My pena. 
My spoons. 
His or her nuts. 
Our hands. 

Your windows. 

Their doon. 

Mi pluma. 
Mi cuchara. 
Su nuez. 
Nuestra mano. 


Mis plumaa. 
Mis cucharas. 
Sus nuecea. 
Nuestras manos. 

C Vuestra ventana. Vuestras Tentanaa. 
< La (su) ventana de V., or de W. 
\ Las (sus) Tentanas de V., or de W. 
I Su puerta. Sus puertaa. 

Obe. B. In detached aentenceai and in order to avoid ambiguity, his is 
translated de il; her, de ella ; their, de elloe, or de ellae; your, (in colloquial 
polite style,) de F., or de FF., after eu or eue; although theae pronouns 
may be suppreawd. 

His father. l t Su padre de A. El padre de ^L 

Their books. | t Los libros de ellos, (de ellas.) 

Vnn.. Kmffc-, J ^ ®" hermano de V. 

Your brother. ^ ^ gj ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ 

Rule. An adjectives terminating in o, change it into a to form the fem- 
inine, and make their plural by adding e ; aa, good — hueno, huenoe^ huena 



Hie Tuinons woman. 
The TiituooB women. 


La mojer Tirtnoea. 

Lai majeree ▼irtooma 

Oia C. Adjectiroe form their fAxml in confonnity with the role laid 
down for the BabstantiTes. (See Lees. BL, Page 36, and App^) 

Rule. Adjectives ending in any other letter but o, are common to both 
gendeia Except a few terminating in an and on, that add an a Cur the 

The amiable boy. EI mochacho amable. 

Is die amiable ? ^ Es ella amable 7 

Tlie two Bflten are very amiable. Lea doa hermanaa aon mny amablea. 

O&fc D. Adjectivea ngnifying the nativee of a country, or ita productiona, 
anch aa Ameriean, Spaniard, or Spani*h, terminating in o, change it into 
a to form the feminine ; thoae ending in a conaonant, add a ; and a few 
ending in a are the aame for both gendeia. 

America. American. 
The American women are hand- 
aome, Tirtaous, and well educated. 
Ireland. Irishman. Irish. 
The female servants in this city are 
almost all Irishwomen. 

America. Americano — ^Americana. 
Las Americanas son hermosaa, yir- 

tuosas y bien educadaa. 
Irianda. Iriandea. Iriandesa. 
Las criadas en esta dodad son caai 

todaa Iriandeaaa. 

Which woman t Which women 7 
Which daughter 7 Whichdaughten? 

I Que mujer 7 i Que mojerea 7 
I Que hija 7 i Que hijaa 7 

Thia, or that woman. 
Theae, or thoae women. 

TluB young lady. 
Theae young ladiea. 
That young lady. 
Those young ladiea. 

Hie hand. The handa. 
The right hand. 
The left hand. 
I have a aore hand. 

Esta 6 eea mujer. 
Estaa 6 eaaa mujerea. 

Eeta aefiorita. 

Estaa aefioritaa. 

Esa (or aquella) aefiorita. 

Esas (or aquellaa) aefioritaa. 

La mana Laa maaoa; 
La maoo derecha. 
La mano izquierda. 
t Tengo mala la mano. 

06a. E. To have, followed by a noun ezprearing that the part of the 
body aignified by it ia affiscted with pain, or illoeas, may be translated into 
SpaiiMh by Tener dolor fie, or by Doler ; when the latter ia made use of, 
the noun representing the part affected ia placed in the nominative, aa a 
autjaet, and the person suflbring, in the objective case. 




Tho tooth. I t ha mutHa^ (el diente.) 

The teeth. | t ha9 mutla»i (loe dientea) 

Have you the toothache 7 | t ^ TteiM V, dolor de muehu ? 

T 1. ^1. u J 1. S Tengo dolor de caheza. 

1 have the headache. ^ m j i i i. 

( Me duele la cabeza. 

I have a very seTere headache. | t Tengo jaqueea. 

,^ , ., C Tenffo an dolor en el (or de)costada 

1 feel a pain m my Bide. / _ _ ° . . ^ 

feet are sore. 

The face. 
The mouth. 
The cheek. 
The tongue, the languag[e. 
The door. 
The window. 
The town. 
The stuff 
The old woman. 

^ Me duele el costado. 
I Tiene los pies malos. 

La cara. 
La boca. 
La mejilla. 
La lengua. 
La puerta. 
La ventana. 
La calle. 
La ciudad. 
La tela. 
La vieja. 

O&s. F. Common nouns and adjectiyes ending in a, (excepting those 
deriTod from the Greek,) as, elima, climate ; dogma, &^. ; and also dia, 
day ; mapa, map, &c, are generally feminine. (See Appendix.) 


A. An. 

Of a. From a. 

To a. 
An industrious girl. 

A happy young lady. 

An active young woman. 


De una. 

A una. 

Una muchacha indostriosa. 

Una seftorita feliz. 

Una j6yen activa. 

Obo. O, Gimmon substantives, or nouns of one termination, distinguish 
the gender by the article. 

Una santa m&xtir. 

^ Tiene V. mi pluma? 

No, Beftora, yo no la tengo. 

I Que botella ha quebrado V. T 
Que puerta ha abierto V. t 
Que puerta habeis abierto t 

(17 The past participle coming immediately after the verb to AovSt 
(haber,) admits of no change ; but when it follows the verb to he, (ser, Oft 
estar,) it agrees with the subject noun or pronoun in gender and number. 

A holy female martyr. 
Have you my pen ? 
No, Madam, I have it not 
Which bottle have you broken? 

Which door have you opened? 



Which windows haye 700 opened ? 
Which windows h&ve heen opened 7 
Which letten have you written 7 
Which letteiB had been written 7 

I Qne Tentanas ha abierto V. 7 
I Que Tentanas han ndo ahurtas f 
I Que cartas han escrito W. 7 
I Qne cartas habian tido Mcritas? 

Have 70a this, or that pen 7 

I haye neither this, nor that 

Ei8& Aqnellas. 
I Tiene V . esta, 6 

No tengo esta, ni 

(or aqnella) 
(ni aqnella.) 

/f, or her. Them. 

Do yon see that woman 7 

I see her. 

Have yon seen my nsters 7 
No, my lady, I have not seen them. 
To him. To her. To it 
To them. 
Bo yon qpeak to my sisters 7 
I speak to them. 

IdL Lob. 

C ^ Ve V. & esa mojer 7 
\ I Veis k esa mujer 7 

Yo la Tea (See Less. XX., Table.) 

I Ha visto V. k mis hermanas 7 

No, sefiora, no las he visto. 

Le. (See Prononns, Less. XX.) 


I HaUa V. i. mis hermanas 7 

Yo les hablo. 

Some good water. 

Some, any. 

A napkin. A toweL 
To celebrate. To feast 

i Alguna agaa bnena. 
(fUn poco de agua huena. 

Alguna, algunae, (fem.) 

Una serrilleta. Una toalla. 
Celebrar 1. Festejar 1. 

How are your brothers ? — ^They have been very well for these few 
days, (uUimos dias.) — ^Where do they reside, (se hallan 7) — They reside 
fai Paris. — ^Whlch day of the week do the Turks celebrate 7 — ^They 
celebrate Friday, but the Christians celebrate Sunday, the Jews Satur- 
day, and the negroes their birthday. — *^ Among you country people 
there are many fools, are there not 7" (910 es oxi,) asked a philosopher 
lately (el otro did) of a peasant The hitter answered, " Sir, they are 
to be found in all stations, (estado.^^) " Fools sometimes tell the truth," 
said the philosopher. — ^Has your sister my gold lace, {gdUm ?) — She 
has it not — ^What has she ?---She has nothing. — ^Has your mother any 
thing? — She has a gold fork. — ^Who has my large bottle? — ^Your 
sister has it — ^Do you sometimes see my mother ? — ^I see her often.^— 
When did you see your dster ? — ^I saw her a fortnight ago, (hace quinee 


^Kof .}-— Who haa my faoe nuts 7 — Your good aigter haa them. — ^Haa 
ahe also my silver forks 7 — She has them not — ^Who haa them 7 — 
Your mother has them. — ^What fork have you 7 — ^I have my iron fork. 
— Have your sisters had my pens 7 — ^They have not had them, but I 
believe that their children have had them. — ^Why does your brother 
complain 7 — ^He complains because his right hand aches. — ^Why do 
you complain 7 — ^I complain because my left hand aches. 

Is your sister as old as my mother 7 — She is not so old, but she is 
taller. — ^Has your brother purchased any thing 7 — ^He has purchased 
something. — ^What has he bought 7 — ^He has bought fine linen and 
good pens. — ^Haa he not bought some silk stockings 7 — ^He haa bought 
some. — ^Is your sister writing 7 — No, Madam, she is not writing.-— 
Why does ahe not write 7 — ^Because she has a sore hand. — ^Why does 
not the daughter of your neighbor go out 7 — She does not go oat 
because she has sore feet — ^Why does my sister not speak 7 — ^Because 
ahe has a sore mouth. — Hast thou not seen my silver pen 7 — ^I have 
not seen it. — ^Does the wife (la mujer) of our shoemaker go out 
already 7 — ^No, my lady, she does not go out yet, for she is still very 
ill. — Which bottle has your little sister broken 7 — She broke the 
one which my mother bought yesterday. — ^Have you eaten of my soup 
or of my mother's 7 — ^I have eaten neither of yours nor your mother's, ' 
but of that of my good sister. — ^Have you seen the woman who was 
with me this morning 7 — ^I have not seen her. — Haa your mother hurt 
herself 7 — She has not hurt herself. 


Have you a sore nose 7 — ^I have not a sore ndse, but I have the 
toothache. — ^Have you cut your finger 7 — No, my lady, {sehora,) I have 
cut my hand. — Will you give me a pen 7 — ^I will give you one. — ^Will 
you have this or that 7—1 will have neither. — ^Which one do you wish 
to have 7 — ^I wish to have that which your sister has. — ^Do you wish to 
have my mother's good black silk or my sister's 7 — ^I wish to have 
neither your mother's nor your sister's, but that which you have. — 
Can you write with this pen 7 — ^I can write with it — ^Each (coda) 
woman thinks herself amiable, and each (coda una) is conceited, (iiene 
amor propio,) — ^The same as (sucede 6 hi) men, my dear friend. 
Many a one thinks himself learned who is not so, and many men 
surpass (exceden) women in vanity.— What is the matter with you 7 — 
Nothing is the matter with me. — ^Why does your sister complain 7— 
Because ahe has a pain in her cheek. — ^Has your brother a sore hand 7 
—No, but he feels a pain in his side. — ^Do you open the window 7 — 



I open it, becauae it is too wann. — ^Which windows has your stater 
opened f — She has opened those of the front room, (el euqrto a 2a caOe,) 
— ^Have you been at the ball of my old acquaintance, {conocidoJ}-^ 
1 have been there. — Which young ladies have you taken to the ball f 
— I took my sister's friends there. — ^Did they dance ? — ^They danced a 
good deal. — ^Did they amose themselves ? — ^They amosed themaebrea. 
— ^Did they remain long at the ball 7 — ^They remained there two hoois. 
— Is this yonng lady a Turk ? — ^No, she is a Greek. — ^Doea she apeak 
French ? — She speaks it. — ^Does she not speak English 7 — She speaks 
it also, bat she speaks French better. — ^Has your sister a companion ? 
— She has one. — ^Does she like her 7 — She likea her veiy much, for 
she is very amiable. 


To eat. Eaten. 
To dine, (aat dinner.) 

The dinner. 

The breakfast 
To eat supper, (to topi) 

The supper. 

After me. 
After him. 
After yoo. 
After my brother. 

Leecian Cuadragesima primeru. 

Comer. Cotmido. 


La comida. 

El almuena £1 dea ayuu ow 

Cenar I. Cenado. 

La cena. 

Deepmeo de, (prep.) 

Deques de ml 

Deepues de 6L 

Despues de V. Despaes de W. 

Despues de mi hennano. 

After having spoken. | t Despaes de haber haUada 

After carving the boiled meat | t Despues de tnnchar el ooctdo. 

lOr Whenever the present participle in Englinh is preceded by a prepo- 
sition, it most be translated in Spanish by the ]»esent of the infinitive 
mood ; except when the preposition is fry, which is generaDy omitted, and 
the present participle translated literally. 

After having sold his house. 

After having been there. 
I broke your knife after cutting the 
roasted meat 

t Despues de haber vendido so ca* 

t Despues de haber estado alli. 
t Yo qnebr^ el cnchillo de V. des- 
pues de tiinchar el asado. 

To break. Broken. 
I have dined earlier than yon. 
Ton have -supped late. 

Romper. Rompido, or roto. 
He comido mas temprano que Y 
Y. ha cenado tarda. 

T ' 



To pay for 

To pay a man for a horae. 

To pay the tailor /or the coat 

Do yoa pay the shoemaker for the 

I pay him for them. 
Does he pay yoa for the knives 7 
He pays me for them. 

Pagar (object) d (complement) 
t Pagar un caballo & ua hombre. 
t Pagar el vestido al sastre. 
1 1 Paga V. los zapatoB al zapateroT 

t Yo se los pago. 

1 1 Paga ^1 los cuchillos i V.? 

t £1 me los paga. 

To a9k for. 

To aak a man for money. 
I ask my father for some money. 
Do you ask me for your hat ? 
I do ask you for it 

Pedir * 3 (object) d (complement) 

t Pedir diuero 4 un hombre. 
t Yo pido diuero & mi padre. 
1 1 Me pide V. su sombrero 7 
Yo se le pido d V. 


(TT In Spanish the thmg paid or asked for is the object of the verb, and 
the person who has been paid, or asked, is the complement governed by tho 
preposition d, to ; but if the person or the thing is only mentioned, that per- 
son or that thing must be made the object of the Spanish verb. 

I have paid the tailor. 

Yon have paid him. 
Have you paid the shoemaker 7 
I have paid him. 
Do you pay vohat you owe 7 
Yes, I pay what I owe. 
Have you paid for your books 7 
I have paid for them. 
Have you asked for breakfast 7 
I have asked for it 
How much have you paid for them 7 
I have paid two dollars for them. 

Do you ask for something 7 

I ask for bread. 

To atk for, (inquire after.) 

Do you ask for somebody 7 
Yes, Sir, I ask for your brother. 

Do you ask for any thing? 

He pagado al sastre. 

V. le ha pagado. 

I Ha pagado V. al zapatero 7 

Yo le he pagado. 

I Paga V. lo qtte debe 7 

Si, yo pago h que debo. 

t J, Ha pagado V. bus libros? 

t Yo los he pagado. 

t ^ Ha pedido V. el ahnuerzoY' 

t Yo le he pedido. 

t ^ A cuanto los ha pagado V. 7 

t Los he pagado & dos peeos. 
^ tiPide V.algo? 
( t ^ Quiare V. algo ? 
1 1 Pido pan. 


t Preguntar 1 por. Butcar 1. 
t Informarae 1 de. Acerca de. 
1 1 Progunta V. por alguno 7 

I Busca V. d algoien 7 

Si, sei&or, preguuto por su hermano 

I I Busca V. alguna cosa? 

' « Ab soon as I arrived at the inn, I asked for supper" — ** Luego qu£ 
Uegui al vumn, pedi la eena.**—4hL Blab, translat^ by Ma, Book L 
Chapi IL 




Aftftr whom do yoa inquire ? 
Thflj iaqnire after your brother. 

She ioquireo of yon. 

Does he inquire after the boy? 


Boeco las eaitaa. 

t Vengo a busear lot ear tat. 

t ^ Aeerea de fttien faiere F. inform 

I Por qoien pregnnta V. 7 

Elloa pregnntan por m hennaao de 

EHa w infonna de V. 
EUa le pregunta 4 V. 
I Se infonna dl aceica del mncha- 


To <ry, (to eeaay, attempt) 
Will you try to do thatt 
I have tried to do it. 

Yon miifl^ try to do it better. 

Prober * 1 a. Proeurar 1. 

t i Quiere V. prober k hacer eeo? 

He probado d hacerla 
i y. debe procorar haceiio mejor. 
( Debeie procurar hacerlo mejor. 

TohoUL Held, 

Do yon hold my itiekT 
I do hold it 

Tener. Tenido. Arir • 3. 

Yo le tengo. 

Vo look for. \Btt9ettr. 

( t J Buflca V. algo 7 
Are yon looking for any thing? ^ ^ ^ jj^ y l^^^ ^g^^ 

Whom are you looking for? j t ^ A qnien bueca V.7 

I look for a brother of mine. t Yo bosco 4 nn hermano mkk 

My nncle. 
My oouauL 
My relation. 
The parents, (father and mother.) 

Mi prima 
Mi pariente. 
t Lob padiee. 

A brother of mine. 
A cousin of youn. 
A relation of his, df heis. 
A friend of our& 
A neighbor of theirs. 

t Un hermano mia 

t Un prime de V., (or snyo.) 

t Un pariente soyo, (de ^I, de ella.) 

t Un amigo nueslro. 

t Un vectno sayo, (de ellos, epas.) 

Oho. Mio, mia ; mioo, miag, aro also used without an article in ad- 
a person. Examples : — 

i Irenes del jardin, hijo mio ? 

Dost then come from the garden, my 


My dear friends, yon haye come late. 

Qneridos amigos mios, W. haa Te« 
nido tarde. 



Tm try, [to 


Dmb ha tiy to SM meT 
He tiiestoaee yoo. 

WImbi doei he tiy to 

He txiee to see an uncle of his. 

{Proewrar 1. Enferzarat * 1 
Probar* 1. 
I Ptocura ^I venne ? 
^Se eefaerza ^I d veime? 
£l procnra yer a Y. 
E\ se eefuerza para ver i V. 
i A qoien procnra ver ? 
I A qoien ee esfnenEa i. ver 1 
Procnra ver i nn tin niya 
Se esfnena & ver & un tio aajo. 


Properly. As tf should he. 
Properly. At I ought 
Properly. As he ought 
Properly. Am you ought 
Properly. Am they ought 
To do Me'« duty. 

Ton write property. 

de their dnty praperiy. 

Have yen done yonr tatk property T 

We kavB done it property. 
The doty. The teak. 
A glaaof wine. 
A piece of hnad. 

I t CoiRo oe debe. Deber. Bietu 

t Como deho. 

t Como debe. 

t Como V. debe. 

t Como deben. 
, Cumplir eon eu obligaeion. 

t V. eecribe como debe. 

t Eetos hombree cnmplen 
obligaeion como deben. 

1 1 Han hecho W. an tarea como d» 

t La bemoe hecho como debemoa 

Le, (mas.) Xa, (fern.) 

El deber. La terea. 

Un vaao de vino. 

Un pedazo de pan. 

con an 


Have yon paid for the gon 7 — ^I have paid for it. — Has your nnde 
paid for the books 7 — ^He has paid for them. — ^Have I paid the tailor for 
the clothes? — ^You have paid him for them. — ^Hast thou paid the 
merchant for the horse 7 — ^I have not yet paid him for it. — ^Have we 
paid for our gloves? — ^We have paid for them. — ^Has your cousin 
already paid for his shoes 7 — He has not yet paid for them. — ^Does my 
brother pay you what he owes you ? — ^He does pay it me. — Do you 
pay what you owe? — ^I do pay what I owe. — ^Have jrou paid the 
bakor ? — ^I have paid him. — ^Has your uncle paid the butcher for the 
mutton 7 — ^He has paid him for it — ^Who has broken my knife ? — 
I have broken it after cutting the bread. — ^Has your son broken my 
pencils 7 — ^He has broken them after writing his letters. — Have you 
paid the merchant for the wine after drinking it 7 — ^I have paid for it 

' No. 3 and No. 3, 
the directions given. 

hem. XL., page 158| should be used according to 


after diinking it. — Ho^ir do I speak ?— You speak properiy. — How Iks 

my consin written his exercises ? — ^He has written tiiem properiy. — 

How have my children done their task 7 — ^They have done it welL — 

Do» this man do his duty ? — ^He always does iL — ^Do these men do 

hsa duty ? — They always do it — ^Do yon do your dnty ?— I do whil 

I cui. — What do yon ask tins man for? — ^I ask him for some money. 

— What does this hoy ask me for ?— He asks yon for aome money. — 

Do yon ask me for any thing 7 — ^I ask yon for a dollar. — ^Do yon ask 

Bke for the hread 1 — ^I do ask you for it. — Which merchant do yon ask 

{or ^ovea ? — I ask thoee for some who Uve in Wiliiam-streeL — ^What 

do yon ask the baker for ? — ^I ask him for some bread. 

Do yon ask the butchers for some mutton 7 — ^I do ask them for 
Bome^ — Dost thon ask me for the stick 7 — ^I do ask thee for it — ^Doaa 
he ask thee for the book 7 — ^He does ask me for it — ^What have yon 
asked the Englishman for 7 — ^I have asked him for my leather trunk- 
Has he given it you 7 — ^He has given it me.— Whom have yon asked 
for some sugar 7 — ^I have asked the merchant for some. — ^Whom does 
your brother pay for his shoes 7 — ^He pays the shoemakers for them.— 
Whom have we paid for the bread 7 — ^We have paid our bakers for it 
— ^How old art thou? — ^I am not quite ten years old. — Dost thon 
already learn Spanish? — I do already learn it — ^Doea thy brother 
know German 7 — ^He does not know it — ^Why does he not know it 7— 
Because he has not had time. — ^Is your fother at home 7- No, he 1^ 
gone outjbatmy brother is at home. — Where is your fother gone to 7 — 
He is gone to England. — ^Have you sometimes been there 7 — ^I have 
never been there. — ^Do you intend going to France tins summer? — 
I do intend going there. — ^Do you intend to stay there long 7 — ^1 intend 
to stay there during the summer. — ^How long does your brother remain 
at home 7 — ^Till twelve o'clock. — Have yon had your gloves dyed 7 — 
I have had them dyed. — ^What have you had them dyed 7 — I have had 
them dyed yellow. — ^Have you already dined 7 — ^Not yet — ^At what 
o'clock do you dine 7 — ^1 dine at six o'clock. — ^At whose house (encuya 
eoMo) do yon dine 7 — ^I dine at the house of a friend of mine.^With 
whom did you dine yesterday 7 — ^I dined with a relation of mine. — 
What did you eat 7 — ^We ate good bread, ham, and oakes. — What did 
yon drink 7 — ^Wine. — Where does your uficle dine to-day 7— He dines 
with us. — At what o'clock does your fother sup 7 — ^He sups at nine 
o'clock. — ^Do you sup earlier than he 7 — ^I sup later than he. 

Where are yon going to 7 — ^I am going to a relation of mine, in 
Older to breakfast with him. — ^Art thou willing to hold my gloves ?-~ 
I am willing to hold them.— Who holds my hat?— Your son holds it. 



— Dost thou hold my stick ? — ^I do hold it. — Will yon try to speak ? — 
I wiU tiy. — Has your little brother ever tried to do exercises 7 — ^He 
has tried. — ^Have yon ever tried to make a hat 7 — ^I have never tried to 
make one. — Whom are you looking for 7 — ^I am looking for the man 
who has sold a horse to me. — ^Is your relation looking for any one 7 — 
He is looking for a friend of his. — Are we looking for any one 7 — ^We 
are looking for a neighbor of ours. — ^Whom dost thou look for 7 — ^I 
look for a friend of ours.— Are you looking for a servant of mine ? — 
No, I am looking for one of mine. — Have you tried to speak to your 
tmcle 7-*I have tried to speak to him.' — Have you tried to see my 
fiither 7 — ^I have tried to see him. — ^Has he received you 7 — ^He has not 
received me. — ^Has he received your brothers 7 — ^He has received 
them. — ^Have you been able to see your relation 7 — ^I have not been 
able to see him.-— What did you do after writing your exercises 7 — ^I 
wrote my letter. — ^After whom do you inquire 7 — I inquire after the 
tailor. — ^Does this man inquire after any one 7 — He inquires after you. 
—Do they inquire after you 7 — ^They do inquire after me. — Do they 
inquire after me 7 — ^They do not inquire after you, but after a fnend 
of yours. — ^Do you inquire after the physician 7 — ^I do inquire after 
him.— -What does your little (the diminutive) brother ask for 7 — ^He 
asks for a small (the diminutive) piece of bread. — Has he not yet 
broakftsted 7 — ^He has break&sted, but he is still hungry.— What doea 
your uncle ask for 7 — ^He asks for a glass of wine. — ^Has he not already 
dnmk 7— He has already drunk, but he is still thirsty. 

FORTY-SECOND LESSON.— Leccton Cuadragisima segunda. 

The one who. Him who. 
Thoee who. 
To perceive, (to see.) 

Que, (relative pronoun.) 

El qtte. 

Loa que. 

Percibir 3. Divisar 1. Colombrar 1. 

Do yon perceive the man who iaK i Columlnra V. al hombre que viene ? 
coming 7 ( i Divisa V. al hombre que viene 7 

I perceive him who is coming. 

Do 3rDn perceive the men who are 

going into the warehouse? 
I perceive those who are going into 

To go in, (to enter understood.) 

Yo diviso (columbro) al que viene. 
I Divisa V. i los hombres que van A 

entrer en el almacen ? 
Yo diviso & los que van & entrar an 


How is the weather 7 5 "^ ^ Que tiempo hace 7 

What kind of weather is it 7 ( t ^ Qae tiempo tenemos 7 

It is fine weather now. | t Hace hermoso tiempo. 

What was the weather yesterday 7 | 1 1 Qne tiempo hixo ayer 7 



ft WW bad weather yeiteiday. 
Wm it good or bad weaihar ? 
It wu not gf>od weather. 

It was very warm. 
It was very cokL 
If it vary warm nowT 
It ■ neiiher wum nor cold. 

Dark. Ohacnre. 
Dndiy. Gloomy. 
Clear. Light. 
Ib it dark in yonr warehouse 7 

Is it dark in his guret? 
It is very dark there. 
Wet Damp. 
Are the ■treets wet 7 
They are not very dry. 
Is the weather damp 7 
It is not dampu 
li it dry weather 7 
The weather is too dry. 
The moonlight 
The moonshine. 
It is moonlight 
We have too much sun. 

To taste. 
Have yon tasted that wine7 

I have tasted it 
How do yon like it7 
I like it welL 
Do yon like cider 7 
No, I like wine. 
To like. 

I like fish. 
He likes fowl. 

Do yon like to see my liiother7 
I hke to see him. 
i like to do it 
He likes to study. 

t Him mat tiempo ayer. 

t ; Hizo bnen tiempo 6 mal tiempo 7 

t No hixo boen tiempa 

t Hizo mncho calor. 

t Hizo mncho firio. 

Mucko, (before a noun.) 

1 1 Hace mncho calor ahota7 

t No hace calor ni 


L6bcego. Triste. 

Claro. Deapejado. 

t ; Es (or esti) oscnrosu afanacen de 

t ^ Es (or esti) oaenro su desTBn7 
Esti muy oaenro aJlL 
Mojado. HOmedo. 

I Estan mpnadaa las eaOes 7 
No estan moy aecaa. 
iEsti hamedo el tiempo t 
No esti hUmedo. 
I Es seco el tiempo 7 
£1 tiempo esti dcmasiado 
La luz de la luna. 
El elaro de la Utna. 
t Hay Inna. Hace Inna. 
Demasiado sol tenomoa. 

Guetar. Probar. Catar 

;Ha piobado (ha catado) V. aqoel 

Le he gustado, (probado, catada) 
1 1 Coroo le gusta i V.7 
t Me gusta mncha 
t ^Le gusta i V. la sidra7 
t No, me gusta el vino. 

t OuetarU d uno. (See Less. XXIV.) 
t BCe gusta el pescado. 
t A il le gusta el polio. 

t ^ Le gusta i V. ver i mi hermanot 
t Me gusta verle. 
t Me gusta haeeria 
t Le gusta eatudiar. 



The Khdar. 

The pupii. 

The master, (teacher.) 

To learn by heart. 
Do your Bcholars like to learn by 

They do not like learning by heart 

Have you learned your exercises by 

We have learned them. 

El discCpulo, (eseolar, estudiante.) 

£1 alumno. EI discfpulo. 

El maestro. 

Aprender de memona. 

1 1 Les gusta d sub disc(pulos de V. 

aprender de memoria ? 
t El aprender de memoria no les 

No les gusta aprender de memoria. 
1 1 Han aprendido W. sus temas de 

memoria ? 
Les hemos aprendido. 

Once a day. 
Three times a month. 
So much a year. 
So much a head. 
So much a soldier. 
Six times a year. 

Early in the morning. 
We go out early in the morning. 
When did your father go out ? 

t Una vez al dia. 

t Tres voces al mes, (por mes.) 

t Tanto al alio. 

t Tanto por cabeza. 

t Tanto por soldado. 

t Seis voces al afio. 

Por la maOana temprano, 
Salimos por la mafiana temprano. 
I Cuando salid su padre de V. ? 

To 9peak of 9ome one, or of wme- | Hablar de alguno, (de algo, 

De quien hablan W.? 
De quien hablais ? 

Of whom do you speak ? 


We speak of the man whom you 

Of what are they speaking? 
They are speaking of the weather. 
The weather. 
The soldier. 

Hablamos del hombre que V. conoce. 

I De que estan hablando ellos 7 
Estan hablando del tiempo. 
El tiempa 
El Boldadou 


To he content, eatiefied with tome 
one, or with eomething. 

Are you satisfied with this man 7 

I am satisfied with him. 

Are you content with your new 

I am content with it 
With what are you contented? 

Eetar contento eon (or de) algtUen; 
con (or dc) algo, 

I Estd V. satisfecho de este hombre? 

Estoy satisfecho de 41, 

^Estd y. contento con su vestido 

nuevo 7 
Estoy satisfecho de ^1. 
I De que esti V. contento 7 
Malcontenta Descontento. 



*ni«y ipeak of your friend. 

TVusy apeak of him. 

They ue epoaking of yoor book. 

Tliey ue ■pfwiking of it 

Hablan (te haUa) de m amigo de V 

Hablan (se habia) de ^1. 

Eatan haUando (w est& hablando) 

de m libro de V. 
Eetan (se eaU) hablando de ^I. 

I intend paying yon if I nceiTe 

Do yon intend to boy paper 7 
I intend to buy some, if they pay me 

what they owe me. 


Pienao (intento) pagar i V. ai recibo 

I Fiensa V. comprar papel ? 
Intento comprar algono ri me pagan 

lo que me deben. 

How waa the weather yeaterday 7 
It waa fine weather. 

I Que ttempo hizo ayer7 
Hiso boen tiempa 

Do you perceive the man who is coming 7 — I do not perceive him. — 
Do you percdve the soldier's children ? — ^I do perceive them. — ^Do you 
perceive the men who are going into the garden ? — I do not perceive 
those who are going into the garden, bat those who are going to the 
market — Does your brother perceive the man wl^o has lent him 
mooey 7 — He does not perceive the one who has lent him, but the one 
to whom he has lent some. — ^Dost thou see the children who axe 
studying 7 — ^I do not see those who are studying, but those who aie 
playing. — Dost thou perceive any thing 7 — ^I perceive nothing. — ^Havo 
you perceived my parents' warehouses 7 — ^I have perceived them.— 
Where have you perceived them 7 — ^I have perceived them on that 
side of the road. — ^Do you like a large hat 7 — ^I do not like a large hat, 
but a large umbrella. — ^What do you like to do 7 — ^I like to write. — ^Do 
you like to see these little boys 7 — ^I like to see them. — ^Do you like 
wine 7 — I do like it — ^Does your brother like cider, (sidra 7) — ^He does 
like it — What do the soldiers like 7 — They like wine. — ^Dost thou like 
tea or coffee 7 — I like both. — ^Do these children Uke to study 7 — They 
like to study and to play. — ^Do you like to read and to write 7 — ^I like 
to read and to write. — ^How many times a day do you eat 7 — ^Four 
times. — ^How often do your children drink a day 7 — ^They drink several 
times a day. — ^Do you drink as often as they 7 — I drink oftcner. — ^Do 
you often go to the theatre 7 — I go sometimes. — ^How often in a month 
do you go 7 — ^I go but once a month. — How many times a year does 
your cousin go to the ball 7 — ^He goes twice a year. — ^Do you go as 
often as he 7 — ^I never go. — ^Does your cook often go to the market 7— 
He goes thither every morning. 




Do yoa often go to my uncle ? — ^I go to him aix times a year.— 
Do you like fowl ? — ^I like fowl, bat I do not like fieh. — ^What do you 
like f— I Uke a piece of bread and a glass of wine. — ^Do you learn by 
heart ? — ^I do not like learning by heart — ^Do your pupils like to learn 
by heart 7 — ^They like to study, but they do not Uke learning by heart. 
— ^How many exercises do they do a day ? — ^They only do two, but 
they do them properly. — ^Were yon able to read the note which I wrote 
to you 7 — I was able to read it — ^Did you understand it 7 — ^I did under- 
stand it — Do you understand the man who is speaking to you ? — 
I do not understand him. — ^Why do you not understand him ? — Because 
he speaks too badly. — ^Does this man know French 7 — ^He knows it, 
but I do not know it — ^Why do you not leam it 7 — ^I have no time to 
learn it — ^Do you intend going to the theatre this evening 7 — ^I intend 
goingf if you go. — ^Does your fiither intend to buy that horse 7 — ^He 
intends buying it, if he receives his money. — ^Does your friend intend 
going to England 7— He intends going thither, if they pay him what 
they owe him. — ^Do you intend going to the concert 7 — ^I intend to go, 
if my friend goes. — ^Does your brother intend to study Spanish 7 — ^He 
intends studying it, if he finds a good master. 

How is the weather to-day 7 — ^It is very fine weather. — ^Was it fine 
weather yesterday 7 — ^It was bad weather yesterday. — ^How was the 
weather this morning 7 — ^It was bad weather, but now it is fine weather. 
—Is it warm 7 — ^It is very warm. — ^Is it not cold 7 — ^It is not cold. — 
Is it warm or cold 7 — ^It is neither warm nor cold. — ^Did yon go to the 
garden the day before yesterday 7 — ^I did not go. — ^Why did you not 
go 7 — ^I did not go, because it was bad weather. — ^Do you intend going 
there to-morrow 7 — ^I do intend going there if the weather is fine. — 
Is it light in your counting-house 7 — It is not light in it — ^Do you wish 
to work in mine 7 — ^I do wish to work in it — ^Is it light there ? — ^It is 
very light there. — ^Why cannot your brother work in his warehouse 7 
— ^He cannot work there, because it is too dark. — ^Where is it too 
dark 7 — ^In his warehouse. — ^Is it light in that hole 7 — ^It is dark (there.) 
— ^Is the weather dry 7 — ^It is very dry. — Is it damp 7 — It is not damp. 
It is too dry. — Is it moonlight 7 — ^It is not moonlight, it is very damp. 
— Of what does your uncle speak 7 — He speaks of the fine weather. — 
Of what do those men speak 7 — They speak of fair and bad weather. 
— Do they not speak of the wind 7 — ^They do also speak of it. — Dost 
thou speak of my unde 7 — ^I do not speak of him. — Of whom dost 
thou speak 7 — ^I speak of thee and thy parents. — ^Do you inquire after 
any one 7 — ^I inquire after your cousin ; is he at home 7 — ^No, he is 
at his best fiiend's. 



Hsve yon tasted that wine ? — ^I have tasted it — ^How do 70a like it f 
—I like it well. — How does your cousin like that cider? — ^He does 
not like iL — ^Which wine do yon wish to taste ? — ^I wish to taste that 
which you have tasted. — ^WiU yon taste this tobacco 7 — ^I have tasted 
it already. — How do you like it 7 — ^I like it well. — ^Why do yon not 
taste that cider 7 — ^Because I am not thirsty. — ^Why does your fnend 
not taste this ham 7 — ^Because he is not hungry. — Of whom have they 
spoken 7 — ^They have spoken of your friend. — ^Have they not spoken 
of the physicians 7 — ^They have not spoken of them. — ^Do they not 
speak of the man of whom we have spoken 7 — ^They dp speak of him. 
— ^Have they spoken of the noblemen, (cabdUeros T) — They have 
spoken of them. — ^Have they spokeik of those of whom we speak 7 — 
They have not spoken of those of whom we speak, hat they have 
spoken of others. — ^Have they spoken of oar children or of those of oar 
nei^ihors 7 — They have neither spoken of oars, nor those of oar 
neighbors. — ^Whidi children have been spoken of 7 — ^Those of oar 
master have been spoken of. — ^Do they speak of my hook 7 — ^They do 
speak of it — ^Are yon satisfied with year pupils 7 — ^I am satisfied with 
them. — ^How does my brother stady 7 — He studies well.—- How many 
ezerdses have you studied? — ^I have already studied forty-two. — 1b 
your master satisfied with his scholar? — ^He is satisfied with him.— 
Is your master satisfied with the presents which he has received 7— 
He is satisfied with them. — ^Have you received a note 7 — I have 
received one. — ^Will yon answer (it 7) — ^I am going to answer 0t)— 
When did yon receive it 7 — ^I received it early this mondng. — ^Axe yoa 
satisfied widi it 7 — ^I am not satisfied with it— Does your firiend ask 
you for money 7 — ^He does ask me for some. 

FORTY-THmD LESSON.— Leocion CuadragSswia tereen. 


Pasnve Verbs represent the inbject as receiving or sufiering from othen 
the action expressed by the verK In Spanish, as in Engtisb, they are con- 
jugated by means of the anxiliary veih Skr, (to be,) placed before the past 
participle of the active veib; and the noun or pronoun, representing the 
agent (the sabject) in the active phrase, most be preceded by the preposi- 
tions par or de, (by.) Either of them may be used when the action of the 
verb refers to the mind, and por only, yrhen otherwise. EjT Observe that 
the past participle of the principal verb must agree in gender and nmnber 
with the subject of the verb. 




I amlored. 

HiOQ coodoetait 
Tlioa art condncted. 

He praiMK 

You panuh. 
Y<m are ponkhed. 

They blame. 
They are blamed. 

To puniaJL 
To blame. 

By me. By w. 

By thee. By yoo. 

By him. By them. 

Yo amo. 

Yo aoy amado de, (per.) 

Tfi condocea. 

Til eras oondacido per. 


£l ea alabado de, (por). 

V. castiga. 

V. ea caatigado por. 

ElloB yitnperaD. 

EUoB aon yituperadoa de, (par.) 

AUtbar. Elogiar. 
Vituperar. Culpar. 

Por (de) mf. Por (de) noaotraa 
For (de) tS. Por (de) Toa, or 
por (de) V. ; por (de) W. 
Por (de) A Por (de) elioa. 

I am lored by him. 

The naughty boy ia pimiahed. 

By whom ia he puniahedl 
He ia poniriied by hii father. 
Which man ia praiaed, and which ia 

Whiek 7 (not followed by a noon.) 

SkllfuL Diligent Clever. 
AaHdoooa. Indoatrioaa. Stodiooa. 


Soy amado de €L 

I Quien ea caatigado ? 

El machacho malo ea caatigado. 

EI mal muchacho ea caatigado. 

I Por quien ea caati^rado 7 

£1 ea caatigado por ao padre. 

I Que hombre ea alabado, y cual 

I Cual ? • 

Malo, (Mai, before a noun.) 
Hibil. Diiigente. Dieatro. 
Asidoa Induatrioao. Eatudioaik 
Ocioao. Perexoao. Holgaaan. 

Hie idler, (the lasy fellow.) 

To reward. 
To eeteem. 

To hate. 
To travel to a place. 
Where haa he traTcUed to? 
He haa travelled to Vienna. 

I El haragan. 

Reeompenoar 1. Premiar 1. 
Eetimar. Apreeiar 1. 
Doepreeiar. Menoepreciar 1. 

Aborreeer 3. (See yeiba in eer.) 
Ir d, Iroe d, 

I Adonde ae ha ido 7 
Se ha ido i Viena. 



Ii it good trmTrifing 7 
It ii good tntvolliiig. 
It is bod trmwUing. 

In the winter. 

In the •azDiDer. 

In the spring. 

In the aatnmn. 
It ii bod troTelling in the winter. 

^Esbiieno Tiojar? 

Es bnono riajar. 

Es male viajar. 

En el invienia 

En el Torano. 

En la {HrimaTonL 

En el otoiia 

Eo malo Tiajar en el inTiemo. 

To drtoe, to ride m a carriage. I t /r en coehe, Amdar 1 * (pooMr) 

I en eoche. 
t It {andar, patear) a cabaUa. 
Montar d ecballo, 
Ir & pie, 

t ^ Le gofta i V. andar 4 cabaDo? 
t Me gorta ir en coche. 

To ride, (an honeback.) 

Tb go on foot. 
Do yon like to ride 7 
I like to drive. 

To live. 

Ib it good liTing in Paris 7 

Living is good in Paris. 
It is good living here. 
The living is good here. 

Is the living dear in London 7 
Is it dear living in London ? 

The living is dear here. 
It is dear living here. 


I Se vive bien en Paris7 

f iLo pom uno hien en Parief 

Se vive bien en Paria 

Aqol se vive bien. 

Lo pass nno bien aqoL 

Csro. Cofffeso. Coeiar *1 wmeko, 

I Es caro (costoso) el vivir en Lte* 

I Cnesta macho vivir en Ltedresf 
£1 vivir aqof es caro. 
Cnesta macho vivir aquL 

Thonder. | Troeno. Troenoa. 

5 ^ tonnenta. La tempestad. 

Thestonn. ) La borrasca. 

The fog. I La nieUa. 

it I Hace viento7 
( t Hace vienta 

It ■ windy. The wind blows. 
It is not windy. 
It is very windy. 
Does it thonder 7 

( Corre viento, (hace aire.) 
^ t No hace viento. 
{ No corre viento, (hace aire.) 
( Hace macho viento. 
\ Corre macho viento, (hace aire.) 
1 1 Hay traenos 7 j, Traena 7 


Esti tronando 7 



Is it ■tonny I 

It is not ^mmj. 

Vom the flan diine 7 
It thonden Tory much. 

1 1 i Haee ttieUa 7 ^HaynieUat 
1 1 Esti tempefltnoBO el tiempo7 
1 1 Hay tempested 7 
t No hay tempestad. 
No esti tempestnoso. 
I Luce el sol 7 i Hay sd 7 
Traena muchisimo. 



A» aoonas* 
As soon as I hsTo eaten I drink. 
As soon at I have taken off my 

shoes, I take off my stockings. 
What do you do in the eyening 7 


Luego fue. Asi que, 

Ab( que he comido, bebo. 

t liaego que me he quitado lo8 

patos, me quite Uu medias. 
I Que hace V. por la tarde 7 

To tieep. 

Does your father still sleep 7 
He still sleeps. 

Without money. 
Without speaking. 

Dormir * 3. 

I Duerme todavfa sn padre de V. 7 
Duenne todavfa. Aon dneime 


Sin dinero. 
t Sin hablar. 

Oho. Sin (without) requires the Terb which follows it to be in the infini- 

£ t Sin deeir nada. 
Without saying any thing. < t Sin hablar palabra. 

f t Sin abrir la boea. 

At loot. 
To arrive. 

Has he arrired at last 7 
He has not aniTed yet 
Is he comiog at last 7 
He is coming. 

' Alfin. Finalmente. 
Llegar 1. (See veibs in gm:) 

I Ha Uegado finalmente 7 
Todavfa no ha Uegado^ 
|,Viene al fin7 
1^1 viene. 

And then. 
And then he sleeps. 
As soon as he has supped he reads, 
and then he deeps. 

Y ent6nee8. Y pueo. Y que. 

T entbnces duerme. 
Luego que ha cenado lee, y entdnoes 

The parents, (father and mother.) 

Father and mother. 
Are yon loved by your father and 

I am loved by my parents. 

t Los padres, 
t Los padres. 
1 1, Eki V. amado de sns padres 7 

t Soy amado de mis padxte. 

VO&T7-THIBD UB880R. It9 

Aie you loved ? — ^I am loved. — ^By whom are you loved ? — I am 
loved by my uncle. — ^By whom am I loved ? — ^Thou art loved by thy 
parents. — ^By whom are we loved 7 — ^You are loved by your friends. — 
By whom are those boys loved 7 — ^They are loved by their friends. — 
By whom is this man conducted ? — ^He is conducted by me. — Where 
do you conduct him to 7 — ^I conduct him home. — ^By whom are we 
blamed 7 — ^We are blamed by our enemies. — Why are we blamed by 
them 7 — ^Because they do not love us. — Are you punished by your 
master 7 — ^I am not punished by him, because I am good and studious. 
— Are we heard 7 — We are, (lo.) — ^By whom are we heard 7 — ^We are 
heard by our neighbors. — ^Ls thy master heard by his pupils 7 — ^He is 
heard by them. — ^Which children are praised 7 — Those that are good. 
— ^Which are punished 7 — Those that are idle and naughty. — ^Are we 
praised or blamed 7 — We are neither praised nor blamed. — ^Is our 
friend loved by his masters 7 — ^He is loved and praised by them, 
because he is studious and good ; but his brother is despised by Ms, 
because he is naughty and idle. — ^Is he sometimes punished 7 — He is 
(lo) eveiy morning and every evening. — ^Are you sometimes punished 7 
— ^I am (lo) never ; I am loved and rewarded by my good mastere. — 
Are these children never punished 7 — ^They are (lo) never, because 
they are studious and good ; but those are so (lo) very often, because 
they are idle and naughty. — ^Who is praised and rewarded 7 — Skilful 
children are praised, esteemed, and rewarded, but the ignorant are 
damed, despised, and punished. — ^Who is loved and who is hated 7 — 
He who is studious and good is loved, and he who is idle and naughty 
is hated. — ^Must (one) be good in order to be loved 7 — (One) must be 
so.— What must (one) do in order to be loved 7 — (One) must be good 
and assiduous. — What must (one) do in order to be rewarded 7 — (One) 
must be skilful, and study much, (see Lesson XXXIX., page 152.) 

Why are those children loved 7 — ^They are loved because they are 
good. — Are they better than we 7 — ^They are not better, but more 
studious than you. — ^Is your brother as assiduous as mine 7 — ^He is as 
assiduous as he, but your brother is better than mine. — ^Do you like to 
drive 7 — ^I like to ride. — Has your brother ever been on horseback 7 — 
He has never been on horseback. — Does your brother ride on horse- 
back as often as you 7 — ^He rides on horseback oflener than I. — ^Did 
you go on horseback the day before yesterday 7 — ^I went on horseback 
to-day. — ^Do ypu like travelling 7—1 do like travelling. — ^Do you like 
travelling in the winter 7— I do not like travelling in the winter; I like 

180 TO] 

tmfeninf in the npriag and in *«tiinm — b H good tiaTeUing in the 
spring f — It is good traveling in qving and in aatamn, bot it is bad 
uaY^ing in the sommsr and in the winter. — Have yoa sometimes 
tiafdled in the winter ? — I have often travelled in the winter and in 
the smnmer. — ^Does yoor brother travel often ? — ^He travels no longer ; 
he fonnerty travelled much. — ^Wben do you like to ride ? — ^I like to 
rids in the moming. — ^Have yon been in London ? — I have been there. 
— Is the living good there ? — ^The living is good there, but dear. — ^Is it 
dear living in Piuia ? — ^It is good living (there,) and not dear. — ^Do yon 
like travelling in Fiance ? — ^I like travelling there, because one finds 
good people (Imgnas gtrues) there. — ^Does your friend like travelling in 
iinlUiiii f — He does not like travelling there, because the living is bad 
there. — Do yon like travelling in Italy 7 — ^I do like travelling there, 
becanse the living is good there, and one (se haUa) finds good people 
there ; but the roads are not very good there. — ^Do the English like to 
travri in Spain f — They like to travel there ; but they find the roads 
too bad. — ^How is the weather? — ^The weather is very bad. — ^Is it 
windy ? — ^It is very windy. — Was it stormy yesterday ? — It was very 

Do you go to the market this moming ? — I do go, if it is not stormy. 
— Do you intend going to Fiance tins year 7 — ^I intend going (thither) 
if the weather is not too bad. — ^Do you like to go on foot ? — ^I do not 
like to go on foot, but I like going in a carriage when (cuando) I am 
travelling. — ^WIll you go on foot 7 — ^I cannot go on foot, becanse I am 
tired. — ^What sort of weather is it? — ^It thunders. — Does the sun 
shine ? — ^The sun does not shine ; it is foggy. — ^Do you hear the thun- 
der 7 — ^I hear it. — la it fine weather 7 — The wind blows haid, and it 
thunders much. — Of whom have yon spoken? — ^We have spoken 
of you. — ^Have you praised me ? — ^We have not praised you ; we have 
blamed you. — ^Why have you blamed me 7 — Because you do not study 
well. — Of what has your brother spoken ? — ^He has spoken of his 
books, his hones, and his dogs.— What do you do in the evening ?— 
I work as soon as I have supped. — And what do you do afterwards 7 — 
Afterwards I sleep. — ^When do you drink ? — ^I drink as soon as I have 
eaten. — ^Hisve you spoken to the merchant ? — ^I have spoken to him. — 
What has he said ? — ^He has left {salir) without saying any thing. — 
Can you work without speaking 7—1 can work, but not study Spanish 
without speaking. — ^Wilt thou go for some wine 7 — ^I cannot go for 
wine without money. — Have you bought any horses ? — ^I do not buy 
without money.— Has your father arrived at last 7— He has arrived. — 
When did he arrive 7 — This moming at four o'clock. — Has your 
eousin set out at hut 7 — ^He has not set out yet.— Have you at last 



foimd a good master 7—1 have at last found one. — ^Are yoa at last 
learning Spanish? — ^I am at last learning it — ^Why have yoa not 
already learned it 7 — ^Becanse I have not been able to find a good 

FORTY-FOURTH LESSON.— Leccion Cuadragisima cuarta. 


When the action fall* apon the agent, and the object refen to the Mme 
penon as the sabject, the verb m called reflective or pronominal. In Span- 
irii ahnost all active verbs may become reflective, and used as pronominaL 
Tliese veibs fotm their ooroponnd tenses with the aajofisry haber, (to have.) 
Hie prononn object must be of the same person as that of the nibject, 
and each person is conjugated with a double pemnal pronoon. However, 
the prononn sftbject m almost always nnderstood in Spanish, while in Engiiah 
it is the object. 

I — (myselH) 
Thoo — (thyself.) 
He — (himself.) 
She — (henel£) 

It— (itself.) 

One — (one's sell) 
W© — (ouiselves.) 
Sing. Yom — (yourself) 

Plnr. You, ye — (yourselves.) 

Bias. They — (themselves.) 
Fern. They — (themselves.) 

(Yo) me^(d mi siismo.)' 
(Ttk) te~(d ti mumo.) 
(t\) se— (d 9i miwmo.) 
(Ella) se— (d si mtsms.) 

i(£l) se— (d si mismo.) 
(Ella) se— (d H mtsms.) 
Uno se— algono se— (d H 
(Ncsotroe) noe — (d no§otro» 
V. se-Kvos OS) & d 

W. se— (eosofros os) — (d H 

— (d vogotros mismo9.) 
Ellos se— (d H mumot,) 
Ellas se — (d ti mimnat.) 



(d V09 


Obs. it. It will be remarked that the pronoun object of the thiid penon 
is%lways se, whatever its gender or number may be. 

To cut youiself 
To cut myself 
To cut ounehres. 
To cut himselC 
To cut heiself. 

Cortarse V. (Cortaras.) ^ 



Cortazse (^1.) < 

Cortarse (ella.) 

* The words in italics are often added to the verb to give mors energy to 
the sentence. 




To cut itMlf. 
To cot ODo's 8el£ 

Do yon bam younelf 7 
I do not bam myBtAt 
Yoa do not bom yonnelt 
I see myiolt 
Do I seo myself 7 
He seee himself. 
We see ouraelves. 
They see themselTes. 
He always praises himseUl 

C^ortazse (61.) CoitUM (elltt.) 

Do yoa wish to warm younelf 7 

I do wish to warm myselfl 
Does he wish to warm himself 7 
He does wish to warm himsell 
They wish to warm themselves. 

To enjoy. 
To divert 
To amu9e one's »elf. 

In what do yoa amuse yonnelf 7 
I amose myself in reading. 
He direits himself in playing. 

I Se qaema V. 7 

(Yo) no me qoema 

V. no se quema. 

(Yo) me vea 

I Me veo yo 7 


(Nosotros) nos Temoa. 

EUos se yen. Ellas se Ten. 

£l se alaba stempre & iA mkmo 

C I Qniere V. calentaiae 7 
( £ Se qniere V. calentar 7 

Me quiero calentar. 

I Qniere €\ calentaise 7 

£l qniere calentane. 

EUos se qnieren calentar. 

Divertiroe *.* 
Entreteneroe *.* 
Recrearee 1. 

I A (or en) qne se dirierto V. 7 
Yo me lecreo leyendo, (or en leer.) 
Se entretiene en jugar, (jugando.) 

Each one. 
Each man amnses himself as he 

ESach one amnses himself in the best 
way he can. 

The taste. 

Each man has hif taste. 

Each of yon. 

The #Drld, (the people.) 

Every one. Everybody. 
Everybody q>eaks of it 

Coda. Todo. 

Cada uno, 

Cada hombre se divierto oomo le 

gnsta, (como gusta.) 
Cada uno se divierte del mejor mode 

que puede. 
El gusto. 

Cada uno tiene su gusto. ^ 

Cada hombre tiene sn gusto. 
Cada unade W. 
El mnndo, (la gento.) 
Cada uno. Todo el munde. 

Cada nno (or todo el mundo) haUa 

de ello. 
Todos haUan de ello. 

* See in the Appendix. 

* Conjugated like tenor* 

voBxr-FOcsm lbbbov. 




Ton an iiiiiUk«ik 

'f E^jtuvoctnt 1. 

t V. oe eqnmiea. 
f £1 80 e^jorrocft. 

To deeewe, to eiemL 
He has dieated me. 
He has cheated me of a handled 

Emganmr en. t llecer 
£l me ha enganada 
t £l me ha hecho dng^ 

YoQ cot your finger. | V. ee oorttf el ded& 

0&9. B. When an agent peifenm an act npon a part of himMlf, the ^erii 
made xeflectire ; and aiy, Ai«, yrar«, &c^ are lendeied bj el, 2a, Jef, («: 

I cat my naik. [ Y^ me corto las a2aa» (fem. pL) 

A hair. Un cabeOa 

To puU out, I Arramcar 1. iirraiiciarae. 

He poUa oat his hair. Se ananca el cabeUa * 

He cats his hair. Se oorta el cabeOa 

Tlie piece. £1 pedaza La pieza. 

A piece of bread. , Un pedazo de pan. 

To go away. 
Axe y oa going away T 
I am going away. 
He is going away. 
Is he going away 7 
Are we going away ? 
Yoa are going away. 
Are these men going away 7 

They are not gmng away. 
To feel sleepy. 

Do yoa feel sleepy 7 
I feel sleepy. 

To sotX 

To fear, to dread. 
I dnadt tboa dreadest, he dreada 

/rse. Marekaroe. 

;SeTaV.7 ^SemarehaV.? 

Me voy. Me marcbo. 

£1 se ya. Se marcba. 

^ Se ya 61 7 i Se mareha €i 7 

I Nos Tamos 7 Nos marehamos 7 

W. se van. VY. se maichan. 

I Se Tan (or se marchan) esCa 

£Uos no se Tan, (no se maicfaan.) 
t Tener soefiow Senttne eon sneiia 
t Tener gana de dormir. 
Qaererm dormir. 
t Estaree durmiendo. 
t ;Tiene V. soeiio? 
t Yo tengo soefio. 


Enemdar 1. 
Manehar 1. Maneharee* 
Temer 2. Reeelar 1. 
Tenio» temes, teme. 



He fean to loil hk fiDger. 
Do you dread to go out ? 
I do dread to go ont 
He 18 afraid to go oat 

To fear mime one. 
I do not fear him. 
Do you fear that man? 
What do you fear? 
Whom do you fear 7 
(I fear) nobodjc 

The wood, (to hum.) 

(£l) teme enmietane el dedo. 

i Teme V. lalir, (i fuera) 7 

Yo temo lalir. 

Teme salir. t £l tiene miedo de talir. 

Ttmar d tUguno. 

Yo no le jtema 

I Teme V. & eae hombre7 

I Que teme V. 7 

^ A qnien teme V.7 

A ninguna 

I La lefia, (fem.) 

Do you see yourself in that small looking-^lass ?^-I see myself in 
it. — Can yoor friends see themselves in that large looking-^lass 7 — 
They can see themselves therein, (in it.)— Why does your brother not 
light the fire 7 — ^He does not light it, because he is afraid of burning 
himself. — ^Why do you not cut your bread 7 — ^I do not cut it, because 
I fear to cut my finger. — ^Have you a sore finger 7 — ^I have a sore 
finger and a sore foot. — ^Do you wish to warm yourself 7 — ^I do wish 
to warm myself, because I am very cold. — ^Why does that man not 
warm himself 7 — Because he is not cold. — Do your neighbors warm 
themselves 7 — ^They warm themselves, because they are cold. — ^Do 
you cut your hair 7 — ^I do cut my hair. — ^Does your friend cut his 
nails 7 — ^He cuta his nails and his hair. — ^What does that man do ? — 
He pulls out his hair. — ^In what do you amuse yourself 7 — ^I amuse 
myself in the best way I can. — ^In what do your children amuse them* 
selves 7 — ^They amuse themselves in studying, writing, and playing. — 
In what does your cousin amuse himself 7 — ^He amuses himself in 
reading good books and in writing to his friends. — ^In what do you 
amuse yourself when you have nothing to do at home 7 — ^I go to the 
play and to the concert I often say, '^ Every one amuses himself as 
he likes." — ^Every man has his taste *, what is yours 7 — Mine is to 
study, to read a good book, to go to the theatre, the concert, and t)ie 
ball, and to ride. 


Why does your cousin not brush his coat 7 — ^He does not brush it, 

because he is afraid of soiling his fingers. — What does my neighbor 

teU you 7 — ^He tells me that (que) you wish to buy his horse ; but I 

know that (que) he is mistaken, because you have no money to buy it 

voBTT-nrrH lbsson. 


— Wbat do they (we) say at the market 7— They say that (^tie) tbe 
enemy ia beaten. — Do you believe that 7 — ^I believe it, because eveiy 
one says so. — Why have you bought that book 7 — ^I have bought it, 
because I 'want it to leam Spanish, and because every one speaks of it 
— ^Aie your firiends going away 7 — They are going away. — ^When |U!e 
they going away 7 — They are going away to-morrow. — ^When are you 
going away 7 — ^We are going away to-day. — ^Am I gomg away 7 — You 
are going away if you like. — ^What do our neighbors say 7 — ^They are 
going away without saying any thing. — ^How do you like this wine 7 — 
I do not like it — ^What is the matter with you 7 — ^I feel sleepy. — ^Does 
your fiiend feel sleepy 7 — ^He does not feel sleepy, but he is cdd. — 
Why does he not warm himself 7 — ^He has no wood to make a fire. — 
Why does he not buy some wood 7 — ^He has no money to buy any. — 
Will you lend him some 7 — ^If he has none I will lend him some. — 
Are yon thirsty 7 — I am not thirsty, but very hungiy. — 1b your servant 
sleepy 7 — ^He is sleepy. — 1b he hungry 7 — ^He is hungry. — ^Why does 
he not eat 7 — ^Because he has nothing to eat — ^Are your children 
hungry 7 — ^They are hungry, but they have nothing to eat — Have they 
any thing to dsink 7 — ^They have nothing to drink. — ^Why do you not 
eat 7 — ^I do not eat when I am not hungry. — ^Why does the Russian 
not drink 7 — ^He does not drink when he is not thirsty. — Did your 
brother eat any thing jresterday evening 7 — ^He ate a piece of beef, a 
small piece of fowl, and a piece of bread. — ^Did he not drink 7 — ^Ho 
also drank. — What did he drink 7 — ^He drank a glass of wine. 

FORTY-FIFTH LESSON.— jLeccion Ciuidragisima ^inia. 

(Pretirito Perfeeto Prdximo de lot Verhot PronominaUs.) 

In Spanish all reflective verbs, as in English, take in their compound 
the auxiliary haber, (to have.) 


Yo me he cortado. 

4 Me he cortado (yo) 7 

V. se ha cortado.^ 

V. no se ha cortado.* 

I Te has cortado (ta) 1 

(Yo) no roe he cortado. 

I Se ha cortado au (el) bermano de 


Have you cot yourself 7 
I have cat mysell 
Have I cut myself 7 
Yon have cut youiself. 
Yon have not cut youraelf. 
Hast thou cut thyself 7 
I have not cut myselt 
Has your brother cut himself 7 

* Vomtros kabeit cortado. 

* No 00 haboit eorUtdo, 




He has cot himaelt 
Hare we cut ounelTea? 
Yoa haTe not cut yovaaeAv«B. 
Have these men cut themselves 7 
They have not cut themselves. 

£1 se ha cortado. 

Nos hemos cortado. 

VV. no se han cortado.* 

I Se han cortado estos homfans f 

(Ellas) no se han cortada 

To take a voalk. 

To go a-walking. 
To take an airing in a carriage 
The coach. 
' To take a ride. 
Do you take a walk ? 
I do take a walk. 
He takes a walk. 
We take a walk. 
Thou wisliest to take an airing. 
They wish to take a ride. 

t Pasearse 1. 

Ir 4 pasear. Salir 4 pasear. * 

t Pasearse (dar un paseo) en coche. 

El coche. 

t Pasearse 4 caballa 

t i Se pasea V. P 

t Yo me pasea 

t £l se pasea. 

t Nosotros nos paseamos. 

t Td te quieres pasear en cocha 

t Ellos quieren paseazse 4 cabaUa 

To walk a ehild^ (to take it a-walk- 

Do yon take your children a-walk- 

I take them a-walking every morn- 

Hacer pasear d un nino, m Uejoar 
un nim a pasear. 

1 1 Hace V. pasear 4 sus nifios 7 
t Los hago pasear todas las maiianaa. 

Every, (meaning frequency.) 
To go to bed. 
To lie down. 
To get up. To rite. 

Do you rise early 7 
I rise at sunrise. 
I go to bed at sunset 
The sunset 
The sunrise. 
At what time did you go to bed 7 
At three o'clock in the morning. 
At what o'clock did he go to bed 

yesterday 7 
He went to bed late. 


I Todoe lo8. Todas las, (fern, pi.) 

t Acostarse. 

f Ir d acostarse. Irse d la coma. 
I Levantarse 1. 

I Se levanta V. temprano 7 

Me levanto al salir del sol. 

Me acuesto al poneise del sol. 

El ponerse del sol. 

El salir del sol. El rayar del alba. 

I A que bora se acostO V. 7 

t A las tres de la maJiana. 

t £ A que bora se acost6 ^I ayer 7 

(£l) se acostd taxde. 

To rejoice at something. 

t Alegrarse de algo, (or de alguna 
eosa.) Regocijarse de. 

' No OS habeis cortado. 

* lOs passais vosotros, ox 90s? 



I ngviw tt your happinea. 

Tlie happineM. 
At what dooi your nude njoieo ? 

I haw rejoiced. 
They have rejoiced. 
We have niMtekeii. 

YOQ have miafiifcoii 

Tb kmrt mnmebody. 
Th€€viL Thepmim. Tke 
Have yoQ hurt that man T 

I have hnrt that man. 
Why did yen hmt that man 1 

I have not hurt him. 

Does that hurt you? 

t Me aiegro de la dMia de V. 
La dicha. La feliddad. 
t ^De <pie Be alegiael 


Yo me he alepada 
EUoB ee han alegradoi 
t Nob hemoi eqnivocado. 
t v. Be ha eqnirocadoi' 


Hmeer moI {dmmo or lufcaMr) i 

mlgmmtt. t Ofemder. 
ElmaL El doiar. EldmSm, 

iBm hecfao V. mal (dafio) i en 

I Ha laatimado V. i eee hooifare 7 
( He hecho mal (dafio) & eoe homfan 
( Yo he laBtimado 4 eoe homlve. 
I Porque hizo V. mal (dafio) 4 en 
hombre 7 

Potqu^ laaUnKl V. 4 eee hombre T 
i No le he hecho mal, (dafia) 
( No le he lawtimada 
^ ^ Le hace mal (dafio) & V. en ? 
( iLelaBtimaeeoi V.T 
I £b0 mo hace mal, (dafia) 

To do good to anybody, l Hacer bien 6 alguno^ (a mo.) 

Have I ever done yon any harm 7 ^ ^ l'^ hecho jamas algnn mal 4 

On the contrary. | Al contraria 

No ; on the contrary, yon have done No ; al contrario, V. me ha beciio 

me good. ' bien. 

I have never done harm to any one. Nunca he hecho mal 4 nadia. 

Have I hurt yon 7 
Yoa have not hnrt me. 

7%at does roe good. 

To do with. 
To diopooe of. 


I He hecho yo algnn mal 4 V. 7 
^ Lb he laatimado 4 V. 7 
V. no me ha hecho maL 
V. no me ha lastimada 

I Eto me hace bien. 

iHaeer eon. 
Dioponer de. (See Pon«r.) 

' FoBolror oo kabtio e^ivoeado. 



What doM the flerrant do with hie 

Ho tweepo the floor with it. 

With it 
What doM he wiih to make with hii 

He does not wiah to make any thing 

with it 

I Que hace el ciiado con ht esobbat 

Barre el enelo con elUt, 

Ck>n 6\, (mas.) Con ella, (fem.) 

I Qae quieie €i hacer con sn lefia ? 

£1 no qoieie hacer nada eon eUa, 

Oha. When a proposition has no definite subject, the English, in 
Older to avoid the pnmoans they, people, &c., use the verb in the pasaive 
▼oice, and say : / was told, instead of, They told me ; He io flattered, in- 
■lead of, They flatter him. This is always expressed in Spanish by the 
pronoun oe and a yeib in the third person singular, or by a verb in the 
third penon plural without the pronoun ee. (See Lesson XXVIIL, 
OU. A. and B.) Example : — 

He is flattered, but he is not be- ( (A ^) se le alaba, pero no se le ams. 
loved. ( (A 6\) le alaban, pero no le aman. 

/ CM told that he is arrived. 

A knife wss given to him to cut his 
bread, and he cut his finger. 

To flatter oome one. 
To flatter one's selfl 

He flatten himself to know 

Nothing hut 
He has nothing bat enemies. 

3 Me dicen que (61) ha Uegado. 
( Se me dice que ha Uegado. 
I Que, (conjunction.) 
Se le ha dado un cuehillo para re- 
banar el pan, y 61 se cort6 el dedo. 
Le dieron un cnchillo, &c. 
I Alabar (tieonjear) a alguno, a uno. 
3 Alabaise (& s( mismo.) 
( Lisonjearse. Preciarse. 
• u ^ ^ precia de saber el EepaSol. 
Bpanian. ^ g^ alaba de saber el Espanol. 

C Sino. No (v) eino, 
\ No (v) mae que. 

K ^1 no tiene sino eneroigos. 

£1 no tiene mas que enemigos. 

To become, (to turn.) 
He has turned a soldier. 
Have you turned a merchant 7 
I have turned (become) a lawyer. 
What has become of your brother ? 

What has become of him ? 
I do not know what has become of 

t Haceree. Meteree. 

t (£1) se ha hecho soldado. 

t ^ Se ha hecho V. comerciante ? 

t Me he hecho abogado. 

1 1 Que se ha hecho de su hermano 

1 1 Que se ha hecho de 6\ ? 
i Yo no a6 lo que se ha hecho de €i 

To enheU To enrol 

i AlUiaree. Haeeroe eoldado. 
\ t Sentar plaza. 

rORTY-riFTB 1JE880N. 


He has enlisted. 

I Se ha alictado. Ha aentado plaia. 

For, (meaning because.) Porque. 

I eannot pay you, for I haye no . Yo no paedo pagar & V. porqne no 

He cannot give yon any bread, for 
he has none 

tengo dinero. 
£l no paede dar pan i. V. porqne no 
tieue, (ninguno.) 

To heUete some one. 
Do you believe that man 7 
I do not believe him. 
117 But we my : 

To believe in God 
I believe in God. 

Creer 6 alguno, (a trno.) 
I Cree V. 4 ese hombre 7 
Yo no le creo. 

Creer en Dioa. 
Yo creo en Dio& 

To utter a falsehood. To Ue. 
I lie, thou liest, he lies. 
The atory-tener, the liar. 

Deeir una falsedad. Mentir *. 
Miento, mientea, miente. 
El emboitero, el mentiroao. 


Why has that child been praised ? — ^It has been praised because it 
has studied well. — Hast thon ever been praised ? — ^I have often been 
praised. — ^Why has that other child been punished 7 — ^It has been pun- 
ished, because it has been naughty and idle. — ^Has this child been re- 
warded ? — ^It has been rewarded because it has worked well. — What 
must one do in order to be praised? — One must be studious and 
good. — ^What has become of your friend ? — He has become a lawyer. 
— ^What has become of your cousin ? — ^He has enlisted. — ^Has your 
neighbor enlisted 7 — ^He has not enlisted. — ^What has become of him ? 
— ^He has turned a merchant. — ^What has become of his children 7 — 
I£s children have become men. — ^What has become of your son 7 — ^He 
has become a great man. — ^Has he become learned 7 — ^He has become 
learned. — What has become of my book 7 — ^I do not know what has 
become of it — ^Have you torn it? — I have not torn it — ^What has be- 
come of our friend's son 7 — ^I do not know wbat has become of him. — 
What have you done with your money 7 — ^I have bought a book with 
it — ^What has the joiner done with his wood 7 — ^He has made a bench 
of it — What has the tailor done with the cloth which you gave him 7 
—He has made clothes of it for your children and mine. — ^Has that 
man hurt you 7 — No, Sir, he has not hurt me. — ^What must one do in 
Older to be loved, (para que le amen ?) — One must (es menester que 
hagamo9 biefC) do good to those that have done us harm. — Have we 


ever done you tutrm ?— No ; yon have on the contnuy done as good. 
— ^Do you do harm to any one 7 — I do no one any harm.— Why have 
you hurt these children ? — I have not hurt them. — ^Have I hurt you ? — 
You have not hurt me, but your boya have. — ^What have they done to 
you ? — They have beaten me. — ^Is it your brother who has hurt my 
son 7 — ^No, Sir, it is not my brother, for he has never hurt any one. 

Have you drunk that wine 7 — ^I have drunk it — How did you like it ? 
— ^I liked it very well. — ^Has it done you good 7 — ^It has done me good. 
— ^Have you hurt yourself 7 — ^I have not hurt myself. — ^Who has hurt 
himself 7 — My brother has hurt himself, for he has cut his finger. — ^Is 
he still ill, (maio ?) — ^He is better. — I rejoice to hear that he is no longer 
ill, for I love him. — ^Why does your cousin pull out his hair 7 — Because 
he cannot pay what he owes. — ^Have you cut your hair 7 — I have not 
cut ,it (myself,) but I have had it cut, (me le he hecho cortar.) — What 
has this child done 7 — He has cut his foot. — Why was a knife given 
to him 7 — A knife was given him to (para) cut (que se cortase) bis 
nails, and he has cut his finger and his foot. — ^Do you go to bed early 7 
-^I go to bed late, for I cannot sleep when I go to bed early. — At what 
o'clock did you go to bed yesterday 7 — ^Yesterday I went to bed at a 
quarter past eleven. — ^At what o'clock do your children go to bed 7 — 
They go to bed at sunset. — Do they rise early 7 — ^They rise at sunrise. 
—At what o'clock did you rise to-day 7 — To-day I rose late, because I 
went to bed late yesterday evening, (ayer noche.) — ^Does your son rise 
late 7 — ^He rises early, for he never goes to bed late. — ^What does he 
do when he gets up 7 — ^He studies, and then breakfasts. — ^Does he not 
go out before he breakfasts 7 — ^No, he studies and breakfasts before he 
goes out — ^What does he do after breakfasting 7 — ^As soon as he has 
breakfasted he comes to my house, and we take a ride. — ^Didst thou 
rise this morning as early as 1 7 — ^I rose earlier than you, for I rose 
before sunrise. 

Do you often go a-walking 7 — ^I go a-walking when I have nothing 
to do at home. — ^Do you vdsh to take a walk 7 — ^I cannot take a walk, 
for I have too much to do. — ^Has your brother taken a ride 7 — ^He has 
taken an airing in a carriage. — ^Do your children often go a-walking 7 
— They go a-walking every morning after breakfast. — ^Do you take a 
walk after dinner 7— After dinner I drink tea, and then I take a walk, 
—Do you often take your children a-walking 7 — ^I take them a-walking 
every morning and every evening. — Can you go with me 7 — ^I cannot 
go with you, for I am to take my little brother out a-walking. — ^Where 
do you walk 7 — ^We walk in our uncle's garden. — ^Did your father 



rejoice to see yon ? — ^H^ did rejoice to see me. — ^Wliat did you rejoice 
at ? — I rejoiced at seeing my good friends. — What was your uncle de- 
lighted with, (se ha alegrado ?) — ^He was delighted with (de recibir) the 
horee which you have sent him. — ^What were your children delighted 
with ?— They were delighted with (de tener) the fine clothes which I 
had had made for them, {que ks mandi hacer.) — ^Why does this man 
rejoice so much ? — Because he flatters himself he has good friends. — 
la he not right in rejoicing 7 — ^He is wrong, for he has (nothing^ hut 
enemies. — ^Ls he not loved ? — He is flattered, but he is not beloved. — 
Do you flatter yourself that you know Spanish ? — ^I do flatter myself 
that I know it ; for I can speak, read, and write it. — ^Has the physician 
done any harm to your child ? — ^He has cut his finger, {el U ha cartado 
d dedo,) but he has not done him any harm, so (y) you are mistaken, if 
you believe that he has done him any harm. — Why do you listen to 
that man ? — ^I listen to him, but I do not believe him ; fi>r I know that 
he is a story-teller. — ^How do you know that he is a story-teller ? — ^He 
does not believe in God ; and all those (Jos que) who do not believe in 
God are story-tellers. 

FORTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Leccion Cuadragisima aexta. 


We have already seen (LeaBons XLI. and XLII.) Mime idiomatical ez- 
p wio ns with hacer, all of which belong to the impezBonal verbs. These 
veifas, halving ao determinate subject, are conjugated only in the third per* 
■ingnlar, without any pronoun. 

To rain. It rains. 
To snow. It snows. 
To hail. It hails. 
To lighten. It lightens. 

Boes it lighten 7 

It does lighten. 

It rains very hard. 

The lightning. 
Tlie parasoL 

It tightens much. 

Does it snow? 

It snows much. 

It hails much. 

Uover * 2. Llaeve. 

Nevar • 1. Nieva. 

Granizar 1. Graniza. 

Relaropagnear I. Relampaguei 
I Relampaguea 7 
Relampaguea, (or st) 
liueve muy recfo. 
EI relimpaga 
El quitasol. 
Relampaguea mucho. 
^ Nieva 7 ^ Esti nevando T 
Nieva mucho. 
Granisa mucno. 



The Ban does not shine. 
The sun is in my eyes. 

To thonder, it thimden. 
To shine, to glitter. 


t No hay mA. No hace boL 
t No parece el boL 
No luce el sol. 
I t Me da el sd en los ojos. 

Tronar * 1, traena. 
Lncir, reeplandecer. 


To shut 
Have you done ? 
Is the walking good ? 
In that country. 
The country. 
He has made many friends in that 

Cerrar • I. 
1 2, Ha anabado V . 7 
I Esti bueno (el piso) para paaear 7 
En ese pais. 
El pais. 

Et\ se ha hecho muchos amigos 
ese pais. 

De que, (of both genders and numbers.) 




De quieru Del euat De la cual, (sing) 

. De quienee. De lot eualee, De las euiUes, (plor.) 


Of wham, loAose. 

I see the man of whom you speak. | Yo yeo al hombre de quien V. haUa. 
I have bought the horBO of which He comprado el caballo de que (or 
you spoke to me. | del cual) V. me habld. 


I see the man whose brother has kill- 
ed my dog. 

I see the man whose dog you have 

Do you see the child whose father 
set out yesterday 7 

I see it. 

Whom have you seen 7 

I have seen the merchant whose 
warehouse you have taken. 

I have spoken to the man whose 
warehouse has been burnt 


CwfO, (mas.) Cuyoe, (mas.) 
Cuya, (fern.) Cuyas, (fem.) 

Yo veo al hombre cnyo hermano hn, 

matado mi perro. 
Yo veo al hombre cuyo perro V. ha 

^ V6 V. al niiio cuyo padre se mar- 

chd ayer7 
Yo le veo. 

I A quien ha visto V. ? 
Yo he visto al comerciante cuyo al- 

macen ha tornado V. 
He haMado al hombre cuyo almacen 
• se ha quemada 

That which. 
That of which. 

Lo que. AqueUo que. 
Aquello de que. 



Tkmt, or thm one of tohi^h. 

Tkooe, or tko omoo of wkieh. 

I IwTe thai of which I haTe need. 
I have what I want 
Be has what he wants. 

iAquel do quien, {mam. nng.) 
Aqueila de qmen, (fern, nn^.) 
Aqutl del eual, (maa. mng.) 
Aqueila de la eval, (fem. mng,) 
fAquellee de quienee, (maa. plur.) 
Aquelhu de quienee, (fem. plur.) 
Aquelloe de he euaUe, (ma& plnr.) 
Aquellae de lae eualee, (fem. plnr.) 


Tengo lo qae he menester, (neeeato.) 
I Tiene lo qae ha menester, (neoesita.) 

HaTe yoa the book of which yon 

haye need 7 
I have that of which I have need. 
Has the man the naib of which he 

has need J 

He has those of which he has need. 

To need. To want 
To have need oL 

I Tiene V. el libro qne ha menester 

(qae necesita) 7 
Tengo el que he menester, (neoesita) 
I Tiene el bombre los claTOs qne ha 
menester, (que necesita) 7 
i £l 'tiene los qne ha menester. 
( £1 tiene aquellos qne neceata. 


Haber menester. Necesitar. 

Which men do yon see? 

I see those of whom yon have spoken 

to me. 
Do yon see the pupils of whom I 

haTe spoken to yon 7 
I see thenk 

To whom. 

I see the children to whom yoa have 
giren some cakes. 

To which men do yoo speak 7 
I speak to those to whom yon have 

To apply to. 

To meet wthl 

I hare met with the men to whom 
yoa have applied. 

I Que hombres v6 V.7 

Yo veo i aqnellos de qmenes (de los 

cnales) V. me ha hablado. 
^Vd V. i los discfpolos de qnienes 

(de los cnales) be hablado 4 V.7 

Yo los TOO. 

A quien, (sing.) ) ^^^ 

A quienee, (plor.) \ "^ «•*■**«* 
Al eual, (mas.) A' loo euaUo, (pL) 
A lacuai,(tem.) A' la*euaIeo,(pL) 

Yo TOO los niilos 4 qnienes (4 los 
cnales) V. ha dado algnnos boUos, 

I A qne hombres haUa y.7 

Yo hablo 4 aqneDos 4 qnienes (or 4 
los cnales) V. ha ncnrrida 

Reeunir d. Aeudir L Dirigiroe d, 
Eneonirar L Eneontraroe eon, 

Yo me he encontrado con los horn* 
bras 4 qnienes (or 4 los omdas) T> 




Of which men d» yoa ipeak? 
I ipeak of thon whose diildren havv 
been ■tndioas and obedient 
Obedient Dieobedient 

I I>e que hombree habla V.? 

Yd hablo de aqoeUoe coyoe niSoi 

han Udo eetudlosoe y obediente& 
Obediente. Desobediente. 

So that 
I haTO loot my money, eo thai Ican- 

I am in, n thai I camioi go oat 

AmL De suerU que, (oonjmkction.) 
He pezdido. mi dineio, y arf no le 

paedo pagar i. V. 
Eetoy malo, md no paedo salir. 


Mala Enferma 

Eetar malo. Eetar enfenno. 


Have yoa at last learned Spanish 7 — ^I was ill, so that I coohl not 
learn it — ^Has yoar brother learned it 7 — ^He has not learned it, because 
he has not yet been able to find a good master. — ^Do you go to the hall 
this evening 7 — ^I have sore feet, so that I cannot go (to it) — Did you 
understand that German 7 — ^I do not know German, so that I could ^oC 
understand him. — Have you bonght the horse of which you spoke to 
me 7 — I have no money, so that I could not buy it — ^Have you seen 
the man from whom I have received a present 7 — ^I have not seen him. 
^-Have you seen the fine gon of which I spoke to you 7 — ^I have seen 
it— -Has your uncle seen the books of which you spoke to him 7 — ^Ue 
has seen them. — ^Haat thou seen the man whose children have been 
punished 7 — ^I have not seen hint — ^To whom have you been speaking 
in the theatre 7 — ^I have been speaking to the man whose brother has 
killed my fine dog. — ^Have you seen the little boy whose fiither has be- 
come a lawyer 7 — ^I have seen him. — ^Whom have you seen at the ball 7 
—I have seen there the men whose horses, and those whose coach yoa 
have bought — ^Whom do you see now 7 — ^I see the man whose servant 
has broken my looking-glass. — ^Have you heard the man whose friend 
has lent me money 7 — ^I have not heard him. — ^Whom have you heard 7 
— ^I have heard the French captain whose son is my Mend. — Hast thon 
brushed the coat of which 1 spoke to thee 7 — ^I have not yet brushed it. 
— Have you received the money which you have been wanting 7 — ^I 
have received it — ^Have I the paper of which I have need 7 — You have 
It — Has your brother the lKX>ks which he is wanting 7 — He has them. 
—Have you spoken to the merchants whose warehouse we have 
taken 7 — ^We have spoken to them. — ^Have you spoken to the physician 
whose son has studied German 7 — ^I have spoken to him. — ^Hast thou 


aeen the poor men whooe waiebonses have been bunit 7 — I have seen 
them. — Have yon read the books which we have lent yon ? — ^We have 
read them. — What do you say of them 7 — We say that they are very 
fine. — ^Have your children what they want 7 — ^They have what they 

Of which man do you speak 7 — ^I speak of the one whose brother 
has turned soldier.—- Of which children have you spoken 7 — ^I have 
spoken of those whose parents are learned. — Which book have you 
read 7 — ^I have read that of which I spoke to you yesterday. — ^Which 
paper has your cousin 7 — ^He has that of which he has need. — ^Whieh 
fi^ies has he eaten 7 — He has eaten those which you do not like.— 
Of which books are you in want 7 — ^I am in want of those of which 
you have spoken to me. — ^Are you not in want of those which I am 
reading 7 — I am not in want of them.— Do you see the children to 
whom I have given cakes 7 — ^I do not see those to whom you have 
given cakes, but those whom you have punished.— To whom have you 
given some, money ? — ^I have given some to those who have been 
skilful. — To which children must one give books 7 — One must give 
(some) to those who are good and obedient — ^To whom do you give to 
cat and to drink 7 — To those who are hungry and thirsty. — ^Do you 
give any thing to the children who are idle 7 — ^I give them nothing. — 
Did it snow yesterday 7 — ^It did snow, hail, and lighten. — ^Did it rain 7 
— ^It did rain. — Did you go out 7 — ^I never go out when it is bad 
weather. — Have the captains at last listened to that man 7 — ^They have 
refused to listen to him ; all those to whom he applied have refused to 
hear him. — ^With whom have you met this morning 7 — ^I have met 
with the man by whom I am esteemed. — ^Have you given any cakes 
to your pupils 7 — ^They have not studied well, so that I have given 
them nothing. 

FORTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— Leecion Cuadragisima septima. 


The Fint Future, Futuro Indefinido, is formed from the infinitive mood 
in the same manner as the other tensea (See the table of terminations in 
the Appendix.) 

To speak — ^I shall or will speak. 

To sell— I shall or will sell 

To receive— I shall or will receive. 

HaUar— yo hablar^. 
Vender — jo vender^. 
ReCibir — yo recibird. 


Thoa riiah or wilt ^leak. 
He ihaU or wiU wpnk. 
YoQ ihall or will ipeak. 
We ihaU or wiU opeok. 

Tbey ihall or will ipeak. 
Yoa ihall or will opeok. 



V. hablahL (Vot kabUwiu.) 

Nosotroo haUar^moa. 

E31os (ellaa) haUar^ 

yy. hablariii. {Vomttrot kablarns.) 

O&t. In Spaniib, the fint penon angular of the Fotme always endi 
in i, and from this all the other pevBons may be formed by riianging i 
into d$, d, imo9, eu, on. Examples: — 

Amar — amare, 

Piever — ^prevere, 

Restitair — ^restitnir^, 

Tener — tendr^, 

Haber — habr^, 

Ser — ser^, 

E2fltar — estari, 

To knre— I shall or will lore. 
To foresee— I shall or will foresee. 
To restore— I shall or will restore. 
To have— I shall or will hay , (act) 
To have — I shall or will have, (aoxJ 
To be— I shaU or wiU be. 
To be— I shall or wiU be. 

OS, a. 

eis, dn. 

To go — I riiall or will go. 
To oome — I shall or will come. 
To know — I shall or will know. 
To be worth — I shall or will be 

To be able— I shall or will be able. 
To d»— I shall or will do. 
To be willing — I shall or will be 

To go out — I shall or will go out 
To owe— I shall or will owe. 
To give— I shall or will give. 
To see I shall or will see. 

Ir — ire, 
Venir, vendr^, 
Saber — sahri, 
Valer — ^valdr^, 

Poder — podr^, 
Hacer — har^, 
Querer— <)ueiri, 

Salir— saldre, 
Deber— deber^, 
Dar — dar^, 
Ver — ^ver^, 

6», df imo9, 
eis, <bi. 

To be necessary — it will or shall be i Ser menester— serd mcnester. 

\ Ser necesario— ser& neeesaria 

To rain — ^it will rain. 

To send— rl shall or will send. 

To stt down — ^I shall or will sit down. 

Llover — UoveHL 
Enviar— enviar^. 

Sentane— me seutar^. (See reflee* 
tive verbs.) 

Shall or will he have money ? 

He will have some. 

He will not have any. 

ShaU yon soon have done (finish) 

I shall soon have done, (finish.) 
He will soon have done (finish) his 


^Tendrd 61 dinero? 

£l teudrA algano, (or nn poco.) 

£1 no tendrd ninguna 

I Acabard V. pronto do escribir 7 

Pronto acabar^. 

Pronto acabard so ejercioiob 

Tonr-sKmrrH usbov. 


When AaH job wnta joor 

I will d» thorn woan^ (en 
Mj Imthflr will do his 

Next Monday. 

>. I 


I YolmmenkM 
to- Mi iieiiDooo hart H 


Next month. 
TluB mondi. 
^^lia ooontzy. 

When win your 

fo to the ^Coaodo 
;T I deV.T 

He wm go next Tneiday. ■ £l M el Miitea qM 

Shall yoa go anywheze? , i Irin W. i algmia poiteT 

We diall go nowbeieb i No n 

Win he aend mo the book 7 iMeeoriaTieliifaroT 

Hewm aend it yoa if he has done . £l ae le eoriaTi i Y. ■ le 

with it. I doL 

Shan yoQ be at home thisafiemoonT ' i &tari V. en cmi 

I dian be (thexe.) 

, Si, oefior; or. To catart. 

Wffl year &tber be at home? 

ilkaiien CMa elaeftorp^re de¥.? 

He wiU be (tiieie.) 

Si,nilor; orSi,ertaii. 

Wm you cooiiM be there ? 

: i&taiin am loa aeftena fOMi do 


'Rwy win be (there.) 

1 Sitsefior; v, Bloa eUaiia. 

Win he send me the books ? 

He will send them to yoo. 

Win he oend Bome paper to my 

ooimting-boaw 7 
He will aend Mme (thither.) 

I He eoTiari € loa Iifarai7 
£l se kM enviaii i Y. 
4 Enriari fl algon papel 4 

8if enviarA algnnoL 

Shall yoo be able to pay yoor dioe- 

I haTe lost my money, ao that I 

than not be able to pay him. 
Hy friend has loot his pocket-book, 

•0 that he will not be aUe to pay 

lior hk riioea. 

I Podii V. pagar 4 n 

He pe i dBdo mi dinere, 

Bfiamigo ha peidido i 

per conaigaieBte, (y a 





WiQ you hold any thing? 
I diall hold yoor umbrBlla. 

I TendHL V. algmia eoaa? 
Yo tendr6 n parigoaa do Y. 




When it comes to your turn. 

Our tnm will come 

To take a tarn, (a walk.) 

He baa gone to take a walk. 

To walk roond the garden. 

To run. 

A blow. A knock. 

A clap. A dap. 
Have you given that man a blow? 

I have given him one. 
A blow with a stick. 
A kick, (with the foot) 
A blow with the fist 
A stab of a knife. 
A shot, or the report of a gun. 
The shot of a pistol. 
A glance of the eye. 
A clap of thunder. 


t Cuando sea el tumo de V. 
t Cnando le toque i. V. 
Nuestro tumo vendii. 
t Nos tocari i nosotros. 




t Dor yna vuelta, (un poMeo.) 
f Ir a pasear. 
j t Ha ido i dar una mefta, (nn 
t Dar una vnelta en el jaidin. 
t Dar un paseo en el jardin. 
Detrat de, Tras, 

Un golpe. Un porraza 
Una puiialada. Una herida. 
Una palmada. Una bofetada. 
I Ha dado V. un golpe (un porraxo) i 

ese hombre 7 
Si ; or, Yo le he dado (uno.) 
t Un palo. Un garrotazo. 
t Un puntapi^. 

t Un pufietaza Una pniLada. 
t Una cuchilfada. 
t Un tiro. Un caiionazo. 
t Un pistoletazo. 
t Una ojeada. Una mirada. 
t Un trueno. 

To give a cut with a knife. 
To give a man a blow with a stick. 
To give a man a kick. 
To give a man a blow with the fist 
. To pull To draw. 
To9hooL To fire. 
To fire a gun. 
To fire a pistol. 

To fire at some one. 

I have fired at that bird. 

I have fired twice. 
I have fired three times. 
I have fired several times. 
How many times have you fired 7 
How many times have' you fired at 

Dar una cuchillada. 

t Dar de palos i un hombre. Apalear. 

Dar un puntapitf d un hombree 

Dar un pufietazo i un hombre. 

Tvrar, Saear, 

Dieparar, Hacerfuego. 

Disparar un fbsi], (or un caiiou.) 

Disparar una pistola. 

t Disparar un tiro i alguno, (or 4 

Tirar un tiro i alguno, (or i uno.) 
t He disparado un tiro i ese pijara 
t He tirade un tiro 4 esepdjaro 
t He tirudo dos tiros. 
He tirade tree tiros. 
He tirade varios tiros. 
1 1 Cuantas voces ha tirado V 7 
1 1 Cuantas veoes ha tirado V. 4 




I htiVtt find at it mrenl tiiiieiL 
I hKf« hoazd a ahot. 
I haTe heard the report of a pistoL 
We have haaid a clap of thunder. 

t Le he tnado Tarios tiraa. 
He oido an tiro. 
He oido on pietoletazo. 
Hemos oido un trueno. 

The fist 

I ElpniLo. 

To cast an eye upon aome one, or 

I haTe cast an eye npon that book. 
I hare cast an eye npon it 

Echar una ojeada (or mirada) *d 
algunOf (or alguna eooa.) 

He echado una ojeada (una mirada) 

i eae libro. 
He echado una mirada i €L 

Has that man gone away? 
He has gone away. 
Haye your brothers gone away 7 
They have gone away. 
They have not gone away. 
HaTe they gone away? 

Tliey were not willing U> go away. 

I Se ha marchado ese hombre? 

£I se ha marchado. 

I Se han ido sus hermanos de V. 7 

Se han ido, (marchada) 

No se han ido, (marchado.) 

I Se han marchado ellos? 

i No querian marcharae. 

\ No qnin^ron marchaxae. . 



Are you going away already ?— I am not going yet — ^When will 

that man go away ? — ^He will go presently. — ^Will yon go away soon ? 

^-I shall go away next Thursday. — ^When will yonr friends go away 7 

— ^They will go away next month. — ^When wilt thou go away 7 — ^I will 

go away instantly. — ^Why has your father gone away so soon 7 — ^He 

has promised his friend to be at his house at a quarter to nine, so that 

he went away early in order to keep (cumplir con) what he has 

promised. — ^When shall we go away 7 — ^We shall go away to-morrow. 

-—Shall we start {partir) early 7 — ^We shall start at five o'clock in the 

morning. — ^When will you go away 7 — I shall go away as soon as I have 

done (haya acabado de) writing. — ^When will your children go away 7^ 

They will go as soon as they have done (hayan acabado) their exercises. 

— WU] you go when I shall go, (yaya 1) — ^I shall go away when you go, 

{vaya.) — ^Will our neighbors soon go away 7 — ^They will go away when 

they have (hayan) done speaking. — ^What will become of your son if 

he does not study 7 — If he does not study he will learn nothing. — 

What will become of you if you lose your money 7 — ^I do not know 

what will become of me. — ^What will become of your friend if he loses 

Us pocketrbook 7—1 do not know what will become of him if he Uxm 

208 FOBTr-NIKTH LB880H. 

it — ^What has become of yonr son 7 — ^I do not know what haa beeone 
of him. — ^Has he enlisted ? — ^He haa not enlisted. — ^What will beoome 
of us if oar friends go away ? — ^I do not know what will become of as 
if they go away. — ^What haa become of yoor relations 7 — ^Tfaey have 
gone away. 

162. * 
Do you intend baying a horse ? — ^I cannot bay one, for I have not 
yet received my money. — ^Most I go to the theatre ? — ^You most not 
go (thither,) for it is very bad weather. — ^Why do you not go to my 
brother ? — It does not suit me to go to him, for I cannot yet pay him 
what I owe him. — ^Why does your servant give that man a cut with 
his knife ? — ^He gives him a cut, because the man has given him a 
blow with the fist. — ^Which of these two pupils begins to speak ? — 
The one who is studious begins to speak. — ^What does the other do 
who is not so ? — He also begins to speak, but he knows neither how 
to write nor to read. — ^Does he not listen to what you tell him ? — ^He 
does not listen to it, if I do not give him a beating, (azotes.) — Why do 
these children not work ? — ^Their master has given them blows with 
his fist, so that they will not work. — ^Why has he given them blows 
with his fist ? — ^Because they have been disobedienL — ^Have you fired 
a gnn 7 — I have fired three times. — At what did you fire 7 — ^I fired at 
a bird.^-Have you fired a gun at that man 7 — ^I have fired a pistol at 
him.—* Why have you fired a pistol at him 7 — ^Because he has ^ven 
me a stab with his knife. — ^How many times have you fired at that 
bird 7 — ^I have fired at it twice. — ^Have you killed it 7 — ^I have killed it 
at the second shot, (al segundo tiro.) — ^Have you killed that bird at 
the first shot, (al primer tiro J) — I have killed it at the fourth. — ^Do yon 
fiire at the birds which you see upon the trees, or at those which you 
see in the gardens 7 — ^I fire neither at those which I see upon the 
trees nor at those which I see in the gardens, but at those which I 
perceive on the castle behind the wood. 

How many times have the enemies fired at us 7 — ^They have fired 
at us several times. — ^Have they killed any one 7 — ^They have killed 
no one. — ^Have you a wish to fire at that blid 7 — ^I have a desire to fire 
at it. — ^Why do you not fire at those birds 7 — ^I cannot, for I have a 
sore finger. — When did the captain fire 7 — ^He fired (hizofiugo) when 
his soldiers fired, (lo hiciSron.)-^lioyr many birds have you E^ot at 7 — 
I have shot at all that I have perceived, but I have killed none, because 
my gun is good for nothing. — ^Have you cast an eye upon that man 7— 
I have cast an eye upon him. — ^Has he seen you 7 — He has not seen 
me, for he has sore eyes. — ^Have you drunk of that wine 7 — ^I have 

wununm ubbbok. 209 

drunk of it, (un jkjoo,) and it haa done me good. — ^What have you done 

'With my book ? — ^I have put it upon your trunk. — ^Am I to answer 

you ?— -You will answer me when it comes to your turn, (ctumdo le 

toqfue.) — 1b it my brother's turn ? — ^When it comes to his turn (Je toque) 

I ahall ask (se 2o) him, for— each in his tum.-»Have you taken a walk 

this morning? — ^I have taken awalk round the garden. — ^Where is 

your unde gone to 7 — ^He is gone to take a walk. — ^Why do you run 7 

— I nm because I see my best friend. — ^Who runs behind us 7 — Our 

do^ runs behind us. — ^Do you perceive that bird 7 — I perceive it behind 

the tree. — ^Why have your brothers gone away 7 — They have gone 

away, because they did not wish to be seen by the man whose dog 

they have killed. 

FIFTIETH LESSON.— X6ccton QuiticuagSsima. 

_ , . { Oir habUtr de, Tener notieiae de, 

ToUarof. \ Saber de. 

' I Ha oido V. hablar de ni hermano 
Have y<Ni heard of yonr brother? ^ ^Ha sabido V. de su hermano? 

I Ha tenido V. noticiaa del hermano 

{He oido hablar de 6L 
He sabido de €L 
He tenido noticiaa de ^I, (noticias 

Cilice. I Detde. 

rt ^Hace mncho que V. ha almona- 

la H kng nice yoo have breakfast- i do 7 

ed? I t ^Hay mncho tiempe deade que V. 

V ha almorzado? 

C t ^Cuanto hace qne V. ha almona- 
How long is it nnce yoo breakfasted?^ do? 

C 1 1 Cuanto hay que V. ba almonado ? 
" t No hace macho quo yo he ahnor- 

It ii not long aiace I have breakfast- 

It ii a great while (rinee. 
It ii a short while sinee. 
How long is it since yoo heard of 

yoor Ivother? 
It ii a year since I heard of him. 


t No hay macho tiempo que yo he 

Mucho tiempo hace, (hay.) 
Poco tiempo hace, (hay.) 
(, Cuanto hace que V. ha tenid^ no* 

ticitts de su hermano de V. ? 
Hace un ai\o que no he sabido de 61 


nrrisTH lesson. 

It ia only a year nnee. 

It is mon than a year 
Mora than. 
More than nine. 
More than twenty time& 

It is hardly six months since. 

A few hoars ago. 

Half an hoar ago. 

Two yean aga 

Two hours and a half ago. 

A fortnight ago. 


A fortnight 

No hace mas de on aSa 

Hay mas de on ana 

Mas de. (See Lesson XAlX- > 

Mas de nnere. 

Mas de veinte veoe& 

t Hace i penas sett mesec. 

t Hay i penas seis meses. 


t Hace pocas horas. Hay (ha) 

t Hace media hora. Hay media 

t Hace dos afios. Hay dos anoa 
t Hace (hay) dos horas y media. 
tHace (hay) quince diaa, (dos 

Quince diaa (dos semanaa) 

Have you been long in Spain? 

I Ha estado V. macho tiempo en Es- 

2, Hace macho tienqio que Y. eati 

en £2spafia ? 

Oht, A, In English the state of existence of action, when in its dma* 
tion, is always expressed in the perfect tense, while in Spanish it m ex- 
pressed by the present tense. 

He has been in Madrid these three 

I hare been living here these two 


Hace tree afios que est4 en Madrid. 

t Hace dos aiios que viTO (que estoy) 

Rem, — ^The word tiempo is often understood. 

1 1 Cuanto hace que tiene V. 
sombrero ? 

How long have you had that hat ? 
I have had it these five yeaxa 

t Hace cinco afios que le tengo. 

wr 1 « / • 1. «s S ^ Cuanto haee ? J Cuanto hay (ka) ? 

How long ? (since when ?)^«, , t ^v/ 

^ ^ i £ Desde euando 7 

How long has he been here 7 

These three daya 
Since the third of this month. 
This month. 

Since the first of the month. 
I have seen hun more than twenty 

Jt I Cuanto hace (hay) qae 
1 1 Desde euando esti aqaf ? 
t Hace (hay) tres diaa 
t Desde el tres de este mea 
t Hace (hay) an mea 
t Desde el primero de este mea 
Le he visto mas de Teinte 




It m tax months ance I spoke to him. \ 
^i»ca I saw yoQ it has rained Tery 

It is moie than a year since I heard 

Hace seis meses qne ]e habl^. 
Haee seis meses qae le he haUada 
Desde qne le tI i V. ha llovido mn- 

Hace mas (or hay mas) de on aflo 

qae he aabido de ^L 

C En e§te momento. Akora mitmo. 
•/ssf 9 (relatingr to time.) ^Almomento. Alpunto, Alinatante. 

( Poeo Aa. Poco haee. 
3V havejtui \ t Aeabar de. 

06«. B. To express an action recently past, the Spaniards make nse of 
the verb aaEbar, (to finish,) followed by de, (of,) and the infinitive mood of 
the -rerb. 

I have jnst seen your brother. 
£[e has jnst done writing^. 
The men have jnst airived. 
Has that man been waiting long? 

£[e has bnt jost come. 

t Acabo de yer i sn hermano de V. 

t Acaba de escribir. 

t Los hombres acaban de Ilegar. 

I Hace macho tiempo qne agoarda 
ese hombre 7 
C Ahora mismo Uega. 
f t Acaba de Ilegar ahora. 

To do oni^o hewL 

I win do my best 
He will do his best 

I do my best 

t Haeer uno lo mejor que puede, 

t Haeer todo au poder. 

Empenarse en. 

t Yo har^ lo mejor que pneda. } « J. 

t £1 hard lo mejor que pneda. $ 
\ t Yo hago lo mejor qae pnedo. 
f t Yo me empefio. 

To spend (money.) 

How mnch have yon spent to-day? 
He has fifty dollan a month to live 

Gastar (dinero.) 

I Cuanto ha gastado V. hoy 7 

t Tiene eineuenta pesos de renta al 

Have the hones been found 7 

They have been found. 

The men have been seen. 

Oor children have been praised and 

rewarded, because they have been 

good and studiooB. 
By whom have they been rewarded? 
By whom have we been teamed 7 

I Se han hallado los caballos 7 
Se han hallado. 
Los hombres han sido vistos. 
Nuestros niilos han sido alabados y 

recompensados, porque han sido 

bnenos y estudiosos. 
I For quien han sido recompensados ? 
I For quien hemes sido vitoperados 7 

To paae. 


AnUe. Ante. Delante. Par. 


Flf l lPH LSSSOK. 

Oba. C. Before k e^veaMd in Spanish by Antee ithesi it denotoi pcioDtj 
of time ; by delante, or •ometimet par, when it demganioB the place ; mtA 
by ante when it ngnifiee in the piesence of ; as, before me, amie mkL 

Before ten o'clock. Antes de las dies. 

To pass before some one. Pasar delante de algmio, (de odo. 

To pass before a place. Pasar delante de (por) on logar. 

A place. Un logar. 

I have passed before the theatre. He pasado delante de (por) el teatnu 

He has passed before me. Ha pasado delante de mL 

To opend time in something. 

What do yon spend yoor time in 7 
I spend my time in studying. 
What has he spent his time in ? 
What shall we spend our time in T 

Paear (emplear or goetm) el 
po en alguna coso. 

t ^ En que pasa V. su tiempo ? 
t Yo empleo mi tiempo en ''■*T*lii> 
t ^ En que ha empleado sa 
t ^ En que pasar6moa nuestro 


To miee, to fail 

The merchant baa failed to bring the 

You haTe missed your turn. 
You have failed to come to me this 


To he good for oomething. 

To he good for nothing. 

Of what use is that? 
It is good for nothing. 

A good-for-nothing fellow. 

Is the gun which you have bought a 
good one? 

It is worth nothing, (good for noth- 

Perder. Omitir, Faltar, Deoemidmr, 

El comerciante ha faltado i traer el 

v. ha perdido su tuma 
V. ha faltado 4 (V. se ha descnidads 

de) Tenir i mi casa esta manana. 

Ser hueno para algo, {para algvma 

SertDtr de algo. 
No eer bueno para nada, (para «■- 

guna eoea.) 
No eervir de nada, (or para nada.) 
I Para que (de que) sirve esoT 
Eso no es baeno para nada. 
t Eeo de nada eirve, 
Un bribon. 
I Es bueno el fusil que V. ha com- 

No es baeno para nada. 
t No eirve de nada. 

To throw away. 

HaTe you thrown away any thing? 
I have not thrown away any thing. 

The store. The shop. 

Storekeeper. Shopkeeper. 

Tirar. Arrojar. Deeeehar, 

I Ha tirado V. algo, (alguna 
Nada he tirado. 
La tieuda. 
Tendero. Mercader 


vurrasTH LESSON. 218 


Have yoQ heard of any one 7 — ^I have not heard of any one, for 1 
Imve not gone oat this morning. — Have yon not heard of the man who 
has killed a soldier ? — ^I have not heard of him. — ^Have you heard of 
my brothers ? — ^I have not heard of them.— Of whom has your cousin 
beand 7 — ^He has heard of his friend who b gone to America. — ^Is it 
lon^ since he heard of him 7 — It is not long since he heard of him. — 
How long is it 7 — ^It is only a month. — ^Have yon been long in Paris 7 
— ^Theae three years. — ^Has your brother been long in London 7 — ^He has 
been there these ten years. — How long is it since yon dined 7 — It is long 
since I dined, but it is not long since I supped. — ^How long is it since 
yoTx supped 7 — It is half an hour. — ^How long have you had these books? 
— ^I have had them these three months. — ^How long is it since your 
consin set out 7 — ^It is more than a year since he set out. — ^What is 
become of the man who has lent you money 7 — ^I do not know what is 
become of him, for it is a great while since I saw him. — ^Is it long since 
you beard of the soldier who gave your friend a cut with the knife 7 — 
It is more than a year since I heard of him. — ^How long have you been 
learning Spanish 7 — ^I have been learning it only these two mcmths. — 
Do yon know already how to speak it 7 — You see that I am beginnkig 
to speak it. — ^Have the children of the English noblemen been learning 
it long 7 — ^They have been learning it these three years, and they do 
not yet begin to speak. — ^Why do they not know how to speak it 7-^ 
They do not know how to speak it, because they are learning it badly. 
— Why do they not learn it well 7 — They have not a good master, so 
that they do not learn it well. 


Is it long since you saw the young man who learned German with 

the master with whom we learned it 7 — ^I have not seen him for nearly 

a year. — ^How long is it since that child ate 7 — ^It ate a few minutes 

ago. — How long is it since those children drank 7 — ^They drank a 

quarter of an hour ago. — ^How long has your Mend been in Spain 7 — 

He has been there this month. — ^How often have you seen the king, 

{al reyJ) — ^I saw him more than ten times when I was in Madrid. — 

When did yon meet my brother 7 — I met him a fortnight ago. — Where 

did you meet him 7 — ^I met him before the theatre. — ^Did he do you any 

harm 7 — ^He did me no harm, for he is a very good boy. — Where are 

my gloves 7 — ^They (hs han) have thrown them away. — ^Have the 

horses been foimd 7 — They have been found. — ^Where have they been 

fbaod 7 — ^They have been found behind the wood, on this side of the 

rosd.^ — ^Have you been seen by anybody 7 — ^I have been seen by no- 

214 FiiTAirrH ubssoh. 

body. — Do you expect any one ? — ^I expect my couain the captain. — 
Have you not seen him? — ^I have seen him this moniing; he baa 
passed before my warehouse. — ^What does this young man wait for 1 — 
He waits for money. — ^Ait thou waiting for any thing ? — ^I am waiting 
for my book. — ^Is this young man waiting for his money ? — ^He is 
waiting for it. — ^Haa the king passed here, {per aqui 7) — ^He has not 
passed here, but before the theatre. — Has he not passed before tJbe 
castle ? — ^He baa passed theie, but I have not seen him. 

What do you spend your time in ? — ^I spend my time in studying. — 
What does your brother spend his time in ? — ^He spends his time in 
reading and playing.-^Does this man spend his time in working ? — 
He is a good-for-nothing fellow ; he spends his time in drinking and 
pla]ring. — ^Wfaat do your children spend their time in 7 — ^They spend 
their time in learning. — Can you pay me what you owe me ? — ^I cannot 
pay it you, for the merchant has failed to bring me my money. — ^Why 
have you breakfasted without me ? — You fidled to come at nine o'clock, 
so that we have breakfasted without you. — ^Has the storekeeper brought 
you the gloves which you bought at his store? — ^He has failed to bring 
them to me. — ^Has he sold them to you on credit ? — ^He has sold them 
to me, on the contrary, for cash. — ^Do yon know those men ? — ^I do not 
know them ; but I believe that they are good-for-nothing fellows, for 
they spend their time in playing. — ^Why did you fail to come to my 
father this morning ?— The tailor did not bring me the coat which he 
promised me, {me habia promeUdo,) so that I could not go (p him. — 
Who is the man who has just spoken to you 7 — ^He is a merchant. — 
What has the shoemaker just brought 7 — ^He has brought the shoes 
which he has made us. — ^Who are the men that have just arrived ? — 
They are Russians. — ^Where did your uncle dine yesterday? — ^He 
dined at home. — ^How much did he spend ? — He spent five shillings. — 
How much has he a month to live upon ? — ^He has two hundred dol- 
lars a month to live upon. — ^Do you throw your hat away ? — I do not 
throw it away, for it fits me very well. — ^How much have you spent 
to-day 7 — ^I have not spent much ; I have spent only two shillings. — 
Do you spend every day as much as that 7 — ^I sometimes spend mare 
than that. — ^Haa that man been waiting long 7 — ^He has but just come. 
-^What does he wish 7 — ^He wishes to speak to you. — ^Are you willing 
to do that 7 — ^I am willing to do it. 

vmr-misr lb880n. 


FIFTT-FIRST LESSON.— J^ccion Q^incuagesima primera. 

Far. I Lifos. Diatante, Remote. 

1 1 Cuanto dista ? (Distar.) 
I Que distaDcia hay ? (Imp Tarlh* 
Maw far? (meaning what distance?) '^ aee Appendix.) 

I Estar l^joB 7 i Cuanto hay ? 
I Hay mueho ? 

I Caanto hay de aquf 4 Paria? , 

I EsU Paria l^joa de aqnS 7 


No esti I^jos 

I Cnantas millaa diata? 

I Caanto dista 7 

Veinte milUu, 

Una milla. 

De aqoi 4 Paria haj caai doacientaa 

Hay ceica de eien millaa de Berlin 

4 Viena. 

How far ia it from here to Paria? 
la it &r from here to Paris 7 

It is far. 

It ia not far. 

How many miles ia it7 

It ia twenty miles. 
A mile. 
It is alzqaat two hundred miles from 

here to Paris. 
It ia neariy a hundred miles from 

Berlin to Vienna. 


F^mn Venice. 
fVom London. 
I am ftom Paria. 

What eoontryman are yon 7 

Axe yon from France 7 

I am. 

The CaatQian. 
He ia a Caatilian, (from Caatile.) 
The king. 
TIm philosopher. 
The preceptor, the tutor. 
Hie professor. 

The landlord, the innkeeper. 

Are yon a Biscayan? 
Whence do yon come 7 
I conie from Bilboa. 


De Venecia. 

De Ldndrea. 

Yo soy de Paris, f Soy hijo de Pario, 

t ^ De qae paia es V. 7 

I De donde sois 7 - j, De qne tieira 7 

t^EsV. Frances? 

^Sois Francesea? 

Si, seilor. 

El Castellano. 

£l es Castellano. 



El preceptor. El ayo. El maestro 

El profesor. El catedr4tico 
{ Posadero. Meeonero. Hostelero 
( Huesped. Qasero. Patron. 

^Es V.Vizcaino 7 
I De donde viene V. 7 
Vengo de Bilb4o. 


jrUTT-nBflT LBflflON. 

ToJUf, to rvM 9»ay, Huir *. Hmrm *, (Me App^ wfai 

in vir.) Etcapuw. Fagam^ 

I mn away, thoa runneat away, he ! Yo hayo, iA hayes, ^1 haye, V. hnye. 
rons away, yon nm away. 

We ma away, yoa run away, they 

mn away, yoa run away. 
Why do yoa fly T 
I fly becaow I am afraid. 

Noflotroa huimoi, troaotna hnia* eOoi 

hoyen, VV. hayen. 
^Porqa^ baye V.7 
Yo hayo poiqae tengo miedo. 

To aoaurt. 
I aaraie you that he to arriTed. 


t Yo aaegoTO i V. qne f\ ha fle(ado. 

Oho. When the Teib to ho to OMd inetead of to A««e, as in the ftte- 
going example, it is translated haher. 

To hear, (to haTe knowledge of.) 

HaTO yoa heard nothing new T 
I have heard nothing new. 

Oir* Saber*. (See App. for the 

two yezbs.) 
t ^ No sabe V. nada de nuoToT 
t Yo no he sabido nada de noevo. 

To Aoppeii. i 

The happinesi, fortune. | 

Unhappinesi, misfortune. < 

A great misfortune has happened. 
He has met with a great mkfortune. 

What has happened to yon 7 \ 

Nothiug has happened to me. 
I have met with your brother. 

Acaeeer. Acontecer. Suceder. 

Felicidad. Dicha. Fortuna. Gracia. 

Infelicidad. Desdicha. De^gracia. 


Ha sucedido una gran deagracia. 

t Le ha sucedido nn grande infoita- 

i Que le ha sucedido i V. 7 
I Que 08 ha aoontacido 7 
No me ha sucedido nada. 
Me he encontrado con el 



Hie poor man. 
I baye cut his finger. 
You have broken the man's neck. 

To pity, 

00 you pity that man 7 

1 pity him with all my heart 

With all my heart 

EI pobro hombre. 

t Yo le he cortado el dedo. 

t v. le ha torcido (rompido) el pas* 
cuexo al hombre. 
C Compadeeor, Compodecerge de, 
< , (See yerbs m eer, in App) 

\ Tenor Idotima, 

I Se compadece V. de ese hombre 7 
Le compadeioo con todo mi comoo. 

5 Con (de) todo mi 

( t Con toda mi alma. 



Tb complaim 

Bo you complain ? 

I do not complaiii. 

Bo yoa complaui of my ftiend ? 

I do oomplaiii of him. 

I do not complain of him. 

To dare. 

To opoU, to damage. 

To eervot to wait upon. 

Boat tbon wait upon, (servo 7) 
I do wait upon, (I wrve.) 
He waits npon, (he serves.) 

To aerve some one, (to wait upon 

Has he been in your aervice 
Has he served yon? 

How long haa he been in year ser- 

The service. 

To offer. 
Bo yon ofier? 

I do ofl^. 
Then oflbrest 
He offenk 

To confide, to truet, to intru9t. 

Bo yon trust me with your monejl 

I do tmst you with it. 

I have intrusted that man with i 

llie secret. 
To keep any thing seciet 

ice? ^ 

Quejaree de. Lameniaroe do. 

iSe qaejaV.? 

No me qaejo. 

I Se qaeja V. de mi amigo ? 

t De verae (ciertamente) me qnejo 

No me qnejo de €L 

Ooar. Atreveise. Arriesgarse. 
Echar 4 perder. Inatilizar. 
Sermr *. (See Appendix.) 
Eatar en oermeio de otro, (d §m 


Yo sirvo. Estoj sirviendo. 
£l sirve. £l esti sirvienda 
Servir 4 algnno. 
Estar sirviendo 4 alguno. 
Estar al servicio de algmio. 
I Ha estado ^1 en el servicio de V.? 
^Haservidod v.? 
I Ha estado sirviendo i V . ? 
I Cnanto tiempo ha servido A i V.7 
I Cuanto tiempo ha estado sirviendo 

A v.? 
E3 servicia 

Ofreeer *. (See App., verbs in eer.) 

I Ofrece y. ? I Ofireceis vos, (voso- 

Yo ofrezco. t De verao ofresco, 
T6 ofreces. 
£l ofrece. 

CJDonfiar &, {de, en.) 

< Ftaree de, {en.) 

1 1 Contar con. Haeer cm^anxa de. 

I Me confia V. su dinero ? 

Yo oe le confio i V . 

Yo he confiado un secieto i est 

Guardar secreta 
Tener secreta a]gima< 



I hftTe kept H Mcret 


He gvwdado 
liO heteaido 

To take cato of ■omethim. 

Do yoa take care of yonr dotbeaf 
I da take oaio of them. 

WiD yoa take can of my hone? 
I will take care of it. 

To squander, to diooipaU. 

ffa liifl amiaiideied all hii wealth 

To kimder. To provomL 
To hoop from, 

Yoa hinder me fhxn deeping. 

Cnidarda alfjfima 
Tener caidado de. 

^Coida v. de aoa Toitidaay (ea np^ \ 
Si, yo cuido de eUoa, (de ella.) 
I Qaiere V. caidar mi cabaUo T 
I Qoieie V. caidar de mi cafaaDoT 
I Si, yo caidar^ de ^ 

I Dejur. 

iMalgmttar. Dioipar. 
Deoperdieiar. Dtrrockmr 

1 1^1 ha diwpado iodo aa caadaL 

ilmpedir *. Ewthartutmr. 
Eotorhmr. No dojmr, 

V. no me deja donnir. 
Me impide donnir. 


To porch 

\ Comprar. 

\ t Hacer algunao eomprao. 

{ I Que ha oomprado V. hoy ? 

(f I Qae compraa ha hecho V. hoy T 
I haye porohaaed two handkerclue&. | Yo he comprado doa pafloeloe. 
Haye yoa parchaaed any thing iO'i iHa. comprado V. hoy algana 

( t^ Ha hecho v. hoy algonaa compraa 7 

What have yoa parchaaed to day 7 



Moat lovely, charming. 

Tlial hat fiti yoa admiiabiy 

Tlial coat fita Mm wry well. 

It bo 

C Pnciorfrimo. AmahilUma 
\ Encantador. 


t Eae aombrero le ya (aienta) i V. 
may bien. 

Eaa caaaca le aienta perfectamente. 

t Eoa eaoaem le va eomo pintadm, 

Eao ea hechicero, encantador, deli- 


t JHofio, divertido, gruciooo. 

How ftr IB it hoax Paris to Landoii ?— -It is nearly two hundred 
miles fiom Paris to London.— Is it fiur fiom here to Berlin ?-^t is far. 
it ftr fiom here to Vienna f— It is almost a hnndred and fifty 

Finr-FIRflT LB880V. 210 

miles from beie to Vieima. — Jb it fiirther £rom Paris to Bloia tlnn from 

Orl§uis Id Paris ? — It is further from Orleans to Paris than from Paris 

to Blois. — How far is it from Paris to Berlin ? — It is almost a hundred 

and thirty miles from Paris to Berlin. — ^Do yon intendto go to Paris 

soon ? — ^I intend to go thither soon. — Why do yon wish to go this 

time ? — ^In order to bay good books and good gloves there, and to see 

my good friends. — Lb it long since yon were there 7 — ^It is nearly a 

year since I was there. — ^Do yon not go to Italy this year ? — ^I do not 

go thither, for it is too far from here to Italy. — ^Who are the men that 

have jost arrived 7 — They are philosophers. — Of what country are 

they ? — ^They are from London. — Who is the man who has just 

started 7 — ^He is an Englishman, who has squandered away all his 

fortnne in France. — ^What countryman are you 7—1 am a Spaniard, 

and my friend is an Italian.-*Are you from Cadiz 7 — No, I am from 

Madrid. — ^How much money have your children spent to-day 7 — ^They 

have spent but little ; they have spent but one dollar. — ^Where did you 

dine yesterday 7 — ^I dined at the innkeeper's. — ^Did yon spend much 7 

— ^I spent a dollar and .a hiilf. — ^Has the king passed here 7 — ^He has 

not passed here, but before the theatre. — ^Have you seen him 7 — ^I have 

seen him. — ^Is it the first time you have seen him 7 — It b not the first 

time, for I have seen him more than twenty times. 


Why does that man run away 7 — ^He runs away because he is 

afraid. — ^Why do you run away 7 — ^I run away because I am afraid. 

—Of whom are yon afraid 7 — ^I am afraid of the man who does not 

love me. — Is he your enemy 7 — ^I do not know whether he is my 

enemy ; but I fear all those who do not love me, for if they do me 

no harm, they will do me no good. — Do you fear my cousin 7-^ 

I do not fear him, for he has never done anybody harm. — ^You are in 

the wrong to run away before that man, for I assure you that he is a 

very good man, who has never done harm to any one.— 4X whom has 

your brother heard 7 — ^He has heard of a man to whmn a misfortune 

has happened. — Why have your scholars not done thdr exercises 7 — 

I assure you that they have done them, and you are mistaken if yon 

believe that they have not done them. — What have you done with my 

book 7 — ^I assure you that I have not seen it — ^Has your son had my 

Anives 7 — ^He assures me that he has not had them. — ^Has your uncle 

arrived already? — ^He has not arrived yet — ^Will you wait till he 

returns, (que el Ueguel) — ^I cannot wait, for I have a good deal to do. 

— ^Have you not heard any thing new 7 — ^I have heard nothing new.—* 

Has the king arrived ? — ^They say that he has arrived. — ^What has 

happened to yon 7 — ^A great misfortune has happened to me. — ^What t 


have met with my greatest enemy, who has given me a Mow 
a stick. — ^Then I pity you with all my heart. — Why do yoa pity that 
man 7 — ^I pity him because you have broken his neck. — Why do you 
complain of my friend 7 — I complain of him because he has cut my 
finger. — ^Does that man serve you well 7 — ^He does serve me well, but 
he spends too much. — ^Aie you willing to take this servant 7 — ^I am 
willing to take him, if he will serve me. — Can I take that servant 7^- 
You can take him, for he has served me very well. — ^How long is it 
since he is out of {que H dejo) your service 7 — ^It is but two months 
since. — ^Has he served yon long 7 — ^He has served me (for) sue years. 

Do you offer me any thing 7 — ^I have nothing to offer you. — ^What 
does my friend offer you 7 — He <^ers me a book. — ^Have the Puisians 
offered you any thing 7 — ^They have offered me wine, bread, and good 
beef.-^Why do you pity our neighbor? — ^I pity him, because he has 
trusted a merchuit of Paris with his money, and the man (y este) will 
not return it to him. — ^Do yoa trust this man with any thing 7 — ^I do 
not trust him with any thing. — ^Has he already kept any thing from 
you 7 — ^I have never trusted him with any thing, so that he has never 
kept any thing from me. — Will you trust my &ther with your money 7 
— I will trust him with it. — ^With what secret has my son intrusted 
you 7 — I cannot intrust you with that with which he has intrusted me, 
for he has desired me (enca^gado) to keep it secret. — ^Whom do you 
intrust with your secrets 7 — I intrust nobody with them, so that nobody 
knows them. — Has your brother been rewarded 7 — ^He has, on the 
contrary, been punished ; but I beg you to keep (lo tenga) it secret, 
for no one knows it. — ^What has happened to him 7 — ^I will tell you 
what has happened to him, if you promise me to keep it secret. Do 
you promise me to keep it secret 7 — I do promise you, for I pity him 
with all my heart — ^Will yon take care of my clothes 7 — ^I will take 
care of them. — ^Aie you taking care of the book which I lent you 7-^ 
I am taking care of it. — ^Who will take care of my servant 7 — ^The 
landlord will take care of him. — ^Do yon throw away jrour hat 7 — ^I do 
not throw it away, for it fits me admirably. — ^Does your friend sell hiB 
coat 7 — He does not sell it, for it fits him most beautifully. — ^Who has 
spoiled my book 7 — ^No one has spoiled it, because no one has dared 
to touch iU 



FEFTY-SECOND LESSON.— Leccton quweuagSsima segunda. 

'Win tin people come soon ? 
Soon, — very woan. 
A Tiolm. 
To play upon the yiolin. 
To play the yioIixL 

The haipsichofd. 
To play the harpnchord. 
To play upon the harpaichoid. 
What instrument do you play ? 

To touch. 


Near me. 

Near them. 

Near the fireu 

Near the treea 

Near going. 
Where do you live ? 
I liye near the caatle. 
What are you doing near the fire 7 

To dance. 

To fall 
To drop, (meaning to UtfaH) 
Has he dropped any thing 7 
fie has not dropped any thing. 



I Vendri la gente luego 7 

Luego, preeto, pronto, Muy promts, 

Un yiolin. 

t Tocar el vidln. 
I Claye. Clayicordio. 

t Tocar el piano, (el clayicoidiOb) 
I 1 1 Que inatrumento toca V. T 

Tocar. Palpar. 
Cerea de. Junto d» 
Cerca de mf. Junto i, mt 
Cerca de elloe, (or ellaa) 
Cerca del fuego. 
Cerca de loe irbolea 
Ceiea de ir. 
I En donde yive V. 7 
Viyo junto al caatillo. 
I Que efiti V. haciendo junto al 
fuego 7 

Danzar. Bailar. 


Dejar eaer, 

I Ha dejado €1 caer algo 7 

£1 no ha dejado caer nada. 

To retain. To hold hack. 
To approach. To draw near. 

Do you approach the fire 7 

I do approach it 

Retener *, (conj. like Tener.y 
Aeercaree d. Aproximaree A,* 
I Se acerca V. al fuego 7 
Me acerco, (& 61.) 

« « -> S Aeerearee* 

To apvroaekt to Aooe aeeeoo to one. < »v 

-•^ ' ( Tener eomuntcacton con. 

He is a man difficult of aeces. | Es un hombre de dtffcil acceao. 

I go away (withdraw) from the fire. I Yo me quito del fuego. 

* See LesBon XXIV., and Appendix. 


• See Leawn XXVI., Oba. F. 

nnr-8sooND lkssoh. 

To wiihdrttw jTOtHm 4 

To go away from. 

I go away from it 

Why does that man go away from 

the fire t 
He goes away from it beeanM he ie 

not cold. 

iQuitaroe de. Apartaroo ie, 
Retiraroe de. Ir$e de *. 

Yo me qaito de €1 

^Porqatf ae retira ese homfare del 

t £l ae retiia poiqne no tienefrio. 

To recolUeU 

Do yon reooOeet that 7 

I do recollect it 

Doea your brother recoQect that 1 

He doea recollect it 
Do yon recollect the words 7 
I do recollect them. 
Haye you recollected the words? 
I haTO recollected them. 
I have not recollected them. 
Have you recollected them 7 
You have recollected them. 
Has he recollected them 7 
He has recollected them. 
We have recollected them. 
Hiey have recollected them. 

To remember. 
To reeoUecL 

Do you remember that man 7 
Do you remember that 7 
I do remember it 

What do you remember 7 
I remember nothing. 

To eit down. 
Are you sitting down 7 

I Acordaroe de *.' 
I Se acneida V. de eoo 7 
^Os acordaia too (or yoaotros) 



Me acuerdo de ello. 

I Se acnerda de eso el hermano de 

£l se acuerda de ello. 
I Se acuerda V. de las palabras 7 
Me acuerdo de ellas. 
I Se ha acordado V. de las palahraa? 
Me he acordado de ellas. 
No me he acordado de ellas. 
I Os habeis acordado de ellas 7 
V. se ha acordado de ellas. 
^ Se ha acordado €i de ellas 7 
£1 se ha acordado de ellas. 
Nos hemos acordado de ellaa. 
Se han acordado de ellaa. 

C Acordaroe de *. 

\ Reeordaroe de *. 
I Os acordais de ese hombre 7 
I Se acuerda V. de ese hombre 7 

I I Se acuerda V. de eoo 7 
S( me acuerdo. 
Me acuerdo de esow 
I De que os acordais 7 
I De que se acuerda V. 7 

I No me acuerdo de nada. 




Sentaroe *.* Eotar oentado. 

^ Esti y. sentado 7 iSosientaV.? 

' See Acordaroe in the Appendix, where its irre^plarity is exjdained. 
' See Alentar in the Appendix, where the irregularities of oentaroe are 

nmr-flBcoHD ubuoh. 


I iiBiittni^ down- 
ThoQ uit ■ittinijr dowo. 
He ■ fltting down. 
IdiaDor wiU at down. 
He ats near the fire^ 
He IB ntting near the fire. 

Me aenta JStftaj sentado. 

Tb to nentaa. £Mis aeatado 

tl ee aenta. Bkti eentadou 


£l ee aenta cerca del fbega 

& eiti eenlado junto al fnaga 


i Qfutmr ma» de. Prtfent d. 
better, to prefer, ^ q,,^^ , ^^ 

^Guto v. mas de ester aqd que 

Do yon like to stay here better than 
going out 7 


nGoata v. 
* I Prefiere V. 

estar aqd i nlir? 
I Quiere V. mejor (or mas bien) 

Ouetar is moat frequently nMd placing the object as a solgeet, in which 
ease the veib agrees with it in the third person angnlar or plural, and the 
aibfeet is ezpreased by the eoneqionding pronoun in the objectire casst to 
wit : me, te, ee, le, U (y) d V, 

I like staying here bettor than going 

He likes to play better than to study. 

Do you like to writo better than to 

\ £ke to speak bettor than to write. 

t Me gusto mas estar aqnf qnesalib 

t A A le gusto mas jogar que ea- 

t ^ Le gusto & V. mas escribir que 

t A m( me gusto mas hablar que 


Setter than. 
He likes to do both. 

I like beef bettor than mutton. 

Do you like bread better than meat? 

I like neither tho one nor the other. 

I like tea as much as col&e. 

Just as much. 

Some TeaL 
Calf, cahres. 


Jfot qu$» M^or que. 

t A A le gusto hacer k> uno y hi 

otro, (or el uno y el otro.) 
Me gosta mas la vaca que el eamsia 
t ^ Le gusto i y. mejor el pan que 

la came? 
tNo me gustan ni el uno, ni la 

t EI t6 me gusto tanto como el oaiH 
Tanto como. 
Lo mismo (n) que. 
Uu poco de temera. Temera. 
Temero, tomera ; temeros, temevaa 

Qttteik. Faet 

C Preeto. Prcnio. JUgen. 



Slofp. Slowly. 

Doet yoor miiter ipeak aloiid T 

He ipeaki akmd. 

In ofder to learn Spenah, ooe mnat 
tpoBk dood. 

Quicker. FtMer. 

Not 90 quick, Lem futck. 

Am fast aa yoo. 
He eata quicker than L 
Do yon learn aa fiMt aa 1 7 
I learn faater than yon. 
I do not nndentand yon, becanae 
yon apeak too faat 

To ooU cheap. 
To eeU dear* 
Doea he aell cheap 7 
He doea not aell dear. 
He haa aold me very dear. 

Thia man aella every thing ao dear, 
that one cannot bay any thing 
from him* 
Yon apeak ao faat that I cannot nn- 
dentand yon. 
To bay aomething of aome one. 
I haTO bought it of him. 

So muehf 80 many, 
I have written ao many notea, that I 
cannot write any more. 

Do yon fear to go out 7 
I do fear to go out 

To run away, Tofiy, 
Did you run away 7 

Tardo. Lentio, Leuimmemta* 

Poeo A poco, 

Alto. En alta vox. Rida, 

I Habia alto el maeatro de V. (cr 

▼uestro maeatro) 7 
£l haUa alto. 
Para aprender el Eqwftol, ea menfi** 

ter hablar altoi 
Mae presto, Mae ligero. 
No tan presto, Minoe pronto. 

Tan pronto oomo V. (yoa, orToaotraa.) 
£l come maa pieato que yo. 
I Aprende V. tan im>nto oomo yot 
Yo aprando maa pronto que V. 
Yo no entiendo 6. V. (oe entiendo} 
poique y. habla (hablaii) tnn de 

Vender barato. 
Vender caro, 
I Vende €i barato 7 
£l no Tende caro.' 
£l me ha vendido mny eaxa 

Eate hombro lo yende todo tan eaio, 
que no ae le pnede comprar nada. 

v. habla tan ligero que yo no pnedo 

Comprar algo de algrano. 
Yo ae le he eomprado' (i €i.) 
Tanto, tanta. Tantoe, tantae. 
He eacrito tantaa eequelaa que no 

puedo oBcribir maa. 

iTemeV. 8alir7 ^Temeiaaalir! 
t Ciertamente temo aalir. 
Huir *• Etcaparee, Salvarte, 
iHuy6V.7 iSee8capdV7 

' Particular care muat be paid in the translation of these phraaes, for 
Tooele he eomprade, may mean, I bought it of, or from him ; and alic I 
bongfat it to, or for hia benefit To ayoid ambiguity, the prooonna dH d 
«Z2a, d eUoo, dbc am placed after the rnb. 

VI1TT-8EG0ND LBB80K. 226 

X did not mn away. 

IWl&y did that man run away T 

£le ran away becaose he was afraid 

Wlio has nm away 7 

Yo no hnf. Yo no me eseap6. 
^Porqu^ hayd (or se escape) est 

bombro ? 
£1 huyd (se escap6) ponjne tenia 

I Quien se ha haido, (or escapade) 7 

He has ran away. i £l se ha huido. £l se ha escapado. 



Do yon play the violin 7—1 do not play the violin, bnt the hazpei- 

chord. — Shall we have a ball to-night ? — ^We shall have one.— At what 

o'clock 7 — ^At a quarter to eleven. — ^What o'clock is it now 7 — ^It is 

almost eleven, and the people will soon come. — ^What instmment will 

you play 7 — ^I shall play the violin. — If yon play the violin I shall play 

upon the harpsichord.— Are there to be {deberd haber) a great many 

people at onr ball 7 — ^There is to be a great many. — Will yon dance 7 

— I shall dance. — ^Will your children dance 7 — ^They will dance if they 

please. — ^In what do yon spend yonr time in this country 7 — ^I spend 

my time in playing on the harpsichord, and in reading. — ^In what does 

your consin divert himself 7 — ^He diverts himself in playing npon tl]^ 

violin. — ^Does any one dance when yon play 7 — ^A great many people 

dance when I play. — ^Who 7 — ^At first (primero) onr children, then our 

coosina, at last our neighbors.— Do you amuse yourselves 7 — ^I assure 

you that we amuse ourselves very much. — Whom do you pity 7 — ^I 

pity your friend. — ^Why do you pity him 7 — ^I pity him because he is 

ill. — ^Has anybody pitied you 7 — ^Nobody has pitied me, because I have 

not been ill. — ^Do yon offer me any thing 7 — I offer you a fine gun. — 

What has my father offered you 7— He has offered me a fine book. — 

To whom have you offered your fine horses 7 — I have offered them to 

the English captain. — ^Doet thou offer thy pretty little dog to these 

children 7 — ^I offer it to them, for I love them with all my heart. — ^Why 

have you given that boy a blow with your fist 7 — Because he hindered 

me from sleeping. — ^Has anybody hindered you from writing, (que V» 

etcriba 7) — ^Nobody has hindered me from writing, but I have hindered 

somebody from hurting your cousin. 


Have you dropped any thing? — ^I have dropped nothing, but my 

coiuin dropped some money. — ^Who has picked it up 7 — Some men 

baye picked it up. — ^Was it returned to him, (se le han vuelio 7) — ^It was 

xetamed to him. — Is it cold to-day 7 — ^It is very cold. — ^Will you draw 

the fire ? — ^I cannot draw near (it,) for I am afraid of burning my- 

S26 nnr-BscoKD lessok. 

self. — Why does yoar friend go away from the fire ? — ^He goes away 
(from it) because he is afraid of boming himself. — ^Art thou coming 
near the fire 7 — ^I am coming near (it,) because I am very cold.— Do 
you go away from the fire ? — ^I do go away (from it) — Why do you go 
away (from it 7) — Because I am not cold. — ^Are yon cold or wann ?— -I 
am neither cold nor warm. — ^Why do your children approach the fire ? 
— They approach (it) because they are cold. — ^Is anybody cold?— 
Somebody is cold. — ^Who is cold 7 — The little boy, whose fiuher has 
lent you a horse, is cold. — ^Why does he not warm himself 7 — ^Because 
. his frither has no money to buy wood. — ^Will you tell him to come 
(que venga) to me to warm himself 7 — ^I will tell him so, i}o.) — ^Do yoa 
remember any thing 7 — ^I remember nothing. — ^What does your uncle 
recollect? — ^He recollects what you have promised him. — ^What have I 
promised him 7 — ^You have prcmiised him to go to France with him 
next winter. — ^I intend to do so, if it is not too cold. — Why do yoa 
ixnthdraw from the fire 7 — ^I have been sitting near the fire this honr 
and a half, so that I am no longer cold. — ^Does your friend not like to 
sit near the fire 7 — ^He likes, (on the contrary,) much to sit near the 
fire, but only when he is cold. — ^May one approach your uncle 7— One 
may approach him, for he receives everybody. — ^WiU yon sit down ?-" 
I will ait down.-— Where does your father sit down 7 — ^He sits down 
near me. — Where shall I sit down 7 — ^You may sit near me. — ^Do yon 
sit down near the fire 7 — ^I do not sit down near the fire, for I am afraid 
of being too warm. — ^Do you. recollect my brother 7 — ^I do recoUect him. 

Do your parents recollect their old friends 7 — ^They do recollect 
them. — Do you recollect these words 7 — ^I do not recollect them. — ^Have 
you recollected that 7 — ^I have recollected it. — ^Has your uncle recol- 
lected those words 7 — ^He has recollected them. — ^Have I recollected 
my exercise 7 — ^You have recollected it. — ^Have you recollected your 
exercises 7 — I have recollected them, for. I have learned them by heart; 
and my brothers have recollected theirs, because they have learned 
them by heart. — Is it long since you saw your friend from Paris 7—1 
saw him a fortnight ago. — Do your scholars like to learn by heart ?— 
They do not like to learn by heart ; they like reading and writing better 
than learning by heart. — Do you like cider better than wine 7 — I like 
wine better than cider. — ^Does your brother like to play 7 — ^He likes to 
study better than to play. — ^Do you like veal better than mutton 7—1 
like the latter better than the former. — ^Do you like to drink better than 
to eat 7 — ^I like to eat better than to drink ; but my uncle likes to drink 
better than to eat. — ^Does the Frenchman like fowl (la gdUina) bett^ 
than fish 7 — ^He likes fish better than fowl. — Do you like to write better 



tfaan to speak ? — ^I like to do both.— Do yon like haaey better than 
sugar ? — ^I like neither. — ^Doea your father like coffee better than tea 7 
—Eb likes neither. — Can you miderstand me 7 — ^No, Sir, for yon speak 
too &8t — ^Will yon be kind enough (tener la bondad) not to speak so 
&st 7—1 will not speak so fiist, if you will Usten to me. 

Can yon understand what my brother tells yon 7'— He speaks so 
iast, that I cannot understand him. — Can 3rour pupils understand you 7 
— ^They understand me when I speak slowly ; for in order to be under- 
stood I must speak slowly, (que yo Aad2e.>-— Is it necessary to speak 
aloud to learn French 7 — ^It is necessary to speak aloud. — ^Does your 
master speak aloud 7 — ^He does speak aloud and slow. — ^Why do you 
not buy any thing of that merchant 7 — ^He sells so dear that I caimot 
buy any thing of him. — ^Will you take me to another 7 — I will take 
you to the son of the one whom you bought of last year. — Does he 
sell as dear as this one 7 — ^He sells cheaper. — ^Do your children like 
learning Italian better than Spanish 7 — ^They do not like to learn either; 
they only like to learn French. — Do you like mutton 7 — ^I like beef 
better tluin mutton. — ^Do your children like cakes better than bread 7 — 
They like both. — ^Has he read all the books which he bought 7 — ^He 
bought so many that he cannot read them all. — ^Do you wish to write 
some exercises 7 — ^I have written so many that I cannot write any 
more. — -Why does that man run away 7 — ^He runs away because he is 
afraid. — Will any one do him harm 7 — ^No one will do him harm ; but 
he dares not stay, because he has not done his task, and is afraid of 
being punished. — ^Will any one touch him 7 — ^No one will touch him, 
but he will be pimished by his master for not haying (y)rque no ha) 
done his task. 

FIFTY-THIRD LESSON.— jL«ocion Q^meuaginma tercera. 

By the side ot 
To pass by the side of some one. 
I have poised by the side of yoo. 
HsTo yoa pesBed by the nde of my 

I haye paswd by the nde of him. 

To pa9§ hy a place. 
I have psMwd by the theatre. 

Al lado de, (or par el lado de.) 
Pasar per (or al laifs de) alguna 
Yo be paaado al lado de V. 
I Ha pasado V. al lado, (or por el 

lado) de mi hemiano 7 
Yo ho pasado i sn lado, (or por mi 

t Paear eerea de un lugar, 
t Yo he pasado ceroa del (or far d) 




I JiAvo p— ad by the eaiUe. 

Toa hftve 

psaed before my waro- 

t He peaado oerea del (or jonto al) 

t y. ha pasado par (or delante de) 

mi ahnaoen. 

To dart. 

I dare not go thither. 

He darea not do it 

I did not daie to tell him aa. 

To make uae of, to uac 
Do yon nae my horw 7 
I doiiae it 
Doea your father nae it 7 

He doea nae it 

Have you uaed my gun 7 

I have naed it 

Tbey have naed your hooka. 

Tbey haye used theoL 


Oaor. Atreverte. (See in the Ap- 
pendix, veiba taking a [»epoai- 
tion befoce the infinitive.) 

Yo no oao ir aUi. 

No me atrevo 4 ir alUL 

£l no ae atroTe 4 haceila 

Yo no me atrevi A decfnelo ail 


Sermrte de. Uear, (See Lea. L.) 

I Se airve V. de mi caballo ? 

Me ainro de €1 

t ^ Se airve de ^1 an aefior padre de 

Se airve de iL 
Usa de ^l. 
I Ha usado V. (or ae ha aervido Y.) 

demi e8Copeta7 
He naado de ella. 
Me he aervido de ella. 
Elloa ban uaado de (ae ban aervido 

de) loi lifaroa de Y. 
Loa ban naado. 
Se ban aervido de elloa. 

To inatruct 
I inatmct, thou inatructeat, he in- 
atmcta ; we inatruot, yon inatmct, 
they inatruct 

Itutruir *.^ Instruyendo, 

Yo inatmyo, ttt inatmyee, 6\ inatmye ; 
noaotroa inatniimoe, voaotroa in- 
atruia, voa inatruia, Y. inatmye, W. 
inatrayen, elloa iuatrayen. 

To teach. 
To teach some one something. 
He teachea me arithmetic. 
I teach you Spaniah. 
I have taught him Spaniah. 
To teach some one to do something* 


Ensenar algo d algurto. 
£l me enaefia la aritm6tica. 
Yo le enaefio 4 Y. el eepadoL 
Yo le he enaeiiado el eapaftol. 
Ensenar a alguno d hacer algmna 

' See veiha in utr, in the Appendix, where their irregnlaritieo are ex- 


mrr-TBiBD lbsson. 


fie taaehes ma to read. 
1 taaeh him to write. 

£l me eaeefia 4 leer. 
Yo le ensedo 4 eecribir. 

Ilie Spanish maeter, (meaning the 
master of the Spanish language.) 

The Spanish master, (meaning that 
the master ia a Spaniard, what- 
ever he teaches.) 

£1 maestro de espaiKoL 
£1 maestro espafioL 


To get Mhaved. 

To dres9. 

To undresa» 

To dresM one's self. 

To undreea one's self. 

Have yon dieased yourself 7 

I hare not yet dressed mytself 
Have yon dressed the child ? 
I have diesMd it. 

To undo. 


Afeitar. Rasurar. 

t Afeitarse. Haeerse afeitm: 

Vestir ♦. 


Vesiirse ». 


tSehavestido v.? 

I Ofl habeis yestido 7 

Todavia no me he vestida 

I Ha yestido V. al niiio, (or niiia) 7 

Le (la) he vestide. 

To get fid of 

I Deshacer *. (Conjugated like hacer. 
I See Appendix.) 

iDtshacerse de. Zafarse. 
Librarse de. 

(I Se deshace V. de «u azttcar ayeria- 
flVaV. saliendo del azucar aee- 

Iwn getting rid of it 

Did you get rid of your old diip7 

J Me desbago de 61. 
Voy saliendo de eL 

I Se deshizo Y . de sn fragata yieja 7 
Me desbice do ella. 

To'part with. 

The design, the intention. 
I intend to go thither. 
^ 70a intend to part with your 

I have already parted with them. 
^ W parted with hh gmi. 

C Deshaeerse de. Enagenar, 
I Vender. 

El deeignio. La inteneion. 
Yo tengo inteneion de ir alii. 
^Tiene Y. inteneion de deshaceise 
{de vender) bus caballos 7 

JYa me he deshecho de elU 
Ya los be vendido. 
I £1 ha vendido su escopeta. 


nmr^THUiD lbssov. 

Hare you parted with (diaehaifed) 

your seirant t 
I have parted with (discharged) him. 

I Ha dewpedido V. A to cxiadBl 
Si, ya le he deapedida 

To wake. 
To awake. 

I Deepertar ♦.* Dispertar ♦.* 
k Despertar. Deepertaree? 
\ JHepertar. Dispertarse} 

Obe. Diapertar generally means, to put an end to deep ; diepertarUtio 

faitermpt rieepi 

I generally awake at mx o'clock in 

the morning. 
My servant generally wakes me at 

six o'clock in the morning. 
A slight noise awakes me. 
A dream has waked me. 
I do not make a noise, in order not 

to wake him. 

Yo despierto generalmente i las seie 

do la maftana. 
Mi criado me diq>ierta geoecabneiite 

4 las seis de la mafiana. 
Un ligero niido me despierta. 
Un sueno me ha diapeitado. 
Yo no hago mido, para no diqMtaile> 

A dream. 
To come down. 

To alight from one's hoise. To dis- 

Un saexla Un ensnefio. 

Greneralmente. Ordinaziament^ 


Apeaiae de sn caballa Demontsr. 

To conduct one's oelf. 

To behave, 

I oondnct myself well 

How does he conduct himself 7 


He hehaves ill towards that man. 
He behaves ill towards me. 

To be worth while. 

Is it worth while 7 
It is worth while. 

Is it not worth while 7 

Conduciroe *, (bien or mot)* 
Portaroe, Comportaroe. 
Yo me conduzco bien. 
I Como se porta (oondnce) A 7 

A, Con, Para con. H6cia. 
£l se porta mal con aquel hombrs* 
£l se porta mal eonmigo. 

I Merecer *.' Valer la pena de. 
I Lo merece eso 7 
I Yale eso la pena 7 
t Lo merece. Vale la pena. 
t ^ No lo merece 7 
I No vale la pena 7 



^ Deepertar or diepertar are eonjugated like alentar. (See this verb in 
the Appendix.) 

* See in the Appendix the irregularities of eondudr, and all the veitK 
ending in aeer, eeer, ocer, tcctr. 

nrrr-TiURD ubssoh. 281 

b it worth wiiile to do that? 

Menee eso haoene 7 
, Yale la pena hacor eso T 
li it worth while to write to him 7 1 i Vale la pena eacribirie 7 
It ii worth nothing. | No vale nad& 

Ii it better? 

It is better. 

Wm it be better 7 

It will not be better. 

I Ee mejor 7 i Vale maa 7 
Ee mejor. Vale maa. 
I Seri mejor 7 i Valdrd maa 7 
No aeri mejor. No Taldri maai 

¥4 • 1^* « J At.- ^1. *!. A 5 E« mejor hacer eato qne eso. 

It ■ better to do thia than that <» , . . ^ 

( Maa vale hacer eato qne eeo. 

It Ii better to stay here than go a- I Mejor ea eatar aqa( qoe ir 4 paaear. 

walking. | 



Have your books been found 7 — ^They have been folmd. — ^Whera 7 

—Under the bed. — ^la my coat on the bed 7 — ^It is tmder (it)— Aie 

your brother's stockings under the bed 7 — ^They aze upon it — ^Have I 

been seen by anybody 7 — ^You have been seen by nobody. — Have you 

passed by anybody 7 — ^I passed by the side of you, and you did not see 

me^ — ^Has anybody passed by the side of you 7 — Nobody has passed by 

the aide of me. — Where has your son passed 7 — He has passed by the 

theatre. — Shall you pass by the castle 7 — ^I shall pass (there.) — Why 

have you not cleaned my trunk 7 — ^I was afraid to soil my fingers. — 

Has my brother's servant cleaned his master's guns 7 — ^He has cleaned 

them.^ — Has he not been afraid to soil his fingers 7 — ^He has not 

been afraid of soiling them, because his fingers are never clean. — ^Do 

you use the books which I have lent you 7 — ^I do use them. — ^May I 

use your knife ? — ^Thou mayst use it, but thou must not cut (<e cortes) 

thyself. — ^May my brothers use your books 7 — ^They may use them. — 

May we use your gun 7 — ^You may use it, but you must not spoil it, 

{no la echen d perder.) — ^What have you done with my wood 7 — ^I 

have used it to warm myself. — ^Has your father used my horse 7 — ^He 

has used it — Have our neighbors used our clothes 7 — ^They have not 

used them, because they did not wont them.-— Who has used my hat 7 

—Nobody has used it. — ^Have you told your brother to come down, (que 

^?) — I did not dare to tell him.— Why have you not dared to tell 

liim ? — ^Because I did not wish to wake him, (desperUtrle.) — ^Has he told 

you not to wake him 7 — ^He has told me not to wake hun (detpierU) 

vrfaen he sleeps. 

Have you shaved t»day7 — ^I have shaved. — ^Has your brother 
ihM<8d7— He has not shaved hhnself, but he got shaved. — ^Do you 

282 FIflT-THIBD LI880H. 

Bhave often ? — ^I shave eveiy moining, and sometimes also in tbe 
evening. — ^When do you shave in the evening ? — When I do not dioe 
at home. — How many times a day does yonr fiitfaer shave ? — He abiTCs 
only once a day, but my uncle shaves twice a day. — ^Does your coaaiB 
shave often ? — ^He shaves only every other day, (un diasiyyun dia no.) 
— At what o'clock do you dress in the morning ? — ^I dress as soon as 
I have breakfasted, and I breakfast every day at' eight o'clock, or at i 
quarter past eight. — ^Does your neighbor dress before he breakftstsf— 
He breakfasts before he dresses. — At what o'clock in the evening doal 
thou undress ? — ^I undress as soon as I return from the theatre. — DoA 
thou go to the theatre every evening ? — I do not go every evwung, 
for it is better to study than to go to the theatre. — At what o'clock 
dost thou undress when thou dost not go to the theatre? — ^I then 
undress as soon as I have supped, and go to bed at ten o'clock. — Bxn 
you already dressed the child ? — ^I have not dressed it yet, for it is sdll 
asleep. — At what o'clock does it get up 7 — ^It gets up as soon as itU 
waked. — ^Do you rise as early as I ? — ^I do not know at what o'clock 
you rise, but I rise as soon as I awake. — ^Will you tell my servant to 
wake me (que me dispierte) to-morrow at four o'clock ? — ^I will tdl 
him. — ^Why have you risen so early ? — ^My children have made snch a 
noise that they wakened me. — ^Have you slept well ? — I have not slept 
well, for you made too much noise. — ^At what o'clock did the good 
captain awake 7 — ^He awoke at a quarter past five in the morning. 

How did my child behave? — ^He behaved very well. — ^Howdid my 
brother behave towards you ? — ^He behaved very well towards me, for 
he behaves well towards everybody. — Is it worUi while to write to that 
man ? — ^It is not worth while to write to him. — Is it worth while to 
dismount from my horse in order to buy a cake ? — ^It is not wortli 
while, for it is not long since you ate. — ^Is it worth while to dismount 
from my horse in order to give something to that poor man ? — ^Yes, for 
he seems to want it ; but you can give him something without disr 
mounting from your horse. — ^Is it better to go to the theatre than to 
study ?— It is better to do the latter than the former.— Is it better to 
learn to read Spanish than to speak it ? — ^It is not worth while to learn 
to read it without learning to speak it. — ^Is it better to go to bed than 
to go a-walking 7 — ^It is better to do the latter than the former.—ls ^ 
better to go to France than to Germany ? — ^It is not worth while to go 
to Franco or to Crermany when one has no wish to travel. — Did you &t 
last get rid of that man ? — ^I did get rid of him. — ^Why has your father 
parted with his horses ? — Because he did not want them any more.— 
Has your merchant succeeded at last to get rid of his damaged sugar? 



— Se Ihs sDceeeded In getting rid of it— Haa he sold it on credit t — 
Se 'was aUe to sell it for cash, so tliat he did not sell it on credit — 
Who hu taught you to read ? — ^I have learned it with a Spanish 
mastery — His he taught yon to write ? — ^He has tao^ me to read and 
to fFrite. — ^Who has taught your brother arithmetic? — ^A Spanish 
nuLster has taught it him. — Do you call me ? — ^I do call you.—- What 
do yon want ? — ^Why do you not rise ; do you not knqw that it is 
alreoady late 7 — ^What do you want me for ? — ^I have lost all my money, 
and I cofBoe to beg you to lend {me preste) me some. — -What o'clock is 
it 7 — ^It Is already a quarter past six, and you have slept long enough. 
— Is it long aince you rose ? — ^It is an hour and a half since I rose. — 
I>o joa wish to take a walk with me 7 — ^I cannot go a-walking, for I 
am -waithig for my Spanish master. 

FIFrY-FOURTH LESSON.— Xeocton Quinautgesima cuarta. 

To kopCf to expect 
I hope. 
Ilioa hopest 
He hopes. 
You hope. 
We do hope. 

Do yoo expect to find him there? 
I do expect it 

EeperoTt Agtutrdar, 

V. espera. Vos (toooCios) espenisi 
Nosotros eapenmos. 

I Espeni v. hallarie alli? 
t Si. Espero hallarie. 

« , ^ . . , V 5 Cambiar. Droear •• 

To diange, (meaning to exchange.) \ pgrmutw 

To change one thing for another. 
I change my hat for his. 

Cambiar una coaa per (con) otra. 
Cambio (trueeo) mi aombrero par el 

T» change f (meaning to put on other 

Do yon change yoor hat? 

I do change it 

Mudar de. Mudaroe de. 


I Se muda V. el aombmo? 

Le mode. Le cambia 
Me pongo otro. 

He diangea his linen. 
They change their clothes. 

it Se muda de ropa. 
Se pone ropa liimpia. 
I Se mudan de vestidOi 


nmr-roiTRiH Lxssoir. 


I mix among the men. 
He mizee among the aoldien. 


To reeognite* 

Do yon recogniae that man t 
It is 80 long since I saw him, that I 
do not recollect him. 

More than. 

I hare more bread than I can eat 

That man has more money than he 
wiU spend. 

There is more wine than is neces- 

Yon have more money than you 

We have more shoes than we want 

That man has fewer friends than he 

To fancy. 
To think. 

To earn, to gain, to get 

Has your father already started, (de- 
He is ready to depart 
To make ready. 
To make one's eelf ready. 

To keep one's self ready. 

Meadarae. Metsrse. 


Me meto entre los homhrasi 

Se mezcla entre los soldadoi. 

Entre. En medio de. 


I Reconoce V. d ese hombn ? 

t Haee tanto tienqw que le Tf, ijoeM 

le reconozco, {no me acuerde de d.) 
Mas (n) que. Del que. Jkleqee. 
Yo tengo mas pan qne (d«l que) 

paedo comer. 
Ese hombre tiene mas dinero ddqae 

puede gastar. 
t Hay mas vino del neeesario, (del 

que se necesita.) 
t v. tiene mas dinero del qoe OMe- 

sita, (del que ha menester.) 
t Tenemoe mas zapatos qoe hemof 

menester, (necentamos.) 
Ese hombre tiene m€nas amignqw 

(de los que) ^1 piensa. 
Imaginar. Imaginarse. 
Pensar •. 



I Ha salido ya el padre de V. ? 

Est& pronto (listo) para salir. 

Pronto, Presto. JUsto. 



t Estar pronto. Estar prepared 

Estar dispuesto d, (jvoro.) 

To split. 
To break somebody's heart. 

Yon break that man's heart 
Whose heart do I break 7 

Partir. AJbrir. • 

t Partir (deagarrar, or quebrar) el 
corazon de alguno. 

t y. le quiebra el conuum t ess hom- 

t J A quien le quiebro yo el corsts^^ 

^ See the Af^ndix for verbs ending in aeert ocsr, ueir» 





To wfTfd. 
, to lay otreos upon, 
always ezpatiatmg upon 

The subject 

Derramar. Extender. 
Espareir, Divulgar. 
Eepaeiaree. Difundine. 

Eie hombre siempre se diftnide aoliw 


£1 siqeto. La materia. 

one's self along the floor. \mj ««.. 

® { TendeEse ♦. Extenderee •. 

To hang on, (upon.) 

The wall 
I hang my coat on the wall. 
BEa liangs his hat apon the tree. 
VTe bang our shoes upon the nailsi 

Wiko has hanged the basket on the 

I Colgar de, {en.) (See Aeordar, in 

the Appendix.) 
La pared. 

Yo caelgo mi vestido en la pared. 
El coelga su sombrero on el irboL 
Colgamos nuestros zapatos en loe 

I Qnien ha colgado la canasta en el 

t EU ladnm ha sido akoreado, (cd- 


£1 ladron. 

( t El bcmdolero. 
Tho n*ber, (he highwaymw. ^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^,^^ 

Tike thief has been hanged. 

The thief: 

Ycm are always studious, and will 

always be so. 
Your hrother is, and always will be 

A well-educated son never gives his 

father a grief ; he loves, honors, 

and respects him. 

V. es siempre estndioso, y siempre 
lo seri. 

EU hermano de V. es bueno, y siem- 
pre lo ser&. 

Un hijo bien educado nunca da pesar 
4 su padre ; €\ le ama, le honra, y 
te respeta. 

Do you hope to receive a note to-day ? — ^I hope to receive one. — 
From <whom ? — From a fiieod of mine. — ^What dost thou hope 9 — I 
hope to see my parents to-day, for my tutor has promised me to take 
me to them. — ^Does your fiiend hope to receive any thing ? — ^He hopes 
to receive something, for he has worked well. — ^Do yon hope to arrive 
early in Paris ? — We hope to arrive there at a quarter past eight, for 
oar father is waiting for us this evening. — ^Do you expect to find him 
It home ? — ^We do expect it — ^For what {cosa) have you exchanged 
you/ coach of which you have spoken to the 7 — ^I have exchanged It 
for a fine Arabian horse. — Do you wish to exchange your book for 

t — I cmnoC, te I wmt it to itndj Spuuah.^ — Why do yoa take 
your bat off? — ^I take h off beamae I aee my old master coming.— Do 
yoa pat on another hat to go to the market ? — I do not pat od UMther 
to go to the market, hat (pero cQ to go to the ccmcerL — When will the 
ciMicert take place 7 — (It will take place) the day after to-morrow.— 
Why do yoa go away ? — Do yoa not amaae yonrself here ? — ^Yoa aie 
miatoken when yoa say that I do not amoae myself here, for I wssm 
yoa that I find a great deal of pleasore in canversing with you ; but I 
am going becanae I am eiqwcted at my relation's bell. — Have yoo 
promised to go ? — ^I have promised. — ^Have yoa <^ttnged your bat in 
order to go to the English ci^itain ? — I have changed my bat, but I 
have not changed my coat or my shoesd — ^How many times a day dost 
thoa change thy clothes, (ropa 7) — ^I change th^n (la) to dine and to 
go to the theatre. 

Why do yoa mix among these men ? — ^I mix among them in ofder 
to know what they say of me. — ^What will become of you if yon always 
mix among the soldiers ? — ^I do not know what will become of me, but 
I assure yoa that they will do me no harm, for they do not hurt any- 
body. — ^Have you recognised your &ther ? — It was so long since I saw 
him, that I did not recognise him. — ^Has he recognised you?— He 
recognised me instantly. — How long have you had this coat ? — ^It is a 
long time since I have had it. — ^How long has your brother had that 
gun? — ^He has had it a great while. — ^Do you still (siempre) flpcai 
Spanish 7 — ^It is so long since I spoke it, that I have nearly forgotten it 
all, (del todo.) — ^How long is it since" your cousin has been learning 
Spanish 7 — ^It is only three months since. — ^Does he know as much as 
you ? — ^He knows more than I, for he has been learning it longer.— 
Do you know why that man dc^es not eat ? — I believe he is not hangry, 
for he has more bread than he can eat — ^Have you given your son any 
money 7 — I have given him more than he will spend. — ^Will you give me 
a glass of cider 7 — ^You need not drink cider, for there is more wine than 
is necessary. — Am I to sell my gun in order to buy a new hat 7— Yon 
need not sell it, for you have more money than you want — Do yon 
wish to speak to the shoemaker 7 — ^I do not wish to speak to him, for 
we have more shoes than we want — ^Why do the Spaniards rejoice 1— 
They rejoice because they flatter themselves they have many good 
friends. — ^Are they not right in rejoicing 7 — ^They are wrong, for they 
have fewer friends than they imagine. 

Are you ready to depart with me 7 — ^I am so. — ^Does your unde 
depart with us 7 — ^He departs with us if he pleases, (9utere.)--Win you 


tell Um to be leodj {que se esiS) to start to-morrow at six o'clock in the 
evening ? — I will tell him so. — Is this young man ready to go out 7 — 
Not yet, but he will soon be ready. — Why have they hanged that man ? 
— They have hanged him because he has killed somebody. — Have they 
hanged the man who stole a horse from your brother ? — ^They have 
punished him, but they have not hanged him ; they hang only high- 
waymen in our country. — ^What have you done with my coat ?•— I have 
hanged it on the wall. — ^Will you hang my hat upon the tree ? — I will 
hang it (thereon.) — ^Have you not seen my shoes ? — ^I found them under 
your bed, and have hanged them upon the nails. — ^Has the thief who 
stole your gun been hanged ? — ^He has been punished, but he has not 
been hanged. — ^Why do you expatiate so much upon that subject ? — 
Because it is necessary to speak upon all subjects. — ^If it is necessary 
to listen to you, and to answer you when you expatiate upon that sub- 
ject, I will hang my hat upon the nail, stretch myself along the floor, 
listen to you, and answer you as well as I can, (yo pueda.) — ^You will do 

FIFTY-FIFTH LESSON.— Lecdon QuiTuntagSsima quiiUa. 

-, , „ 5 + Ettar hien ♦. Estar bueno. 

ToheweU. } Pasarlo bien. 

How do you dot ^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ y J 

Ofta; A. Tie verbs to he, and to do, when used io English to inquire 
after, or to apeak of a peiwrn's health, are translated by the verbs eotar^ 

C I Como estA el tenor padre de V.t 
How is your father 7 < t ^ Como lo pata (w halla) el oenor 

t padre de V.? 
He is very welL | t 8u merced oe halla muy bien. 

Ohs. B. The qualifications of oerior, (Mr.,) oenora, (Mis.,) oenorito, 
(Master,) oenorita, (Miss,) are generally placed in Spanish before the com- 
mon noons of the parents, relations, or friends of the pexson qpoken to» when 
we mean to pay tiiem particolar napeeL For the same porpose the Span- 
iaids oae the words «u merced, (l|is or her honor,) ou oekoria, (my loM or 
my lady,) &c., Instead of the noun or pronoun of the person spoken of. 
The woids senor, oenora, oenorita, most be preceded by the corresponding 
article when q>eaking of the persons, bat not when addresnng them. 

Win the colonel come 7 i Vendrd el sefior coronet 7 

No, because he is ill. t No, porque au oeHoria e9td onfer^ 



Tour btother. | El asSor hennmoo da V^ (VY.) 

Your eonan. Sa aeftor primo da V., (W.) 

Your brothenL Los aefiorea hcnnanoe do V^ (VV.) 

0h9. C The plonls of tnor, tenara, an<i tenoriia, aro «mores, senenM^ 
and «e»ort(a«. 
The Epigmns of Mr. FFanciaoo de j Los Epfgramas de Dam fVaneiooe d» 

Salas. Salas. 

O&c Z>. Bfr. is translated Don, BIhl and Mks, Dona, before 
names only. Dan m nsed only in thesingolar, thus : MeoneuiB Nieolaa, aaii 
Leandro Feniandes de Moratin — Lift Senoret Don NieoUu, y Don J^esmdn 
Femmndtx de Margin, Senmr Don, Senora or Senorita Dona, is tfce 
most polite and respectful manner of speaking of, or addzeaing a 

C 3udar una de una eooa. 

/ Cuestionar, Diaputar. 

^ Preguntar. Conirovertir *. 

^Dnda V. deeso? 

To doubt a thing. 

To question any thing. 

Do yon doubt that? 

I do doubt it 

I do not doubt it 

I make no question, have no doubt 

of it 
What do you doubt? 
I doubt what that man has told me. 

The doubt 
Without doubt, no doubt 

Yo lo dudo. 

Yo no lo dudo. 

t Yo no lo dudo, (no lo 

no lo dieputo.) 
I Que (de que) duda V. ? 
Yo dado lo que ese hombre 

La duda. 
Sin duda. 


To agree to a thing. 

Do you agree to that ? 
I do agree to it 

Cofieemr en, (eon or a.) (CoojngaF 
ted like venir. See A|^) 

I Conviene V. (cobvenis Yoe) en 
Convengo en ello. 

How much have you paid for that I i Cuanto ha pagado V. por 
hat? brero? 

)Yo he pagado tioB pesos por €L 
t Tree 

I have paid three dollan for it i i. m^ 

*^ ( T Tree peeoe. 

Ohe, E, \n. the coUoqnial style, such phrases as the 
answered by merely stating the price. 

I have bought this honw for fifty 

The price. 
Have you agreed about the price 7 
We have agreed about it 
About what have you agreed? 
About the price 

Yot he comprado este cabaUo par 

cincuenta pesos. 
£1 precio. 

I Han coDvenido W. en el 
Hemos conveoido. 
I En que han convenido W T 
En el precio. 

vcrrr-FirrH lbbbov. 


To ngrut to nmp e mi a difertnee. 
To feel^ feeling, 
I fed, thoa feeleflt, he feeb. 
We feeli yoa feely they feeL 

to go thither. 

I Convenirm *. Cmnfon/erte * 

^enttr *. SintUndo. 
Yo nentOf H sientes, el eiente* 
Sentimoe, eentii, oienUn. 
ConMentir en. (Conji^ted Kk^ 

CoDsiento en ir alii. 
No obstante. Con todo. 

To weatf (to wear gormenU.) 
What gannents does he wear? 
He wean beautiful grannenta: 
The garment. 

Uoar, Llevar. Traer *. 
I Que Yestidos nsa ? 
]^1 ILeya hermotoa 

AgaixiBt my cnstomL 

Aji customary. 
My partner. 

To o5«eroe oomething. 

To take notice of oometking. 

Do yon take notice of that? 
I do take notice of it 
Did yoQ ofaKrve that? 
Did yon notice what he did? 
I did notice it 


5 Contra mi coBtumbie 
\ t Contra mi modo, 

Comode coBtnnibie> 

t Segun ee tuo. 

Mi socio. Mi compaiiaia 

C Pereibir *. Oboervar, 

< Reparar, 

( Notar algo, (alguna eooa.) 

I Repara V. eato ? xObMrvala 

Lo reparo. Lo obserro 

^Percibi6 V. eeo? 

I Repard V. lo qae €i hiio? 


To expect, {to hope,) 
Do yon expect to receive a note 

^^RBn year mide ? 
We expect it 
Hare we expected it? 
^« have expected it 


(Espera V. recibir nn biOete del 

eeiior an tio ? 
Yo le eapera 
£l le eapera. 
NoMtroB le eaperamoB. 
I Le hemoa eaperado noaotroa 7 
Noflotraa le hemoa eaperado. 

To get, {to procure.) 
I caoQot pncnre any money. 

( t Conaeguir *. Proeurar* 
( Lograr, HaUar. 

iNo pnedo conaegoir ningon dineiOi 

No puedo hallar un reaU 
Ci El no puede procmaree el awe* 
^ ettnot pcoente any thing to eat < tento, 

( t £l no puede ganar la Tida. 


After kamng. 


DeipQM de kaber* (( 


AfUr hBTing read my Iwnn, I wnito - DMpaHqiie yo babe kido ailBeda^ 

it. i la tambL 

AAer haTitfg ent myself, I broke my ' l^mpam que me babe eartadB,7i 

penknife. I tpiebt^ mi ooitapfammL 

Oi«. F. When ^Icr, foliowed by a p ra e au t puticiple, ie tiaariitodii 
Spanieh by dufuet fue, the verb which follow* it auHt be in one cf thepat 
temei ; but if it ie rendered by despues de, the Terii tkat eoniee after it i 
in the infinitive mood. 

fDeepnee que yo le( la carta. 
Deipnee de leer la carta. 

^ . . . . Mofam de alinino. (de akoaa con-) 

To make fim of eome one, or eome. ^ g^,^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

Boriazee de (con) algima 
Reine de alguooy (de algona 


To langh at lome one, or aomething. 
He laughs at everybody. 

He criticiiee everybody. 
Do you laugh at that man ? 

I do not laugh at him. 

£l ee rie do todo el numdo, (^ 

£l critica i todo el munda 
tSe rie v. (ee borla V.) de aqoei 

No me no de 41. 
No hago bulla de €L 

C Detener9e *. (Conjugated like Uur 

/ See Appendix.) 


I Se ha detenido V. mucho tiemp' 

en Berlin? 
Me detuve solamente tree diae> 
( Reeidir, Montr, 
\ t Estar de aeiento *. 
Where doee your brother eUy at | ^ En donde redde (mora) ah«t « 

At present, actually. 
The residence, stay, abode. 
Puis is a fine place to live in. 

Te Hop, (to stay.) 

Have yon stayed \oag at Berlm ? 
I iteyed there only three days. 
TV eojoum, (to §tay,) 

After reading. 
After cutting myself. 

(See Obs. F.) 

hermano de V.f 
Al presente. Aotualmenta AAf 
t Parie ee una eiudad muy h erwtn 

para vivir de aeiento. 
t Despues de leer, (de haber leido*) 
t DesfNies de habenne ooitado. 

iiFTr-FirrH ubbsoh. 241 

After dmia>sy(«i.d£ | Z)ev»«. ?«« K. « »rt«t 

After dw-mghimaelt ^ t De^e« gw i?i .is ihAi»«£«fa. 

r t Despoes de habemos nnuado. 
After riisYmg cNinelTee. 7 t DetpueM de habernof keeko Im 

After warming themeelyee. | t Deepaea de habeiae ealentado. 

I vetamed the book after reading it t Yo toIt! el Ubro deipnea de habeile 

I Uiraw the knife away after cntting t t Yo airoj^ el cochillo deapnea de 

inyaeUL habeime oortado. 

Yoo went to the concert after dres- t Y. fu6 al ooncierto dnpaea de ha- 

in^ jomaeUl , berae veatido. 

Thiej went out after warming them- t Se fu^ron deqmea de habene ea- 
■elTen^ lentada 

"Fhe nek peiaon, (the patient ) | El enfeima E3 paciente. 

_ , , , S Baatante bien. Medianamente. 

Tolerably wdL \fTalcuaL 

It ia rather late. i Ea may tardea 

It ia rather far. \ Ea may lejoa. t EHd ^igo 1^9$. 



How is your &ther 7 — ^He is (only) bohso.^ — How ia yoar patient ? — 

He is a litUe better to-day than yesterday. — ^Is it long since yon saw 

your brothers ? — ^I saw them two days ago — ^How art thou ? — ^I am 

tolerably well. — ^How long has yonr cousin been learning Spanish ?— 

He has been learning it only three months. — Does he abready speak 

it ? — ^He already speaks, reads, and writes it better than your brother, 

who has been learning it these two years. — ^Is it long since you heard 

of my made 7 — ^It is hardly a fortnight since I heard of him. — ^Where 

is he staying now 7 — ^He is staying at Berlin, but my fiither is in Looh 

don. — ^Did you stay long at Vienna 7 — I stayed there a fortnigfat— 

How long did yonr cousin stay at Paris 7 — ^He stayed there only a 

month. — Do yon like to speak to my unde 7 — I like much to speak to 

tdm, but I do not like him to {que haga hurla de ml) laugh at me.— 

Why does he lan^ at yon 7 — He laughs at me because I speak badly. 

—Why has your brother no friends? — ^He has none because he 

eritidses everybody. — ^Why are you lau^iing at that man ?'— I do not 

intend to langh at him. — ^I beg you not to do it, (que no lo hagti^ for yon 

will break his heart if yon laugh at him. — ^Do you doubt what I am 

telling you 7 — ^I do not doubt it — ^Do you doubt what that man h«i 


242 nFTT-mTH ubbson. 

told jovL 7—1 doabt it, for he has often told stories. — ^Have yoa at kit 
bought the horse which you wished (queria) to boy last month?— 
I have not bought it, for I have not been able to procure money. 

Has your uncle at last bought the garden ? — ^He has not bou^t it, 
for he could not agree about the price. — ^Have you at last agreed about 
the price of that picture ? — ^We have agreed about it. — ^How mach 
have you paid for it ? — ^I have paid two hundred dollars for it— Wfaal 
hast thou bought to-day? — I have bought two fine horses, three 
beautiful pictures, and a fine gun. — For how much hast thou boagfat 
the pictures ? — I have bought them for five hundred dollars. — ^Do you 
find them dear ? — I do not find them dear. — ^Have you agreed with 
your partner ? — ^I have agreed with him. — Does he consent to pay you 
the price of the ship ? — ^He consents to pay it me. — ^Do you consent to 
go to Spain ? — ^I consent to go thither. — ^Have you seen your old 
fiiend again 7 — ^I have seen him again. — ^Did you recognise him t— 
I could hardly recognise him, for, contrary to his custom, he wears s 
large hat — ^How is he 7 — ^He is veiy well- — ^What garments does he 
wear 7 — ^He wears beautiful new garments. — ^Have you taken nodce 
of what your boy has done 7 — ^I have taken notice of it — ^Have yon 
punished him for it, (eUo 7) — I have punished him for it — ^Has your 
fiUher already written to you 7 — ^Not yet ; but I expect to receive a 
note from him to-day. — Of what do you complain 7 — ^I complain of not 
being able to procure some money. — Why do these poor men com- 
plain 7 — ^They complain because they cannot procure any thing to eat 
— How are your parents 7 — They are as usual, very well. — ^fa your 
uncle well 7 — ^He is better than he usually is. — ^Have you already 
heard of your friend who is in Germany^ — ^I have already written to 
him several times ; however, he has not answered me yet 

What have you done with the books which the English captain bas 
lent you 7 — I have returned them to him after reading them. — ^Wby 
have you thrown away your penknife 7 — ^I have thrown it away after 
cutting myself. — When did I go to the concert 7 — ^You went thither 
■Iter dressing yourself. — When did your brother go to -the ball ?•— He 
went (thither) after dressing' himself. — ^When did you bieakfust ?— 
We breakfasted after shaving ourselves. — When did our neighbors go 
out?— They went out after warming themselves. — ^Why have yoa 
punished your boy 7 — ^I have punished him because he has broken my 
finest glass. I gave him some wine, and instead of drinking iU ^ 
■pilt it on the new carpet, and broke the glass. — ^What did you do this 
morning 7 — ^I shaved after rising, and went out after breakfastio^''^ 

Tnmr-BixrH xjebsov. 


Wlat did your fiuher do last nig^ 7 — ^He snpped after coming from 
play, and went to bed after sapping. — Did he rise early? — He 

at smmae. 

FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Lecciofi Qmncuaginma iexta. 

To go to the Tillage. 
To be in the Tillage. 
To go to the eichaoge. 
To be at the exchange. 

To or at the parlor. 

To or at the kitchen. 

To or at the cellar. 

To or at the chordi. 

To or at the aehool. 

To or at the 


To or at the dancing school. 
The play, (the comedy.) 
The <^eza. 

To go a-hnnting. 

To be a-hnnting. 
To go a-fiahing. 
To be a^fiflhing. 

To hunt 



Ir 4 la aldea. 

Eetar en la aldea. 

Ir & la lonja. 

Estar en la lonja. 

A or en la aala. 

A or en la cocina. 

A or en la cnoTa, bodega, (aotoiio.) 

A or en la igleeia. 

A or en la eecuela. 

A or en la eecuela eepafiola. 

A or en la eoeuela de EopanoL 

A or en la eecuela de danza, (boUe.] 

La comedia. 

La <)pera. 

Ir & caza. Ir & la caza. 

i Ir d eaxar. 

Elitar cazanda t Caxar. 

Ir & peecar. Ir & la peeea de. 

Eetar peocando. Peecar. 


The whole day. All the day. 

The whole morning.' 

The whole oTeniug. 
The whole night All the night 

The whole week. 

The whole society. 

All at once. 
Suddenly. All of a sudden. 

Todo el dia, (maac.) 

Toda la mafiana.' 

t Toda la noehe, 

Toda la noche. 

Toda la semaoa. 

Toda la sociedad. 

De una toz. A la Tez. De seguida* 

De repente. Snbitamente. 

' HbrRMg, as a word of addresi, is translated diao ; as, Good morning. 
Sir— Bseiios dias, tenor; and diao is used from early dawn till two 
o^dock, r. K. Otherwise it is literally translated ; as. He arriTed at ten 
o'dock, ▲. M^ — El Ueg6 a las diez de la manana. Afternoon is translated 
Urdu when addressing to, and farde when speaking of, from two till ssTen 
o'clock, p. M. From this hour, and generally from candlelight, evening is 
nndered by noche ; as. We expect them this eTening at nine o'clock — 
Noeoiroo loo eoperamoo eota noche d loo ntieoe. 


mrr-siziH Lsssoir. 








B g S g S, g 

9 ra 






-- ? ^ ^ £ "^ 1 « 




»- f 8 ^ 8 -S -g 8 

888J88J8 8* 

•a -S 

S « 


J ;5 



? •« 


8 o" 

S 5 g S. 







•H B 

i^E^ ^ 




Which boob have IT 
Yoa baTo youn and hex& 
Hm iriie not hen and mine 7 
She has hen, bat not youn. 
Too have yomB. 
1 hare yoaim. 

She has hen and faia. 

He has his and hen. 

Ihaye bkk 

I haye hem 

I h&Te (hein: 

What do yoa wiah 

I wah to send her a 
WOI yoo Bend her 

to wnd to yoar 

a tart 
■omefhut alaoT 

I win aend her some. 
HaTo yoa sent the hooks to my na- 

I have sent them to them. 

I Qae libros tongo yo? 

V. tiene loa suyoa y loa de ella. 

I No tiene ella loe auyoa y loe mioi ? 

EUa tiene loa snyos, pero no loa de V 

V. tiene loe aoyoe, (laa aoyaa) 

Yo tengo loa de V^ (laa de V.) 

Ella tiene loe aayos y loa de 6L 

£l tiene loa soyoi y loe de ella. 

Tengo la soya, (la de €1) 

Tengo la suya, (la de ella.) 

Tengo la auya, (la de elloe» or la de 

{ Qae qniere V. enTiar ^ so seSora 

Yo qnieio enTiarie nna empanada. 
I Quiere V. enviazie tamhien algnna 

Slf quiero enyiazie algana. 
I Ha enviado V. loa libros i, mis her- 

Yo 80 lo8 he enviado. 

This week. 
This year. 
Last week. 

Next week. 

Erery woman. 
Every time. 
Every week. 

Yoor mother. 

Yoor aster. 
Yoor BMton. 

^ A pezaon. 

The earache. 

The heartache. 

The belly-ache. 

The stomach-ache. 
She has the stomach-ache. 
Her oBter haa a violent headache. 

I (iftTe the atomach-ache. 



Eato aiio, (mas.) 

La aemana pasada. 

La aemana prdxima. 

t La aemana qae entra. 

Todaa las mujeres. 

Cada vex. Todas las voces. 

Cada semana. Todas las semanas. 


Sn seiSora madre de V 

(See Obs. B, Less. LV.) 
La sefiora (seiiorita) hermana de V. 
Lbs aeiSoras (aeiioritas) hermanas de 

v. (See Obs. C, LesB. LV.) 
Una penona. 
Dolor de oido. 
t Mai de corazon. 
Dolor de vientra. 
Dolor de eat6mago. 
EUa tiene dolor de estbmago. 
So hermana tiene un terrible dolor 

de cabeza. 
Tengo dolor de estdmago. 


nrrr-BixTH 1.B88OF. 

T%e adMi pain. 

The tart. 

The peach. 


Hie cherry. 


The newspaper. 

Hie merehandiee, (gooda.) 


EI dolor. La pena. 
La empanada. 
£1 durazno. 
La fren. 
La oereza. 
La gazeta. 

EI papel ptiblico. £1 Notuaoao. 
I La mercaderia. Las meicadexlts. 

The aimt 

The female cooan. 

The niece. 

The maid-eervant 

The female relation. 

Tlie female neighbor. 

The female cook. 

The brother-in-law. 

The eifter-in-law. 

La tia. 
La prima. 
La eobrina. 
La criada. 
La parienta. 
La vecina. 
£1 cuiiada 
La caiiada. 

O&a. B. The following noons expren their gender by different termina- 



An abbot Un abad. 

An actor. Un actor. 

An ambaflndor. Un embajador. 

A baion. 
A canon. 
A nnger. 

A count 
A dancen 
A god. 
A deacon. 
A duke. 
An elector. 

An emperor. 
A hero. 
A poet 
A priest 
A prince. 
A prior. 
A prophet 

Un baron. 
Un can6njg& 
Un cantor. 

Un conde. 
Uo bailarin. 
Un dios. 
Un di&cono. 
Un duque. 
Un elector. 

Un emperador. 
Un b^roe. 
Un poeta. 
Un sacerdote. 
Un principe. 
Un prior. 
Un profeta. 

An abbess. Una abadesa. 

An actress. Una actriz. 

An ambassadress. Una embajadoct, 

or embaJBtris> 

A baroness. 
A canoneas. 
A female singer. 

A countess. 
A female dances 
A goddess. 
A deaconess. 
A duchess. 
An electresB. 

An empress. 
A heroine. 
A poetess. 
A priestess. 
A princess. 
A prioress. 
A prophetess. 

Una baronesa. 
Una canonesa. 
Una cantora, or 

Una condesB. 
Una bailorina. 
Una diosa. 
Una diaconiaa. 
Una duquesa. 
Una electriz, fr 

Una emperatriz 
Una heroins. 
Una poetisa. 
Una sacerdotJRi' 
Una princess. 
Una priora. 
Una profetiaa. 











Some noona dktiiigiikh 

their gender by difierent wordi. 



Mother. Madre. 



Godmother. Madrina. 



Stepmother. Madnulza. 



Daogfater-m-law. Naera. 



Woman. Mujer. 



Maro. Yegua. 



Ewe. Oyeja. 



Cow. Yaca. 

To hne, to let 
Hare yoa already hired a room ? 

To admit or gmnt a thing. 

To confeas a thing. 
Do yon gmnt that? 
I do grant it. 

Do yoa confeoe yoor faolt ? 
I ooof eas it 
I ooofeaB it to be a faalt 

To confeas, to avow, to own, 


C Alqoilar. Airendar *. 
^ Dar, or tomar en alqniler, or atien- 
f damiento. 
I Ha alquilado V. ya nn eoarto, (or 
aposento, or ciman) ? 



Admitir. Conceder nna 

Confeear * nna oosa. (Se^ AletUar,) 


I Concede V. (admite V.) 
Lo conceda Lo admitou 
tConfieaa V.rafalta? 
La confleflo. 

Confieeo que ea una falta. 
Confeaar. Declarer. FhiCeatar. 
Reconocer. (See yeiba in oeer.) 
I Confeear *. 

So much, 80 many. I Tanto— -tanta. Tantoa— tantaa. 

She haa ao many eandlea that ahe I EUa tiene tantaa yelaa qne no poede 
cannot bum them alL | utarUts todaa. 

C ReafiiaiBe. Conatiiiane. 
To catch a cold < Acatarrane. 

( t Coger nn reafriado, (nna UnTinmJ 

J t Poner male 
To make aick. ^ g^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

If yon eat ao much it will make yoa j Si Y. come tanto, eafe le pondiA 
■ck. I malo, (or le hari daiio.) 

O&a Z>. When the Engliah prononn it lelatea to a preceding cueom- 
itanoe» it ia trandated etto ; when to a firflowing circnmatanoe, by eao. 

Doea it anit you to lend year gun ? 

I Le conviene k V. pieatar an 


_, - ... . • J .. J No me oonTiene prestarla. 

U dow not milt me to lend it < t^^ . "^ . . 

( No me acomoda preetarla. 

I En donde cogidV. ese ndmdo, (m 
Where did yon cfttch a cold ? •{ esa fluxion) ? 

En donde ae oonetipd V.T 
Me raafri^ al aalir de la 6pertu 

I eanght a cold in going firom the 

To hare a odd. 

The cold. 
The cough. 

Yon haye a cough. 
The brain. 
The chest 

" Estar Ksfriado, (conatipado, or acaiar« 

t Tener catano, (una fluxion, or im 
^ consUpada) 
El catarro. £11 rasfnado. El consdo 

pado. La fluxion. 
La too. 

I haye a cold. I Tengo catairo, (un conatipado, or una 

V. tiene too. 
El celebro, or cenhro. 
El pecha 

V^ere U your cousin? — He is in the kitchen. — ^Has your cook 
(fern.) already made the soup 7 — She has made it, for it is already upon 
iJie table. — ^Where is your mother ? — She is at church. — ^Is your sister 
gone to school ? — She is gone thither. — ^Does your mother often go to 
diurch?— She goes thither every morning and every evening. — ^At 
what o'clock in the morning does she go to church ? — She goes thither 
aa soon as she gets up. — ^At what o'clock does she get up 7 — She gets 
up at sunrise. — Dost thou go to school to^lay 7 — ^I do go thither. — ^What 
dost thou learn at school 7 — ^I learn to read, write, and speak (there.) — 
Where is your aunt 7 — She is gone to the play with my little sister. — 
Do your sisters go this evening to the opera 7 — ^No, Madam, they go to 
the dancing-school. — ^Do they not go to the French school 7 — ^They go 
thither in the morning, but not (y no) in the evening. — ^Is your father 
gone ar4iunting 7 — ^He bos not been able to go a-hunting, for he has a 
cold. — Do you like to go a-hunting 7 — ^I like to go a-fishing better than 
a-hunting. — Is your lather still in the country 7 — ^Yes, Madam, he is still 
there. — ^What does he do (there 7) — ^He goes a-hunting and a-fishing. 
— Did you hunt in the country 7 — ^I hunted the whole day. — ^How long 
did you stay with my mother 7 — ^I stayed with her the whole evening. 
— ^Is it long since you were at the castle 7 — ^I veas there last week. — 
Did you find many people there 7 — ^I found only three persons there, 
the count, the countess, and their daughter. 

nmr-aizxH Lisbon. 249 

Are these girls as good (discrelo) as their brothers ? — ^Thej are better 
than they. — Can (softer) your sisters speak German ? — They cannot,- 
bfot they are learmng it. — ^Have you brooght any thing to your mother? 
— ^I faroogfat her some good fruit and a fine tart — ^What ima your niece 
brought yon ? — She has brought ns good cherries, good strawberries, 
and good peaches.— Do yon like peaches 7 — ^I like them much. — ^How 
many peaches has your neighbor (fem.) given you 1 — She has given 
me more than twenty. — ^Have you eaten many cherries this year ? — ^I 
have eaten many. — IMd you give any to your little sister ? — ^I gave her 
BO many that she cannot eat them all. — ^Why have you not given any 
to your good neighbor, (fem. ?) — ^I wished to give her some, but she 
would not take any, because she does not like cherries. — ^Were there 
any pears (2a perd) last year? — ^There were not many. — ^Has your 
cousin (fem.) any strawberries 7 — She has so many that she cannot 
eat them all. 

Why do jTour sisters not go to the play ? — ^They cannot go thither 
because they have a cold, and that makes them very ill. — ^Where did 
they catch a cold ?— They caught a cold in going from the opera last 
night. — ^Does it suit your sister to eat some peaches ? — ^It does not suit 
her to eat any, for she has already eaten a good many, and if she eats 
so much it will make her ill. — ^Did you sleep well last night ? — I did 
not sleep well, for my children made too much noise in my roomv— 
Where were you last night ? — ^I was at my brother-in-law's. — ^Did you 
see your sister-in-law ? — ^I did see her. — ^How is she 7 — She is better 
than usual. — ^Did you play ? — ^We did not play, but we read some good 
books ; for my sister-in-law likes to read better than to play. — Have 
you read the gazette to-day 7 — ^I have read it — ^Is there any thing new 
in it ? — ^I have not read any thing new (in it) — Where have you been 
since I saw you 7 — ^I have been at Vienna, Paris, and BerUn. — ^Did 
you speak to my aunt 7 — ^I did speak to her. — ^What does she say 7 — 
She says that she wishes to see you. — Whither have you put my pen? 
— ^I have put it upon the bench. — ^Do you intend to see your niece to> 
day 7 — ^I intend to -see her, for she has promised me to dhie with us.-^ 
I admire (admirar) that family, (la familioy) for the fiither is the king 
and the mother is the queen of it The children and the servants are 
the subjects (el st^'eto) of the state, (el estada.) The tutors of the 
children are the ministers, (el ministro,) who share with the king and 
queen the care (el cuidado) of the government, (dgobiemo.) The good 
education (2a educadon^ fem.) which is given to children is the crown 
of DHMsarchs, (ei numarca.) 


Hsve yoa alieaily hired a room 7— I have alpeady hired one— Wbw 
hive yoa hired it?— I have hired it in William-stTeet, nimiber ok 
hundred and fifty-two.— At whose house have yoa hired it?— At tk 
honse of the man whose son has sold you a horse. — ^For whom bs 
your fiuher hired a room?— He has hired one for hia aon, who his jcft 
arrived from rimnce.— Why have you not kept yoor promise ?— I i) 
not remember what I promised you.— Did yoa not promise us to take 
OS to the concert hist Thursday ?— I confess that I was wrong ii 
promising you ; the concert, however, {con to4p^ bas not taken pba. 
— Does your brother confess his &ult ? — ^He confesses it. — ^Whst to 
your uncle say to that note 7— He says that it is written very wdl, bo: 
he admits that he has been wrong in sending' it to the captain.— D» 
you confess your fault now 7 — I confess it to be a fault. — ^Where hi« 
yon found my coat 7 — ^I have found it in the bloe room, (Obs. C, I^* 
son XXXVm.)— Will you hang my hat on the tree 7—1 will hangi: 
(thereon.) — ^How are you to-day 7 — ^I am not very welL — ^What is the 
matter with you 7 — I have a violent headache and a cold. — Where did 
you catch a cdd 7 — ^I caught it last night in g(»ng from the play. 

FEPTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— Lacion (iuvncuagesima siptima, 


The Otrund (by which the English present participle is translated) a 
formed from the present of the infinitive mood, by roppr win g the tenni- 
nations or, er, or tr, and adding in their place ando to the verbs oi theaiA 
oonjagation, and iendo to those of the second and third. 

1. To speak, 




3. To sell, 




3. To receive. 




0h9, X. Verbs ending in eer, and utr, (when the u is sonndeJ, a' ^ 
atnbuir,) change the t, with which the termination begins, into y ** ^^ 
yendo, instead of teado ; as — 

To read, leer. Reading, leyenilo. 

To instruct, instmtr. Instructing, instrnyeiu^o. 

Oht. B, The English present participle may be translated into Spanish 
by the Gerand, when it expresses the action of the verb as continningt *od 
unfinished. It is then used alone, or preceded by the verb Ettor, but l)(r 
no means by other words ; as, He coirects whilst reading, il eorrige leyen^f 
or esfofido Uyendo, miintraa eatd leyendo, (t mientras Uty ox <U Utr;) ^ 
it cannot be said, H conigt miintriu leyendo. 



FFnT-aEySRTH I.B880K. 


The man eats while nmning. 

I write while leadhig^. 
He qnostioDs while 

Yoa apeak while answezuii; me. 

7*0 quemtioH. 
The cravat 
Axie carnage* 
The hooM. 
The letter. 
The tahle. 
The family. 
ITie proiiiiBo. 
The le^r 
The aQrethioat. 
The throat 

I have a aors throat 

The meat 
Salt meat 
Fnah meat 
Freah heef. 
Cold 'weXer. 
The food, (Tictnali.) 
The diah, (mwa.) 
Salt xneata. 
Milk food. 

The tiaveller. 
To marehf to walkt to otep. 




EI hombre come ytndo oomaukk 
t El hombre come al ir eonriendo, 
t Yo oflcribo mi€ntnui lea 
£1 pregunta mi^ntras (or cnando) 

Mti haUando. 
t F. habla al iiempo do reoponderme. 
V. habla mi^ntras (cnando) meres- 


I Preguntar. Cuootionar, 
La covbata. 
La canoxa« (el ooche.) 
La canu 

La carta. Laletza. 
La menu 
La familia. 
La promeea. 
La piema. 
El mal de garganta. 
La garganta. 

Yo tango mal de garganta. 
Yo tango la garganta mala, 
t La garganta mo haeo moL 
La came. 
Came salada. 
Came £raaca. 
Vaca fresca. 

La comida. El alimento. 
Jjoa platoo. Las Tiandas. 
Came en escabeche. 

I Viagero. Viajante. 

( Andar *. Caminar. 
\ Dor un paoo» 

Oho, C. To wM, meaning to do it for pleiwnre, is translated by paoear, or 
pooearoe. (Lesson XLV.) When it signifies to more slowly on the foot, 
it is expresMd as above. 

1 have walked a good deal to day. 
I ba?e been walking in the garden 

with my mother. 
To walk, or travel a mile. 
To walk, or travel a league. 
To walk a step^ 

Hoy he andado machlirimo. 

He estado paseando con mi madrs 

en el jardin. 
Andar (caminar, viajar) ana milla. 
Andar (caminar, viajar) una legaa. 
t Dor un paoo. 



To take a itep (meaniiig to take ( t Tomar 9us medidoB, 


To go on a journey. 

To make a speech. 

A piece of bunnc 

An aflair. 
To tniMaet boiiiea. 

f t VaUrte de medioi, 
^ Ir ^ an viage. 
< t Saiir d un viage. 
\ Haeer on viage. 
I Haeer nn discuno. 

> Un negocio. Un asunto. 
I Negociar. Haeer negocioi 

To meddU with mmething. 

Whal aie yon meddling with ? 

I am meddling with my own bnsi- 


Thai man alwayi meddles with 

other people's bnsineaik 
I do not meddle with other people's 


Meterae, or entremetene eon «i- 
^110, (en algun negocio.). h- 

I En qne se mete V. 7 
En que os meteis 7 

Yo me meto en mis propios negocni. 

Esehombre se mete siempre en loi 
negocios agenos, (de otroa) 

Yo no me entieraeto en los negocin 

Oikero, Other people. 
He employs himself in painting. 

The art of painting. 

The art 
To employ om^e eelf in. 

To concern eome one. 


I Otros. Otrae gentee. 

Se ocupa en la pintara. 

t Trahaja de pintor. 

EI (la) arte de la pintura. 

La pintura. 

La qufmica. 

El (la) arte. 

EZxtrafio. Asombroeo. Singular. 

Emplearoe en. Ocuparee en. 

To look at tome one. 

I do not like to meddle with things 

that do not concern me. 
Tliat ooncems nobody. 
To concern one's self about some- K "^ loquietarse de, (por or acerca d6k) 

thmg. \ t Fatigarse de, (por or acerca de.) 

Coneemir *. Tocar. 
Importar. Perteneeer. 
Mirar d nlguno. 

No me gusta metorme eu cosas qoe 

no me tocan, (or importan.) 
Eso no toca (interesa) & ninguna 

To attract 
l^mktnne attracts iron. 

Atraer •• 

El iman atrae el hierro,. (fiena) 

rarr-SKVBNTH lbsson. 


Her mDffog attraete me. 

To enchftnt 
I am dliamied with it. 
The beauty. 
The goodnesB. 

OU, D. Nonofl endings io ad^ 
qualitiei, are feminine. 

Tlie hannony. 
The yoice. 
The power. 

To repeat. 

The repetition. 
The commencement, beginning. 
The wifldom. 
The lord. 
A good memory. 

A memorandum. 

The nightingale. 
AH the beginnings are difficult 


Sn canto me atrae. 

£1 canto de ella me atrae. 

Hechizar. Encantar. Embelenr. 

Eetoy encantado de (or con) ello. 


La hondad' 

dad, or tad, ezprenng propertiea of 

La Yoz. 
El poder. 

Repetir *. 

La repeticion. 

£1 priucipio, or comienzo. 

La sabidurla. 

El eatudio. 

£1 sefior. 

Una buena memoria. 

iApunte. Nota. 
Razon. Apuntamiento. 
I El ruiseilor. 
I Todoe Io8 principioa son dif (cilc 

To create. 


The Creator. 

The benefit 

The fear of the Lord. 


The earth. 


The lesson. 

The goodness. 

Flour, meal. 

The mill. 

Criar, or erear. 

La creacion 

£1 Criador. 

£1 beneficio. 

£1 temor del Sefior. 

El cielo. 

La tierra. 

La Boledad. 

La leccion. 

La bondad. (See Obs. D, abo^e.; 


£1 mollno. 



^tXI you dine with ua to-day ? — ^With much pleasure. — ^What ha>« 

yoQ for dinner 7 — ^We have good soup, some finesh and salt meat, and 

"ome milk food.— Do you like milk food ?— I like it better than all 

^'to food. — Are you ready to dine 7 — ^I am ready. — ^Do yon intend to 



set out soon ? — I intend setting out next week. — ^Do you tnvel nkfo^ 
(solo ?) — No, Madam, I travel with my uncle. — ^Do you travel on foot 
or in a carriage 7 (Less. XLUI.)— We travel in a carriage.— Did yoa 
meet any one in your last journey {uUimo) to Berlin 7 — ^We met many 
travellers. — ^What do you intend to spend your time in (Leeaon 
L.) this summer 7 — I intend to take a short journey. — ^Did you 
walk much in your last journey? — ^I like much to walk, bnt my 
uncle likes to go in a carriage. — ^Did he not wish to walk?— He 
wished to walk at first, (al principio,) but he wished to get into ths 
coach (numtar en el coche) after luiving taken a few steps, so that I did 
not walk much. — ^What have you been doing at school to^y?— We 
have been listening to our professor. — ^What did he say 7 — ^He made a 
long (gran) speech on the goodness of Grod. After saying, ** Repetitioo 
is the mother of studies, and a good memory is a great benefit of God " 
he said, ** God is the creator of heaven and earth ; the fear of the I/»d 
is the beginning of all wisdom." — What are you doing all day in this 
garden 7—1 am walking in it.— What is there in it that attncta yon, 
(que atrae?)— The smging of the birds attracts me.— Are there any 
nightingales (in it 7) — ^There are some in it, and the harmony of their 
singing enchants me. — ^Have those nightingales more power over 
(sobre) you than the beauties of painting, or the voice of your tender 
(tiema) mother, who loves you so much 7 — ^I confess the harmony of 
the singing of those little birds has more power over me than the joad 
tender words of my dearest friends. 

What does your niece amuse herself with (Lesson XLIV.) in ^ 
solitude 7 — She reads a good deal, and writes letters to her modier.— 
What does your uncle amuse himself with in his solitude?— He 
employs himself in painting and. chemistry. — Does he no longer do 
any business 7 — ^He no longer does any, for he is too old to do it— 
WTiy does he meddle with your business 7 — ^He does not generally 
meddle with other people's business, but he meddles with to3S» 
because he loves me. — ^Has your master made you repeat your Icsaoo 
to-day 7 — ^He has made me repeat it. — ^Did you know it 7 — l^oaewit 
pretty well. — ^Have you also done some exercises 7 — I have done some, 
but what is that to you, (sirvase decirme que le importa a F.,) I beg?— ' 
do not generally meddle with things that do not concern me, but I love 
you so much that I concern myself much about (que yo me iniereso) 
what you are doing. — ^Does any one trouble his head about you ?— ^^ 
one troubles his head about me, for I am not worth the trouble, (w' 
"valgo la pena.) — ^Who corrects your exercises ? — ^My master corrects 
them. — ^How does he correct them 7 — He corrects them in reading 

imr-UGHXH LB880K. 


them, and in reading them he speaks to me. — How many thuigs does 
your master do at the same time, {d la vez ?)— He does fomr things at 
the same time. — How so, (ccmo 7) — He reads and corrects my exer* 
ciaes, speaks to me and questions me all at once. — ^Does your sister 
sing while dancing ? — She sings while working, but she cannot sing 
while dancing. — ^Has yom* mother left ? — She has not left yet — ^When 
will she set out ?^-She will set out to-morrow evening. — At what 
o*clock ? — At a quarter to seven. — ^Have your sisters arrived ?— They 
have not arrived yet, but we expect them this evening. — ^Will they 
spend the evening (Note, page 243) with us? — ^They will spend 
it with us, for they have promised me to do so. — ^Where have you 
!^pent the morning? — I have spent it in the country. — ^Do you go 
every morning to the country ? — ^I do not go every morning, but twice 
a week. — ^Why has your niece not called upon me ?— She is very 
ill, and has spent the whole day in her room. 

FIFTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— Iieccton QuincuagisiTna octavo. 


The past or compound futare is formed from the future of the auxiliary, 
and the past participle of the verb to be conjugrated. Example : — 

I shall have loved 
Thou wilt have loved. 
He, or she will have loved. 
You will have loved. 
We shall have loved. 
You will have loved. 
They will have loved. 
You will have loved 

( Yo habr^ araado. 
T(i habrda amado. 
£l, or ella habri amada 
V. habr& amado. 
NoBotroB habr^moe amado. 
Voeotros (or vos) habrlis amado. 
EUos (or ellas) habrin amada 
W. habrdn amado. 

I shall have come. 
Thou wilt have come. 
He will have come. 
She will have come. 
You will have come. 
We shall have come. 
You will have come. 
They will have come. 
Yoa wtH have come. 

Yo habrd veaido. 
Ttk habris venida 
J^l habri venido. 
Ella habri venido. 
V. habhL venido. 
Nosotroe habr^moe venida 
Vosotros (or vos) habr^is venida 
Ellos <or ellas) habriln venida 
W. habrdn venido. 



I riiall hmye been praised. 
Thoa wilt have been pfaieed. 
He will hare been pniaed. 
Sbe ¥nll have been praieed. 
Yon will have been praised. 
We ohall have been praised. 

You will have been 

The^^will have been praised. 
You will have been praised. 

To have left. 
When I have paid for the horse, I 
shall have only ten dollan left 

How much money have you left? 

I have five dollars left 
I have only one dollar left 
How much has your brother left 7 

He has one dollar left 

How much has your sister left 1 

She has only a few pence left 
How much have your brothers left 7 

They have a hundred dollan left 
When they have paid the tailor, 

they will have a hundred dollan 


Yo habi< sido alabado, (alabttk^ 

Tfi habiis sido alabado, (alabada.) 

£l habri sido alshado. 

EUa habri sido alabada. 

V. habri ado alabado, (alabada.) 

Nosotros (or nosotras) habr^mos mda 

alabados, (alabadas.) 
Voootros (or vosotras) habr6ii lido 

alabados, (alabadas.) 
EUos (ellaa) hafaiin sido alabadas, 

W. habrin eido alabados, (alabadvi.) 

Quedar. Sobrar. Rettar, 

t Cnando yo haya pagado el (or 

por el) caballo, solo me qnedarin 

dies pesos. 
1 1 Cuanto dinero le queda i V., (or 

OS queda) 7 
t Me quedan cinco pesos. 
Me queda solo un pesa 
I Cuanto le resta (or queda) aJ her- 

mano de V. 7 
Le queda un peso. 
I Cuanto le queda i la seSora her- 

mana de V. 7 (or i sn sefiora, Alc) 
Le quedan solo unos cuartos. 
I Cuanto ha quedado i bus herxnanos 

Les ban quedado cien pesos. 
Cuando ellos hayan pagado al sastre, 

les quedarin cien pesos. 

Obt. A. The conjunctions when, as soon as, after, require the present, 
or the compound of the present, of the subjunctive mood, when they ex- 
press futurity. Example : — 

When I am at my aunt's, will you 

come to see me 7 
After you have done writing, will 

you take a turn with me 7 

Yon will play, when you have 
finished your exercise. 

^Yendri V. i verme, 

esU en casa de mi tia 7 
I Gustari V. de dar un paseo (utu 

vuelta) conmigo, despites que haya 

acabado de escribir 7 
V. jugard, evando haya aeabado so 


Firrr-sioBTB lesson. 


Whmt will yon do when yoa ha;?e 

When I have spoken to yonr brother, 
I riiall know what I have to do. 

iQae hari V. defpnee que haya 

1 1 Que hard V* despues ds comer, 

(or de la eomida) 7 
Caando yo haya haUado al eefior 

hermano de V. eabr^ lo qae he de 


iDiom wrra hacxk. 

How is the weather ? 

It is fine weather. 

It is bad weather. 

It IB hot It is very warm. 

It IB cold. It is very cold. 

The wind blows high. 

It IB a long time that I saw him. 

It iB becoming late. 

It iB becoming night. 

He caoses an information to be 

She ooonterfeits the idiot, (or feigns to 

be an idiot) 
He acts as a broker. 
Not to mind a person, (or thing.) 

To ridicule any one. 

Ont of dooFB. 



To enter. To go in. To come in. 
Will you go into my room ? 

I win go in. 
I shall go in. < 

To sit down. 
To eit, to he seated. 
Ha ii Bested upon the large chair. 
She iB Beated upon the bench. 

1*0 fiU a bottle with wine. 

I Que tiempo hace T 

Hace bnen tiempo. 

Hace hermoBO tiempo. 

Hace mal tiempo. 

Hace calor. Hace mucho calor. 

Hace fria Hace mucho fiia 

Hace mucho Tiento. 

Hace mucho tiempo que le yi. 

t Se hace tarde. 

t Se hace noche. Anocheee. 

t £l hace hacer una informaeion. 

t Ella hace la boba, (la tonta.) 

Hace el (or de) conedor. 

No hacer case de una personal, [pr 

Hacer chacota (or bulla) de alguna 
Hacer alarde. 

Enirar. (Ir adentio.) 

tQuiere V. entrar en mi cnarto, 

(aposento) 7 
Yo eotrar^. (Si, seSor.) 

Sentarse. (See Lesson LII.) 
Eatar oentado, (fem. oentada.) 
i\ eeti Bentado en la eilla de hrazoo. 
Ella estd sentada en el banca 

Lienor — de. 

Uenar de yino una botella. 



Do yon fill that bottle wHh 
I fill my {MiiM with money. 
He fills hk beUy with meat 

I Uena V. de agna eata botallaf 
Yo lleno de diDoro mi boln. 
£l le llena de came la ban^a. (A 
▼eiy low ezpranon.) 

The pocket 

Have yoa come quite alone t 
No, I have brongfat ail my men 
along with me. 

To hring. 

He hoB brought all his men along 

with him. 
HaTe y6u brought yoor brother along 

with you 7 
I have brought him along with me. 
Have you told the groom to faring 

me the hone 7 


La boisa, (fem.) El bobiUo, (i 
La faltiiquera, (fem.) 
I Ha yenido V. absolntamente solo 7 
No, yo he tiaido toda mi gente (todos 
mb hombres) oonmigo. 

Traer *. 

£l ha traido toda sn geate 


The groom* 

Are you bringing in my books 7 
I am bringing them to you. 


To take, to carry. 
Will you take that dog to the stable 7 t 

I will take it thither. 

Are you carrying that gun to my 

father 7 
I carry it to him. 

The cane, the stick. 

The stable. 

To come down, to go down. 
To go down into the well. 

To go, or come down the hill. 
To go down the river. 


^Ha traido V. consigo A sn her- 

Yo le he traido conmigo. 
I Ha dicho V. al moxo de cabalkB 

(caballerizo) que traiga mi caballo? 
EI mozo de caballos. 
El caballeriza 
I Me trae V. mis libros T 
Yo se los traigo i V. 

Llevar. Traer. Conducir. 

I Quiere V. llevar ese peno al es- 

Yo le llevar^ alii. 
I Lleya V. esa escopeta 4 mi padre7 

Yo se la Uoto. 
La cafia. El palo, (i 
El baston, (mas.) 
El establo, (mas.) 
La caballeriza, (Tom.) 

I Bajar d, (or de.) Deecender *. 

I Bajar al pozo. 
K Bajar el cerro. 
( Descender del cerro. 
I Bajar el rio. 

'^o alight from one*s hone, or dts- K t Apearee del caballo. 

( Desmontane. 


To alight, to get out 

Apeane. Bajar. Salir da. 

Fmr^SlOBTH LB8609. 


To go upt to mount, to aoeend. 

To go up the moantun. 
To get into the coach. 
To get on hoard a shipi 

Sabir. Montar. 

Subir el monte. 

Entrar (sabir) en el coche. 

t Embaicane. 

Tod,mre.tobeg,tor€que,t,topray.^^^^ ^^J', 

Will yoo deBiie yonr brother to coihe I i Qaiere V. suplicar i bq hexmaoo 
down 7 I que haje 7 

Obo. B. Verbs signifying* to beg, to requeH, to command, &c., reqoiie 
the yerb governed by them to be in the subjunctive mood. (See Appendixi) 

The beard. 
The river. 

The itaeom, torrent 
To go, or come up the river. 

La barba. 

El no. 

La corriente. EI torrente. 

Subir el rio. 



Will yoTiT parents go into the country to-morrow ? — They will not 

go, for it is too dusty. — Shall we take a walk to-day ? — ^We will not 

take a walk, for it is too muddy out df doors, (en la calle,) — ^Do yon 

see the castle of my relation behind yonder mountain, (aqueUa mtm' 

tana ?) — ^I see it. — Shall we go in ? — ^We will go in if you like« — ^Will 

you go into that room ? — I shall not go into it, for it is smoky. — ^I wish 

you a good morning, Madam. — ^Will you not come in 7 Will you not 

Bit down 7 — I will sit down upon that large chair .^Will you tell me 

what has become of your brother 7 — ^I will tell you. — Where is your 

sister 7 — ^Do yon not see her 7 She sits upon the bench. — ^Ls your 

fiither seated upon the bench 7 — ^No, he sits upon the chair. — ^Hast 

thou spent all thy money 7 — ^I have not spent all. — How much hast 

thou left 7 — ^I have not much left. I have but five fthillings left. — ^How 

much money have thy sisters left 7 — ^They have but three dollars left. 

•—Have you money enough left to pay your tailor 7 — I have enough 

left to pay him ; but if I pay him I sliall have but little left. — ^How 

much money will your brothers have left 7 — ^They will have a hundred 

dollars left. — ^When will you go to Italy 7 — ^I shall go as soon as Quego 

que) I have Quiya) learned Italian. — ^When will your brothers go to 

France ? — They will go thither as soon as they know {sepan) French. 

—When will they learn it 7 — ^They will learn it when they have (hayan) 

found a good master. — ^How much money shall we have left when 

we have (Junfomos) paid for our horses 7 — ^When we have QiayamM) 

paid for them we shall have only a hundred dollars left. 


Bo yoa gain any thing by (en) that business ? — ^I do not gain much 
I by it, (fn ilj) but my brother gains a good deal by it. He fills fats 
parse with money. — ^How much money have you gained? — ^I faaTe 
gained only a little, but my cousin has gained mudh by it. He hu 
filled his pocket with money. — ^Why does that man not work ? — He is 
a good-for'4iothing fellow, for he does nothing but eat all the day long. 
He (continually) fills his belly with meat, so that he will make himself 
(se etrfermard) ill if he continues (cantmuar) to eat so much. — ^Wi^ 
what have you filled that bottle ? — ^I have filled it with wine. — ¥^11 
this man take care of my horse 7 — ^He will take care of it — ^Who wiQ 
take caxe of my servant 7 — ^The landlord will take care of him. — ^Does 
your servant take care of your horses ? — ^He does take care of them. — 
Is he taking care of your clothes ? — ^He takes care of them, for fae 
brushes them every morning. — ^Have you ever drunk French wine ? 
— ^I have never drunk any. — Is it long since you ate French bread ? — 
It is almost three years since I ate any. — Have you hurt my brotho'- 
in-law 7 — ^I have not hurt him, but he has cut my finger. — ^Wfaal has 
he cut your finger with 7 — ^With the knife which you have lent him. 

Is your &ther arrived at last 7 — ^Everybody says that he is amved, 
but I have not seen him yet — Has the physician hurt your son 7— He 
has hurt him, for he has cut his finger. — Have they cut oflf that man's 
leg 7 — They have cut it oflf. — Are you pleased with yout servant 7 — 
I am much pleased with him, for he is fit for any thing, (para todojy— 
What does he know 7 — ^He knows every thing, (todo.) — Can he ride ? 
— He can. — Has your brother returned at last from England ? — He 
has returned thence, and has brought you a fine horse. — ^Has he tc^d 
his groom to bring it to me, (me le traiga t) — He has told him to bring 
(Ueve) it to you. — ^What do you think of that fiorse 7 — ^I think that it is 
a fine and good one, and beg you to lead (tteve) it into the stable. — In 
what did you spend your time yesterday 7 — ^I went to the concert, and 
afterwards to the play. — ^When did that man go down into the well 7 — 
He went down into it this morning. — ^Has he come up again yetj 
(ydver a svhir 7) — ^He came up an hour ago* — Where is your brother 7 
—He is in his room. — ^Will you tell him to come down, (que he^ety— 
I will tell him so, but he is not dressed (Lesson LID.) yet — ^Is your 
friend still on the mountain 7 — He has already come down. — ^EMd yoa 
^ go down or up the river 7 — ^We went down it — ^Did my cousin speak 
to you before he started 7 — He spoke to me before he got into the 
coach. — ^Have you seen my brother 7 — ^I saw him before I went on 
board the ship. — ^Is it better to get into a coach than to go on board 

Fimr-NINTB XJE880K. 


the ship ? — It is not worth while to get into a coach or to go on boaid 
the ship when one has no wish to travel. 

FIFTY-NINTH LESSON.— jLcccion Quincuagesima nana. 

06«. A. The Imperlect is a past tonsei which was still present at the 
time spoken of, and may always be recognised by using the two terms, 
'Waa doing, or Used to do. Elxampjes : — 

"When 1 was at Cadiz I often went 

to see my friends. 
When yoQ were in Madrid you often 

went to the Prado. 
Rome was at first governed by kings. 

CflBsar was a great man. 
Cicero was a great orator. 

069, B. The adjective grande drops the last syllable when it means 
good in character or quality. As, Fernando de C&rdova era llamado el 
gran eapitan. (See Appendix.) 

Onr ancestoia went a-hunting every Nuestros mayores iban & la caza 

day. todos las dias. 

The Romans cultivated the arts. and Los Romanos cultivaban las artes y 

Cuando yo eeiaba en Cadiz, iba i, 
monudo & ver i mis amigos. 

Cuando V. eetaba en Madrid, iba 
frecuentemeute al Prado. 

Roma era gobernada primeramente 
por reyes. 

C6sar era un gran (grande) hombre. 

Ciceron era un grande (gran) orador. 

■ctences, and rewarded merit. 

Were you walking ? 

I was not walking. 

Were you in Toledo when the king 
was there? 

I was there when he was there. 

Where were yon when I was in Ha- 
vana 7 

At what time did you breakfast when 
you were in Germany ? 

I breakfasted when my father break- 

Did yon work when he was work- 
I studied when he was working. 
Some fish. 
Some game. * 
When I lived at my father's I rose 
eaifier than I do now 

las ciencias, y premiaban el m^rito. 
I Estaba V. (iba V.) paseando ? 
No me paseaba. 
I Estaba V. en Toledo cuando el rey 

se hallaba alU ? 
Yo estaba allf, cuanao ^1 estaba allf. 
I En donde estaba V. cuando yo es* 

taba en la Habana ? 
I A que hora almorzaba V. cuando 

estaba en AJemania ? 
Yo almorzaba cuando mi padre al- 
morzaba, (oi miamo tiempo fiis 

mi padre.) 
I Trabajaba V. mi^ntras ^1 trabaja- 

Yo estudiaba cuando ^1 trabajaba. 
Un poco de pescado. Un poco de pez. 
La caza. 
Cuando yo vivfa en caaa de mi padre, 

me levantaba mas temprano que 



nmr-NiHTH lessok. 

When we Ihred in tfaal countiy we 

went a-fi>hing often. 
When I was etck I kept in bed all 

Last summer when I was in the 

countty, there was a great deal of 


Cuando Txvianios en aqoel pak, fie- 
caentemente Cbamos A peecar. 

Cuando yo estaba enfermo, eetaba oi 
cama todo el dia. 

Cuaudo yo estaba en e! eampo d 
verano pasado, habia mocha frnU. 

A thing. 

The same thin^. 
The same man. 

It is all one, (the same.) 


Una eosa. 

La mismaoosa. 
E«l mismo hombre. 
t Todo €9 uno. Vale lo 
Es iguaL 



Such a man. 
Such men. 
Such a woman. 
Such things. 
Such men merit esteem. 

Mr. such a one said it. 

Ifr. soch a one and Mr. such a one. 


Without, or out of doors. 
The church stands outside the town. 
I shall Wait for you before the town 

The town or city gate. 
The bamer. The turnpike. 


Some brandy. 

The life. 
To get one's liyelihood by. 
I get my livelihood by working. 
He gets his living by writing. 

I gain my money by working. 
By what does that man get his live- 

Un tal, (mas.) Una tal^ (fem.) 

Un tal hombre. 

Tales hombres. Uuos taks bumU w. 

Una tal mojer. 

Tales cosas. 

Semejante. Igual. 

Semejantoe hombres meiecen csti- 

t El Serior FtUano de tal (un Dom 

FuUtno) lo dijo. 
t Un Don FtdanOt y un Don, Mem- 

gano, {Zutano.) 

Fuera de. Afuera. 
Fuera. Af uera. Fuera de la paetta. 
La iglesia esti fuera de la ciodad. 
Yo aguaniar6 d V. fuera de las poer* 

tas de la ciudad. 
La puerta de la ciudad. 
La barrera. 

Raramente. Rara yez. Raro. 

Un poco de aguardiente. 

La vida. 

Ganar su vida 4. 

Gauo mi vida i trabajar, (trabajando.) 

1^1 gana su vida escribiendo, (& es- 

Yo gano mi dinero trabajando. 
I A que (de que manera) gana mm 




To proceed. To go on. 
To continue. 

He continaes his discoune. 
A good appetite. 

The narratiye. The tale. 

The edge. The bolder. 

The afaore. 

The edge of the brook. 

The aea-ahore. 

On the lea-flhore. 

The shore. The water-side. 
The coast The bank. 

People, folkai 
They are good folks. 
They are wicked people. 


C Proeeder. Prooegwr* 

\ Continuar, (a before the inil) 

I £l coutinaa su discona 

Un buen apetita 

La narratiTa. Fibula. Conseja. 

Retato (cuento) de an hecho. Coenta 
S Mirgen. Orilla. Borde. 
( Costa. Ribeni. Playa. 

La mirgen del acroyo. 

La orilla del mar. 

fin la playa (costa) del mar. 
C La costa. La playa. La marina. 
< La orilla del agua. La ribera. 
f La mirgen. 

La gente. Las gentes. 
Ellas son buenas gentes. 
EUIos son gentes malvadas. 



Were you lo-ved when you were at Dresden ? — ^I was not hated. — 

Was your brother esteemed when he was in London 7 — He was loved 

and esteemed. — ^When were you in Spain ? — I was there when you 

were (there.) — ^Who was loved and who was hated? — ^Those that 

were good, assiduous, and obedient were loved, and those who were 

naughty, idle, And disobedient were punished, hated, and despised. — 

Were you in Berlin when the king was there ? — ^I was there when 

he was (there.) — ^Was your uncle in London when I was there 7 — ^He 

was there when you were (there.) — ^Where were you when I was at 

Dresden ? — I was in Paris. — ^Where was your father when you were 

in Vienna 7 — ^He was in England. — At what time did you breakfast 

when you were in France 7 — ^I breakfasted when my uncle breakfasted. 

—Did you work when he was working? — I studied when he was 

working. — ^Did your brother work when you were working? — ^He 

played when I was working. — On what lived our ancestors 7 — They 

lived on (nothing but) fish and game, for they went a-hunting and 

a-fiahing every day. — ^What sort of people were the Romans ? — They 

were very good people, for they cultivated the arts and sciences and 

rewarded merit — ^Did you often go to see your friends when you were 

at Berlin ? — I went to see them often. — ^Did you sometimes go to the 

Champ8-Elys6es when you were at Paris 7 — ^I often went thither. 

What did you do when you lived in that country 7— When we lived 


there we went arfishing often. — ^Did you not go oat waUdng ?--4 wen 
out walking sometimes. — ^Do you rise early? — ^Not so early as yoo, 
but when I lived at my ancle's I rose earlier than I do now.— Did yoa 
sometimes keep in bed when you lived at your uncle's 1 — ^When Ims 
ill I kept in bed all day. — ^Is there much fruit this year ?— I do not 
know ; but last summer, when I was in tlie country, there was a greit 
deal of fruit — ^What do you get your livelihood by ? — I get my livdi- 
hood by working. — ^Does your friend get his livelihood by writiBg?— 
He gets it by speaking and writing. — ^Do these gentlemen get their 
livelihood by working ? — ^They get it by doing nothing, for they are 
too idle to woiic. — ^What has your friend gained that money by ?— He 
has gained it by working. — ^What did you get your liveUhoud by ^len 
you were in England ? — ^I got it by writing. — ^Did your cousin get hU 
livelihood by writing ? — ^He got it by working. — ^Have you ever seen 
such a person 7 — ^I have never seen such a one. — ^Have yoa almdy 
seen our church 7 — ^I have not seen it yet — ^Where does it stand, 
{estd ?) — It stands outside the town. If you wish to see it I will go 
with you in order to show it you. — ^What do the people live upon that 
live on the sea-shore 7 — They live on fish alone. — ^Why will yon not 
go a-hunting any more 7 — ^I hunted yesterday the whole day, and I 
killed nothing but an ugly bird, so that I shall not go any more a-huin* 
mg. — ^Why do you not eat 7 — ^Because I have not a good appetite.— 
Why does your brother eat so much 7 — ^Because he has a good appetite. 

Whom are you looking for 7 — ^I am looking for my little brother.— 
If you wish to find him yon must go (^ne vaya) into the garden, for he 
is there. — ^The garden is large, and I shall not be able to find him if 
you do not tell me in which part of the garden he is. — ^He is sitting 
under the large tree under which we were sitting yesterday. — ^Now I 
shall find him. — ^Why did you not bring my clothes 7 — They were not 
made, so that I could not bring them, but I bring them to you now.— 
You have learned your lesson ; why has not your sister learned hers ? 
— She has taken a walk with my mother, so that she could not lean 
it, but she will learn it to-morrow. — ^When will yon correct my exe> 
cises 7 — ^I will correct them when you bring (traiga) me those of yosz 
sister. — ^Do you think you have made faults in them 7 — ^I do not know* 
— ^If you have made faults you have not studied your lesson weU ; (<^ 
the lessons must be learned well to make no faults in the exercises.— 
It is all the same : if you do not correct them to-day, I shall not learn 
them before to-morrow. — ^You must not (deber) make any faults Ib 
your exercises, for you have all yon want in order to make none. 


SIXTIETH LESSON.—Leceion Sexag^tk 
For the use of the Imperfect Tenae, lee Leaaon XL. 

A plate. 

A Bon-in-Iaw. 


A daoghter-in-law. 

A fltep-daogfater. 

The father-in law. 
The mother-in-law. 

To impiofe in leanings. 
Tlie progresB of a malady. 


Un yemo. 

Un hijaatza Un entenada 

Una nueia. 

Una hijaatra. Una entenada. 

El BuegTO. 

Padre poUtieo, 
La megra. 

Adelantar en loa 



Adelantar en las cienciaa. 
I Loa p ro g r aa ua de una enfennedad. 

B7 When the Eogiiah tenae can be changed into uted to, ive No. 3 ; 
but if it meana did, uae Na 3. 

I foigot, thoa forgotteaty he foigot^ 
(need to.) 

I foigoty thou fbrgotteat, he forgot* 

When we went to achool we often 
foigot our hooka. 

When you went to church you often 
pirayed to the Lord for your chil- 

Ohridaba, dvidabaa, blvidaba. No. SL 
OMd^, oividaate, olvidb. Na3. 

Cuando ibamoB i la eacnela, olyidiba- 
moa d menudo nueatroa lihroa. 

Cuando V. iba & la igleaia, V. pedia 
frecuentemente al Seiior por aoa 

When we receiTed aome mraiey we 
employed it in purchaaing good 

When you bought of that merchant 
yon did not alwaya pay in caah. 

Cuando recibtamoa dineio, la 
pleibamoa en oomprar 

Cuando V. compraba de eaa meica* 
der, no pagaba aiempre al oontada 

Haa yourairter aucceeded in mending i Logib componer la oocbata de V. 

your craTat ? 
She haa ancceeded in it. 
Haa the woman returned from 

She haa not yet returned. 
Did the women agree to that 7 
Hiay did agree to it 

Where IB your aiater gone to 7 
She u gone to the ohureh.' 


Si ; or, Lo lognt. 
I Ha Tuelto de la plaza la imqer? 

Todavia no. No hu tuoUo, 

I Han oonTonido en eao laa mujereaT 

Convinitf ron (or haa convenido) en 

I A donde fb6 aa hennaaa de V.l 
EUa fai6 & la ii^eaia. 




Th» tenM corrapondfl to No. 8, tbe aecond tennination of the Impeffcd 
of the nibjimctiTe mood. The Imperfect of the flnlijimctiTe hae thiee ler- 
minatMHui for each penon : the fint, Na 7, is ra ; the second, Na 8, ie 
ria : and the thizd, Na 9, is w. (See the table of the termmatkins of tbe 
▼erfaa.) In phrases in whidb the Potentia] is need, there are generally two 
•enlences, one of which is the principal, and the other the sobordinate. In 
Spanish) the yerb of the principal is in the termination marked Na 8* and 
the Terb of the snbonlinate is in the terminations marked Noa. 7 <r 9. 
Example : — If I had money, / would buy book^ — Si yo tnrieae (tnti e aa ) 
dtnero eomprar^ Ubrot, The aentence in italics is the jwincipaly and 
althongh, in the abore example, it is placed after the saboidinate, it migfat 
be placed before. It is easy to distingnish the principal from the sobor- 
dinate : the last is always preceded by a conjunction. 

I would have, thou wooldst haTe, he *j Tendria, tendrias, tendria. ^ 
or she woold have. I ^ 

We would have, yon woold have, ' Tendrfamos, tendiiais, ten- | *^ 
they would have. J drian. J 

I could have, thou couldst have, he^ Toviera, tnvieras, tuviera. 

or she could have. 
We could have, you could have, they 

could have. 
I might have, thou mightst have, he 

might have. 
We might have, you might have» 

they might have. 

Tuvi^ramos, tnvi^rais, ta- 

Tuviese, tnvieses, tuviese. 

Tuvi^moB, tuvi^is, to- 



O&s. If (si) is sometimes underetood in English, but it must always be 
expressed in Spanidi, and the tenses used in the subordmate mnat be Nou 7 
and No. 9. Example .'— Had I money, / would buy booka — Si yo tuTiera 
(or tuviese) dinero, eompraria Ubros. 

Na 8 of To with. 
I would, thou wouldst, he would. 
We would, you would, they would. 

No. 8 de Querer. 
Querria, querrias, querria. 
Querriamos, quenfais, querrian. 

If I had money, / would have a 

new coat 
If thou couldst do this, thou wouldst 

If he conldf he would, 
I would goii 1 had time. 
If he knew what yoo have done, he 

would 9eM you, 

Si yo tuviera (or tuviese) dineie^ 
eompraria una caeaca nueva. 

Si ta pudieras (or pudieoes) haeer 
esto, f ttemos haeer aqueUo, 

Si ^1 pudiere, (or pudieae,) querria, 

Yo iria m tuviera tiempa 

Si €1 snpiera (or supiese) lo que V. ha 
hecho, le reprenderia, 

Reprender: (Conj. like Pkoiider.) 



If there were any wood, he would 

nutke a fire. 

Should the men come, it icould be 

neeeeeary to give them oomething 

to drink. 

Should we leceiTe oar letters, we 

UMnUd not read them until to- 

Not untiL 

Si hnbiere (hnbieee) lefia, il eueen^ 

deria la eandela, (haria elfuego.) 
Si viuieran (yinieeeD) los hombres, 

eeria meneeter darUe algo (jalgu- 

na eoea) que beber. 
Si recibitemoe (reeibi^ramoa) nnee- 

trae cartas, no lao leeriamoo haota 


No — -— hasta. 


Thk tense is formed from No. 8 of Habevt with the past participle of the 
Terh to be conjugated. (It is marked No. 6, p.) 

Nos. 8, 7, 9, of To have, (auz.) | Nos. 8, 7, 9, de Haber. 

I would have, thou wouldst have,^ 

he would have. 
We would have, you would have, 

they would have. 
I could have, thou couldst have, he^ 

could have. 
We could have, you could have, 

they could have. 
I might have, thou mightst have, he 

might have. 
We might have, you might have, 

they might have. 

No. 8, p. of To have, (active.) 
I would have had, thou wouldst have ^ 

had, he or she would have had. 
We would have had, yon would 

have had, they would have had. 

Habrla, habrias, habria. 


No. 7. 

Habriamoe, habrfais, ha- 

Hubiera, hubieras, hn-"^ 

biera. I 

Hubi^ramos, hubi^rais, | 

hubieran. J 

' Hubiese, hubiesee, hu- 

Hubi^^mos, hubi^is, 


Na 8, p. de Tener. 

Habria tenido, habrias^ 
tenido, habria tenido. 
' Habriamoe tenido, ha- ' Na 8, p. 
brfais tenido, habrian I 
tenida J 


If I had received my money, / 
would have bought new booke. 

If he had had a pen, he would have 
recollected the word. 

If you had risen early, you could 

not have caught a cold. 
If they had got rid of their old horse, 

they would have procured a i«<- 


Si hubiera (hubiese) recibido mi di- 

nero, hahia comprado nuevoe lib' 

Si ^1 hubiera (hubiese) tenido una 

pluma, ee habria aeordado de la 

Si V. se hubiera levantado temprano, 

no ee habria reefriado. 
Si se hubieeen deshecho de en caba- 

llo viejo, hahrian comprado otro 




If he had wuhad his handi, he 

W9uld hmve wiped tkem. 
If 1 had known that, / would kne 

hehmved d{fertntly. 
If thou hadat taken notice of that, 

tkou weuldet not ktne been mU- 

Si 3 M hnbiera UTado laa maaoi, « 

Uu habria enjttgado. 
Si yo hubieae aabido eeo, me haim 

portado difereniemente. 
Si habieraa (hnbieaeB) notado em 

no te 

Would yoH leom Spamek if I learn- 
ed it? 
/ would leom it if yon learned it. 

Would you hate learned German, 
if I had learned it? 

/ would have learned it if you had 

learned it 
Would you go to Spain if I went 

there with you 7 
/ would go, if you went with me. 
Would you have gone to France if 

I had gone with you 7 
Would you go out if I remained at 

/ would remain at home if you went 

Would you hate written a letter if 

I had written a note. 

I Aprenderia V. el Eapanel ■ y* 

le aprendiera, (le aprendieae) 1 
Yo le aprenderia m V. le aprsodien. 

(le apreudiese.) 
i Habria V. aprendido el Alemet, 

m yo le huhiera (hnbieee) apnodi- 

Yo le habria aprendido ai V. le hn- 
biera (hubiese) aprendido. 
ilria V. a Eepana ■ yo f«n 

(fuese) con V. ? 
Yo iria, si V. fuera conmiga 
i Habria V, ido a Francia, m jo 

hubiera (hubieae) ido oon €i ? 
i Saldria F. si yo me quedara (que- 

dase) en casa ? 
Yo me quedaria en eaaa n V. n- 

liera, (salieee.) 
I Habria eserito V, una carta a yo 

hubiera (hubieae) eacrito on bi- 


There ia my book. 

Here is my book. 

There it ii. 

There they are. 

Here I am. 

That is the reason why. 

Therefore I say so. 

My feet are cold. 
His feet are cold. 
He has a pain m his aide. 

Har hands are odd. 


AIK esti mi libra 

AlU tiene V. mi libro. 
( Aqo( estd mi libra 
\ Aqu( tiene V. mi libra 

AUieetA. Allile tiene V. 

Allf eetan. AlU los tiene V. 

Aqui estoy. Aquf me tiene V. 

Eaa es la razon por la cua).' 

Pues yo digo eso. 


t Tengo los pies frioa. 
t Tiene los pies frios. 
t Tione dolor de .costada 
Sua manoa eatan Irias. 
£2lla tiene las manoa 

. • 

mii ' JJC T H LBssoir. M9 

Her tongue hurts her very nmch. 
My h«ad hmta me. 
Her leg hurts her. 

t A ella le dnele mocbo la kngBk 
t Me dnele la cabeia. 
t A ella le doele la pienuu 



Did you forget any thing wh^n yon went to school t — We often 

forgot onr hooks, — Where did you forget them 7 — We forgot them at 

the school. — Did we forget any thing? — ^Yon forgot nothing. — ^Did 

your mother pray for any one when she went to church f — She prayed 

for her children. — ^For whom did we pray? — Yon prayed for your 

parents. — ^For whom did our parents pray ? — ^They prayed for their 

children. — When you received your money what did you do with it 7 — 

We employed it in purchasing some good books. — ^Did yon employ 

yoim also in purchasing books 7 — ^No ; we employed it in assisting 

the poor, (socorrer.) — ^Did you not pay your tailor 7 — ^We did pay him. 

— ^Did you always pay in cash when you bought of that merdiant ? — 

We always paid in cash, for we never buy on credit — ^Has your sister 

succeeded in mending your stockings 7— She has succeeded in it — 

Has your mother returned from church 7 — She has not yet returned. 

— Whither has your aunt gone 7 — She has gone to church. — Whither 

have our cousins (fem.) gone 7 — ^They have gone to the concert — 

Have they not yet returned from it 7 — ^They have not yet returned. 


Who is there 7 — ^It is I, (^ soy.) — Who are those men ? — ^They are 

lofreigners who wish to speak to you. — Of what country are they 7 — 

They are Americans. — Where is my book 7 — ^There it is. — ^And my 

pen ? — ^Here it is. — ^Where is your sister 7 — ^There she is. — ^Where 

are our cousins (fem. 7) — ^There they are. — Where are you, John, 

{Juan ?) — ^Here I am. — ^Why do your children live in Spain 7 — ^They 

wish to learn Spanish ; that is the reason why they live in Spain. — 

Why do you sit near the fire 7 — ^My hands and feet are cold ; that is 

the reason why I sit near the fire. — Are your sister's hands cold 7 — 

No ; but her feet are cold. — ^What is the matter with your aunt 7 — ^Her 

leg hurts her. — Is any thing the matter with you 7 — ^My head hurts 

me. — What is the matter with that woman 7 — ^Her tongue hurts her 

very much. — Why do yon not eat 7 — ^I shall not eat before I have a 

good appetite. — Has your sister a good appetite? — She has a very 

good appetite ; that is the reason why she eats so much. — ^If you have 

read the hooka which I lent you why do you not return them to me ?— 



I intend reading them once more, {otra tez ;) that is the leaaon viijl 
have not yet returned them to you ; but I will return them to 
you as soon as I have (haya) read them a second time, (ctra «z.)r- 
Why have you not brought my shoes ? — ^They were not made, there- 
fore I did not bring them ; but I bring them u> you now : here they are. 
— ^Why has your dau^ter not learned her exercises ? — She has taken 
a walk with her companiop, (fern. ;) that is the reason why she haa si 
learned them : but she promises to learn them to-morrow, if yoa lio 
not acohi her. 

Would you haye money if your father were here ? — ^I should haw 
Bome if he were here. — ^Would you have been pleased if I bad liad 
•ome books ? — ^I should have been much pleased if you had had some. 
—Would you have praised my little brother if he had been good l— 
If he had been good I should certainly not only have praised, bnt also 
loved, honored, (honrary) and rewarded him. — Should we be praised if 
we did our exercises 7 — ^If you did them without a fault {sinfaita) jos 
would be praised and rewarded. — ^Would my brother not have been 
punished if he had done his exercises ? — ^He would not have been 
punished if he had done them. — ^Would my sister have been praised 
if she had not been skilful ? — She would certainly not have bees 
praised if she had not been very skilful, and if she had not worked 
from morning {desde) till evening. — ^Would yoy give me sometiung 
if I were very good ? — ^If you were very good, and if you worked well, 
I would give you a fine book. — ^Would you have written to yew 
sister if I had gone to Paris ? — ^I would have written to her, and sent 
her something handsome if you had gone thither. — Would you speai 
if I listened to you ? — ^I would speak if you listened to me, and if f» 
would answer me. — ^Would you have spoken to my mother if yon had 
seen her t — ^I would have spoken to her, and have beggfcd of bet 
(xqgar) to send you a handsome gold watch if I had seen hert 


One of the valet de chambres (ayuda de camara) of Louis XIV. 
{(k Luis XIV.) requested that prince, as he was going to bed, ft' 
recommend to the first president a lawsuit (p^eito) which he had agau^ 
(contra) his father-in-hiw, and said, in urging him, ( urgieridole :) ** Ala^t 
(Ah!) Sire, {SeRar,) you (7. M,^Vuestra Me^estad) have but to ay 
one wonL" " WeU," (Bien,) said Louis XIV., « it is not that which 
embarrasses me, {embaraxar ;) but tell me, if thou wert in thy fathei^ 
law's place, and thy father-in-law in thine, wouldst thou be glad (<^ 
aUgrarias) if I said (dyera) that word ?" 

If the men should come it would be necessary to give them floo^ 


to drink. — ^If he oodd do this he would do ^taL — I hcve ahrajs 
flattered myself, my dear brother, that yon loved me as much as I love 
yoa ; but I now see that I have been mistaken. I sbonld like to knov 
iH?hy you went a-walking without me. — ^I have heard, my dear sister, 
tliat you are angry with me, (esiar arfadado,) because I went a^walk- 
ing without you. I assure you that, had I known that yoa vreie not 
ill, I should have come for you ; but I inquired at your physician's 

about your health, and he told me that you had been keeping yomr bed 

(jestado en cama) the last eight days, (par ocko iios.) 


A French officer having arrived at the court (eorle) of Vienna, the 
empoess Theresa (^Teresa) asked (pregumar) him, if he believed that 
the princess of N., whom he had seen the day before, was really the 
handsomest woman in the (del) worid, as was said. (See Obs. B, 
Lesson XXXVU.) "* Madam," replied {repHear) the officer, " I thought 
so yesterday." — How do you like (Lesson XXIV.) that meat f — ^I fike 
it very well. — ^May I ask you for {Me Umari la libertad de pedir d F. 
101 food) a piece of that fish ? — ^If you will have the goodness to pass 
me your plate I wiU give you some. — ^Would you have the goodness to 
pour me out (echarme) some drink, (de beherTy—With much pleasure. — 
Cicero, seeing his son-in-hiw, who was very short, {pequeSio^ arrive 
(venir) with a long sword (espada larga) at his rade, (d tu lado) said, 
** Who has &stened (aiado) my 8on4n-law to this sword T 

SIXTY-RRST <LESSON.--I.0ccion SexagUkna primen. 

'What has become of your aunt 7 

I do not know what has become of 

What has become of your Bisten? 

I eannot tell yoa what has become 
of them. 

To die, to lote life. 
I die, thou diest, he or she di( 
Shan or will yon die 1 


I Que io ha heeho de la sefiota tia 

To Ro b6 Io que le ha hecbo de eUa. 

I Que ie ha becho de las seftontas 

hennanas de V. 7 
To no puedo deeir ft V. lo que se ha 

becho de ellas. 

Jfortr *. Morirae. Perder la vida. 

Muero, muerea, mneie. 
tMorird(orsemorizi)V.7 (Sea Las- 

son XLVL) 
To moiirtf. To me mfloia 



TImI nun died th» moniiDg, and hii 
wife died alM. 

Thk maa b dead. 

Hie woDiaa died thk mnrning. 

Eae homlire miiii6 (ae iniin6) etla 
roadaaa, y aa miyer ae nraii^ 
(murid) tambieD. 

Eaie hombre esU. (or ha) nmeito. 

La mojer murid (or ae nmrid) eatt 
maftana. (See Lea^ XXXIII.) 

Wine aeDa weU. 
Wine will aeU well next year. 

That door ahuta 

That window doea not open eaaly. 

Tliat pietnre ia aeen far off. 

Far dS, fram afar. 
Winter clothea are not worn in aom- 

That u not aaid. 
Hiat cannot be comprehended. 
To conceive, to comprehend. 
It ia clear. 

t EI vino ae yende bien. 

t El Tino ae yenderi bien el an« 

pr6zimo, (or el afto que viene.) 
t Eoa puerta ae eieira f&cilmente. 
t Eaa ventana no ae abre ficilmeote* 
t Eae coadro (esa pintnra) ae to de 

De I^joa. Deade I^joa. 
t La ropa de inviemo no ae on ea 

el yerana 
t Eao no ae dice. 

t Eao no ae concibe, (comptende.) 
Concebir *. Cotnprt niter. 
Ea clam. Eao ee daio. 

Accoding to drcnmatancea. 

According ta 

The circumatanee. 
Hiat ia according to circnmatancea. i t Comfoxme A. 

It dependa. ) Depende de. 

Segnn laa circnnatanciaa. 
Segon. Confonne A. 
La circunatancia. 



Sony. Diat^eaaed. 
I am. 

Are the women handaome 7 
ITiey are ; they are rich and hana- 

Are yon fiom Spain 7 
I am. 

What countrywoman ia ahe 7 
She ia from Spain. 
Woald you be aorry if 3ron were 5 
rich? I 

I ahould not be aorry for it | 

To be Mgry with oomebody. \ 



Sentido. Triate. 


Si. Soy rica Si lo aoy. 

I Son hermoaaa laa mujerea 7 

Si aon, (ai lo aon ;) aon ricaa y her* 

tEaV.deEspaiia? ^EaV-Ei^fiol? 
St Si lo aoy. Soy eq>anol. 

I De que paia ea ella 7 

Ea de Eapafia. Ea eapailola. 

I I Sentiria V. e! ser rico 7 

I Si fuera V. rico, lo aentiria 7 

t Yo no lo aentiria. 

Eetar enfadado eon alguno, 

t Enfadaroe con alguno. Enojarte. 



To be angry about noietbaig. 
Wbat are yoa aogrj about? 

Are yea HUTy fcr baving dooo it? 
I am aoRy for it. 

Honest. Polite. 


Polite, cooitaoaa. 

Impolite, nnciriL 

Happy. liocky. 

Unhappy. Unlucky. 





j t Bnfmdmrm de a^fo. 

t i De qoe m enfada V. T 

I tiSienteV. baberiobeeboT 

t Loaento. 

CiriL CoitM. Polftica 

InciriL Doacoitea. Inqntfkieoi 

PoUtioo. Cortfla 

Impolitico. Deoeoitfli^ 

DicboM. Felix. 

DMdiebado. Infebx. Dc^pacadB 





U it naeftd to write a good deal 7 I i E> i^til eacribir mnchMmo 7 

It it neefnl. I Ee liUL 

Ii it well (right) to take the propezty W Ee jueto tomar lo ageno 7 

of otheiB 7 ( I Ee bien tomar lo qae ee da otio7 

Otkertf property, (what helongt to ' Lo ageno. 

It is bad, (wrong.) Ee mala Ea injoato. 

It ia not well, (wrong.) No ea bien. Ea malow 

WeU, right 
Badf wrong. 

Of what nae la that 7 

That ia of no nae. 


I do not know what it ia 

Bien. Jueto. 
Malo. Injtuto. 


I De qoe airve eao 7 
I Para qne airre eao 7 
De nada airve, (eso.) 
Para nada arve. 
I Qae ea eato 7 
No 06 lo qae ea. 

What ia yoor name 7 

My name ia Charlea. 
What do yoa call thia in Spaniah 7 

1 1 Como ae llama Y.t 

I Coal ea el nombra de V. 7 

I I Cual {come) ee la graeia deV.t 
t Yo me Uamo Carioa. 

1 1 Como ae llama eato en eq>aJiol>7 

How do yon ezpreas thia in Spaniah7 1 1 Como ae dice eato en eapalUil7 
What ia that called 7 I t ^ Como ae llama eao 7 

Geoige tlvB Third. 
Chariea the SeTonth. 

Jorge Teroero. 
Carioa S^ptimo. 


BIXTT-nBffr LE8B09. 

Ob§. After the Chrifltiaii name of a ■orereign, lihe SpaiuBrdi tt^/bj 
ihib Qidiiial nnmben withoat the aitiele as far as the tenth of the noH 
name, after which they nee either the cardinal or the ordinal nnniber witib- 
OQt the aiticle. 

Louie the Fourteenth. 
Henry the Fourth. 
Chailee the Fifth spoke eeveral Eu- 
ropean languages fluently. 
Europe. European. 

Luis Catorce. 
Henrique Cuazto. 
Carlos Quinto haUaba 

mente yarias lengnas Earopeea 
Europe. El Earop^a 

Rather than. 

Rather than squander my money I 

will keep it 

To keep, (to remain with.) 
I will rather pay him than go there. 
I will rather bum the coat than 

wear it 
He hes arriTod sooner than L 
A half-worn coat 

To do things imperfectly. 


Mae Hen. Antea. Meferque. 

Mae bien que. An tea que. 

Antes que (mas bien que) disipar mi 

dinero me quedard oon 6L 
t Quedarae eon. Ouardar. 
Mas bien qniero pagarle que ir aDL 
Mas bien quiero quemar la 

que usarla, (ponermela.) 
Ha Uegado mas pronto que yo. 
Una casaca med^ uaada. 
Hacer las cosas imperfectamente. 
t Haeer lae coeae d mediae. 

What has become of your ancle 7 — ^I will tell you what has become 
of him. — ^Here is the chair upon which he often sat — ^Is he dead ?— 
He is dead. — ^When did he die 7 — ^He died two years ago. — ^I am yerj 
much afflicted (a/lyido) at it — ^Why do you not sit down ? — ^If yon 
will stay with me I will sit down ; but if you go I shall go along with 
you. — ^What has become of your aunt ? — ^I do not know what has be- 
come of her. — ^Will you tell me what has become of your sister ? — I 
will tell you what has become of her. — Is she dead 7 — She is not dead. 
—-What has become of her 7 — She is gone to Vienna. — ^What has be- 
come of your sisters 7 — I cannot tell what has become of them, for I 
have not seen them these two years. — ^Are your parents still alive ?— 
They are dead. — ^How long is it since your cousin (fern.) died 7— It is 
six months since she died. — ^Did the wine sell well kst year ? — ^It M 
not sell very well ; but it will sell better next year, for there will be a 
great deal, and it will not be dear. — Why do you open the door 7 — ^Do 
you not see how it smokes here 7 — I see it, but you must (deher) 
open the window instead of opening the door. — ^The wndow does not 
open easily ; that is the reason why I open the door. — ^When will yoa 

8irrr-riR8T lkbson. ^75 

shut it ? — I will ahnt it as soon as there ia (haya) (Oba. A, 
LVJLU.) no more smoke. — ^Did yon often go a-fishing when you were in 
tfaat country ? — We often went a-fishing and a-hanting. — ^Ifyon will go 
^with OB into the comitiy you will see my father's castle. — ^You are 
very polite, Sir ; but I have seen that castle already. 

When* did you see my f&ther's castle ? — ^I saw it when I was travel- 
fing last year. It is a very fine castle, and is seen far off. — ^How is 
Ifaat said ?— That is not said. That cannot be comprehended. — Cannot 
every thing be expressed in your language ? — ^Every thing can be 
ezpreaaed, but not as in yours. — ^Will you rise early tonnorrow ? — ^It 
Mnll depend upon circumstances ; if I go to bed early I shall rise eariy* 
but if I go to bed late I shall rise late. — ^Will you love my children 7 — 
If they are good I shall love them. — ^Will you dine with us to-morrow ? 
— ^Lf you get ready (hace preparar) the food I like I shall dine with 
you. — ^Have you already read the letter which you received this morn- 
ing 7 — ^I have not opened it yet. — When will you read it 7 — I shall 
read it as soon as I have (tenga) time. — Of what use is that 7 — ^It is of 
no use. — Why have you picked it up 7 — ^I have picked it up in otder to 
show it you.— Can you tell me what it is 7 — ^I cannot tell you* for I do 
not know ; but I will ask (preguTitar) my brother, who will tell you.— 
Where did you find it 7 — I found it on the shore of the river, near the 
' woodw — Did you perceive it from afar 7 — ^I had no need to perceive it 
from afiir, for I passed by the side of the river. — ^Have you ever seen 
such a thing 7 — ^Never — ^Is it useful to speak much 7 — ^It is according 
to circumstances : if one wishes to learn a foreign (estrangero) 
language it is useful to speak a great deal. — ^Is it as useful to write as 
to Bpe^ 7 — ^It is more useful to apeak than to write ; but in order to 
learn a foreign language one must do both, (lo uno y h o^.)— -Is it 
useful to write all tbat one says 7 — ^That is useless. 

Where did you take this book from 7 — ^I took it out of (d!e/) the room 
of your friend, (fem.) — ^Is it right to take the books of other people 7 — 
It is not right, I know ; but I wanted it, and I hope that your friend 
will not be displeased, for I will return it to her as soon as I hi^ve 
read (que le haya) it. — ^What ia your name 7 — ^Biy name is William, 
(CHet22ermo).— What is your sister's name 7 — ^Her name is Eleanor, 
(Leonor.) — ^Why does Charles complain of his sister 7 — ^Because she 
has taken Ms pens. — Of whom do those chDdren complain 7 — ^Francis 
{Francisco) complains of Eleanor, and Eleanor of Francis. — ^Who is 
ri^t 7 — ^They are both wrong ; for Eleanor wishes to take Francis's 
books, and Francis Eleanor's.— To whom have you lent Cervantas' 

276 8IZIT-SB0OHD UE880H. 

WQvks, (fas obnu t) — I have lent the first vdnme to WiUiam vod the 
aecood to Louisa, (Luisa,) — Haw is that said in Spanish ? — It is said 
thus. — ^How is that said in German ? — ^That is not said in German. — 
Has the tailor brought you your new coat ? — He has brought it me, 
but it does not fit (Lesson XLyin.)me well. — ^Wlll he make yon 
another ? — ^He will make me another ; for rather than i^ear it I will 
give it away, (regaUtr,) — ^WUl you use that horse 7 — ^I shall not use it 
—Why will you not use it ?—- Because it does not suit me. — ^Will you 
»pay for it 7 — ^I will rather pay for it than use it — ^To whom do those 
fine books belong, {de quien son ?) — ^They belong to William. — ^Who 
has given them to him 7 — ^His father. — ^Will he read them 7 — He wiD 
tear them rather than read them. — ^Who has told you that 7 — He has 
told me so himself, (il mismo,) 

What countrywoman is that lady, {senora ?) — She is from France. 
—Are you from France 7 — ^No, I am from Germany.— Why do you 
not give your clothes to mend ? — ^It is not worth while, for I most have 
new clothes. — ^Is the coat which you wear not a good one 7 — ^It is a 
half-wom coat, and is good for nothing. — ^Would you be sorry if your 
mother were to arrive to-day 7 — ^I should not be sorry for it — ^Would 
your sister be sorry if she were rich 7 — She would not be sorry for it 
—Are you angry with any one 7-1 am angry with Louisa, who went 
to the opera without tellixig me a word of it — ^Where were you when * 
she went out 7 — ^I was in my room. — ^I assure you that she is very 
sorry for it ; for had she known that you were in your room, she 
would have called you in order to take you along with her to the 
opera. — Charles V., who spoke fluently several European languages, 
used to say, (solia decir,) that we should speak (que se debia hablar) 
Spanish with the gods, Italian with our friend, (fem.,) French with 
our friend, (mas.,) German with soldiera, English with geese, (gansos,) 
Hungarian (hungaro) with horses, and Bohemian (hchemio) with the 
devil, (d diablo.) 

SIXTY-SECOND LESSON.— Z^iocioii Sexagesima segunda. 

As to, (as for.) \ En cuanto L 

En cuanto & mf. 

For lo que d mf me toca. 

Ohs, A. What (lo giie) is generally translated gae, or qus cosa, before 
the infinitive. 

As to me. \ 



Am to that* I do not know what to 

[ do not know what to do. 
[ do not know where to go. 
He does not know what to answer. 
We do not know what to bay. 

En eaanto d eio» yo no 16 qoe decb. 

Yo no »6 que (cosa) hacer. 
Yo no B^ i donde ir. 
£I no Babe que (cosa) responder. 
No sabemos que (cosa) comprar. 

To die of a disease. 
She died of the smaUpoz. 


llie fever. 

The intermittent fever. 

The apoplexy. 
He had a cold fit. 
He has an ague. 
His feTer has retnmed. 

He has been strack with apoplexy. 

To ttrike. 


Morir (morirse) de una enfennedad. 

Ella muri6 de las viruelas. 

Las Tiruelas. 

Calentura. Fiebre. 

La terciana. 

La apoplegfa. 

£1 tuvo un ataque de fiebre. 

£1 tiene calentura. 

Le ha vuelto la fiebre. 

£1 ha tenido un ataque de apoplegia. 

f Le ha dado una apopUgia. 

I Herir, CMpear, Dar, 

I am sure of that 
I am sure that she has arriTed. 
I am sore of it. 
Something has happened. 
Nothing has happened. 
What has happened ? 
What has happened to her 7 
She had an accident 

Seguro, Segura, 

Estoy segruro de eso, (de ello.) 

Estoy seguro que ella ha llegado. 

Estoy seguro de ella 

Algo ha sucedido. 

Nada ha sucedido. 

I Que ha sucedido 1 

I Que le ha sucedido i, ella? 

A ella le ha sucedido on acddente. 

To ahed. 
To pour out. 

A tear. 
To shed tears. 
To poor out some drink. 
I poor oot some drink for that man. 
With tears in his, her, our, my eyes. 
Sweet Mild. 
Sour. Acid. 
Some sweet wine. 
A mild air. 
A mild xephyr. 
A soft sleep. 
Nothing makes life more agreeable 
than the society of, and the mter- 
««UN with oar friends. 


Una ligrima. 
Derramar l&grimas. 
Ekshar un trago. Echar de beber. 
Echo un trago i ese hombre. 
t Con l&griroas en los ojos. 
Dulce. Apacible. 
Agrio.^ Actdo. 
Vino dulce. 

Un semUante apacible. 
Un durce c^firo. 
Un dulce suefio. 

Nada hace la vida mas agradable 
que la compafifa y el trato de nu« 
estros amigOB. 



To repair to. 
To repair to the army, to one's legi- 

An army. 
A regiment 
I repaired to that place. 
He repaired there. 

Ir A algona parte. Voher L 
Ir al ej^rcito, Tolvene & n icfh 

Un ej6rcit& 
Un regimiento 
Fa( & eae lugar. 
Fa^ alii. 

To cry. To tereofn. To thriek. 
To help. 

The help. 
I help him to do that 
I help 700 to write. 
I will help yoa to work. 

To cry for help. 

Oritar. Dor gritoe. ChiOar. 

Ayudar. Socorrer. 

El eocono. La aynda. La MHlflD» 
Le ayudo A hacer eeo. 
Le ayudo i. V. 4 eecribir. 
Le ayndar6 4 V d trahajar, 
Fedir Bocorro 4 voces. 

-, . . ^^ ( Informttree de alguno. 

To tnqture after oome one, < » . 

^ , •' I Preguniar par. 

(^Tendr4 V. la bondad de pawne 
■ese platoT 
t ^ Me hari V. el favor de pmr ev 
Will you pass me that plate, if you K i Gusta V. de pasarme ese plato? 
please? \ tj 8e eervvrd V. paoarme eee fietat 

If you please. | Si V. gusta. 

A-yoaiW Aty.arpl«i»a». J Como V. gnrt«. («.bj.) 
As you like. > * v - ' 

To knock at the door. 

To trust tome one. 

To dUtruat one. 
Do you trust that man? 
I do trust him. 
He trusts me. 
We must not trust everybody. 

- Everybody, (every one.) 
Everybody, (all the world.) 

To laugh at wmething. 

I laugh at that 
, We will laugh at it 

I Llamardla puerta- Toeari. 

C Confiaree & {de) eUguno. 
< Tener confianxa en alguno. 
C Fiarte de alguno. 

Deeeonfiar de. 

^ Se fia V. de ese hombre? 

Yo me fio de €1. 

El se fia de ml. 

No nos debemos fiar de todo al 

Cada uno. 

Todo el mundo. 

Reiree de algo. 
Yo me rio de eao. 
Nos roir^mos de eOo. 

siznr-SEOOND Lxaaos, 


Ho yoa laugh at that? 

I do langfa at it 

At what do they lan^ 7 

(Serie V. de mot 

Me no de ella 

I De que ie lien ellos, (ellas) 7 

To laugh in a perton't face. 

We laa^ed in his face. 

To laugk at, to deride oome one. 

I laugh at (deride) you. 


Did yon laogfa at nsT 
We did not Isngh at yoo. 


A book full of erxon. 

To afford. 

C&n joa afibid to bay that hone 7 

I cannot bSotd it 
I can afibrd it 

Who is there? 


It it not I. 

It is he. 

It is not he. 
Are they your brothers ? 

It is they. 

It is not they. 

Is it she? 

It is she. 

It is not she. 
Are they your sisters ? 
It is they, (fern.) 
It is not they, (feoL) 
It is I who speak. 
It is they who laugh. 
Is it you who laugh ? 
It is thou who hast done it 


Reiroe de uno en one barbae 
Reiroe de uno en eue bigotee. 
Nos refmos en su oara. 
Reiroe de uno, Burlaroe de una 
Me rio (me huilo) de Y. 
I Se ri^ron W. de nosotros? 
I Se han reido W. de nosotros? 
No nos rehnoe de W. 
No nos hemos reido de W. 


Un libio Ueno de errores, (yeiras.) 

Tener mediae (j^roporcion) de. 

1 1 Tiene V. medios de comprar 

< cabalio? 

( I Puede V. cianpiar ese cabalio ? 

No tengo medios. No |medo. 

Tengo proporoion. Fuedo. 


iQuienesU ahf? 

Ya Soy yo. Yo ooy. 

Yo no soy. No soy yo. 

Es ^1. £1 es. 

No es ^1. £l no es. 

I Son ellos los hermanos de V. ? 

Sou ellos. Ellos son. 

No son ellosL Ellos no son. 



No es ella. Ella no es. 

I Son ellas sos hermanas de V T 

Son ellas. Ellas son. 

No son ellas. Ellas no son. 

t Yo soy quien hablo. 

t Ellos (ellas) son quienes rieu. 

t ^ Es V. qoien se rie ? 

t Tik eies qoien lo ha hecho. 

280 Birrr-BscoND lesson. 

It m yoa, fentlemen, who hayo 

■o, (that) 
We learn Spaniih, my brother and I. 

t yV., eabaUeroi, aon quieMi bn 
dicfao eeo, (lo han dicho.) 

Mi hermano y yo apraadenw el» 

Ob», B. In Spanvh, when a yeib haa two pronouna for a subject, it igiM 
in the plural with the peiaon which haa the priority. Example >— Y. j'plt 
harimo§ — You and I will do it Y . y ^1 e$crihirdn la caitar— Yoa lad 1» 
will write the letter. T6 y ^1 la leer^ta— Thoa and he will read it 

YoQ and I will go into the country. 1 1 Y. y yo irtfmos al campa 

V -n^ .1. ^ ... J Y. y 61 ae quedanin en cua. 

You and he wiU rtay at home. \ Vos y il os ^edariis en c^ 

You will go to the country, and I 

will return to town. 
A lady. 
What were you doing when your 

tutor waa here 7 

I was doing nothing. 
I Mid nothing. 

Y. ir4 al campo, y yo Tolwrf i h 

Una sedora. 
I Que hacia Y^ cuando m. aye ertila 

Yo no hacia nada. 
Yo no decia nada. 


Of what illness did your sister die ? — She <^ed of fever.— How a 
your brother ? — My brodier is no longer living. He died three montb 
ago.-^I am surprised (sorprendido) at it, for he was very well h^ 
summer when I was in the country. Of whot did he die ?— He died 
of apoplexy. — ^How is the mother of your friend ?— She is noi well; 
she had an attack of ague the day before yesterday, and this moniiDg 
the fever has returned. — ^Has she an intermittent fever? — ^I doivx 
know, but she often has cold fits. — ^What has become of the woonfl 
whom I saw at your mother's ? — She died this morning of apoplexy.— 
Do your scholars learn their exercises by hearts — ^They wifln^ 
tear them than learn them by heart. — ^What does this man ask me for f 
— He asks you for the money which you owe him. — If he will rep>i' 
to-morrow morning (maiiana par la manana) to my house I will f*y 
him what I owe him. — He will rather lose his money than t&I^ 
thither. — ^Why does the mother of our old servant shed tears ? yf^ 
has happened to her ? — She sheds tears because the old clergyman, 
(edesidsticOf) her friend, who waa so very good to her, (que lafmfXtP^ 
iarUo,) died a few days ago.---Of what illness did he die?— He «^ 
struck with apoplexy. — ^Have you helped your father to write bis let' 
ten ? — ^I have helped him. — ^Will you help me to work when we go to 
town ?^-I will help you to work if you help me to get a Uveiibood. 

smr-BxcoND ussov. 281 


Have you inquired after the merchant who sells bo cheap f — ^I haye 

inquired after him, but nobody could tell me what has become of him. 

—Where did he live when you were liere three years ago ? — ^He lived 

then in Chaiiea-stieet, No. 67. — ^How do you like (Lesson XXIV.) 

this wine 7 — I like it very well, but it is a little sour. — How does your 

sister like those apples, (la manxana ?)— She likes them very well, but 

she says that they are a little too sweet. — ^Will you have the goodness 

to pass that plate to me ? — ^With much pleasure. — Shall I pass these 

fishes to you 7 — ^I will thank you to (me hard V. el favor) pass them 

to me. — Shall I pass the bread to your sister 7 — ^You will oblige her by 

( V. 2e dard gusto) passing it to her. — ^How does your mother like our 

food ?— She likes it veiy well, but she says that she has eaten enough. 

— ^What dost thou ask me for 7 — ^Will you be kind enough to (tenga 

V. la hondad) give me a little bit {un pedacUo) of tbat mutton 7 — ^Will 

you pass me the bottle, if you please 7 — ^Have you not drunk enough 7 

—Not yet, for I am still thirsty. — Shall I give you some wine 7 — No ; 

I like cider better. — ^Why do you not eat 7 — ^I do not know what to eat 

— Who knocks at the door 7 — ^It is a foreigner. — Why does he cry 7 — 

He cries because a great misfortune has happened to him. — ^What has 

happened to you 7 — ^Nothing has happened to me. — Where will you go 

to this evening? — I do not know where to go. — Where will your 

brothers go to 7 — I do not know where they will go to ; as for me, I 

shall go to the theatre. — ^Why do you go to town 7 — ^I go thither in 

order to purchase some books. Will you go thither with me 7 — ^I will 

go with you, but I do not know what to do there. 


Must I sell to that man on credit 7 — ^You may (poder) sell to him, but 

not on credit ; you must not trust him, for he will not pay you. — ^Has he 

already deceived anybody 7 — ^He has already deceived several merchants 

who luive trusted him. — ^Must I trust those ladies 7 — ^You may trust 

them ; but as to me I shall not trust them, for I have often been deceived 

by (por Uu) women, and that is the reason why I say : We must 

not trust everybody. — ^Do those merchants trust you 7 — ^They trust me, 

and I trust them. — ^Whom do those gentlemen laugh at 7 — They lau^ 

at those ladies who wear red gowns (el trage) with yellow ribbons. — 

Why do those people laugh at us 7 — ^They laugh at us because we 

apeak badly. — Ought we to laugh at persons who speak badly 7 — ^We 

ooght not to laugh at them ; we ought, on the contrary, to listen to 

them, and if they make blunders, {/alias,) we ought to correct them to 

them. — ^What are you laughing at ? — ^1 am laughing at your hat : how 

long (cuanto hace que) have you been wearing it so large 7 — Since I 



returned from Germany. — Can you afibrd to buy a horse and a eir- 
riage ?— I can afford it.— Can year brother afford to buy that laige 
house 7 — ^He cannot afford it — Will your cousin buy that horse ?— He 
will buy it, if it pleases (amuentr*) him. — ^Have you received my 
letter ? — ^I have received it with much pleasure. I have shown it to 
my Spanish master, who was surprised, for there was not a angle 
fault in it. — ^Have you already received Calderon's and Mofatin's 
works 7 — I have received those of Moratin ; as to those of Calderoo, I 
hope to receive them next week. 

Is it thou, Charles, who hast soiled my book 7 — ^It is not I, itispni 
little sister who has soiled it.~-Who has broken my fine inkstand ?-- 
It is I who have broken it. — ^Is it you who have spoken of me ?— It is 
we who have spoken of you, but we have said of you nothing but good, 
(que no sea &u«no.)— Who knocks at the door 7 — ^It is I, will yoa open 
it 7 — ^What do you want, (desear ?) — ^I come to ask you for the money 
which you owe me, and the books which I lent you. — ^If you will Mre 
the goodness to come to me to-morrow I will return both to yon.— 
Is it your sister who is playing on the piano 7 — ^It is not she.— 
Who is it 7 — ^It is my cousin, (fem.) — ^Is it your sisters who are 
coming 7 — ^It is they. — ^Is it your neighbors (fem.) who aie laughing 
at you 7 — ^They are not our neighbors. — Who are they 7— They are 
the daughters of the countess whose brother has bought your house.— 
Are they the ladies you have spoken of to me 7 — ^They are. — Shall yon 
learn Spanish 7— My brother and I will learn it.— Shall we go to the 
country to-morrow 7 — ^I shall go to the country, and you will remain 
in town.— Shall my sister and I go to the opera 7 — ^You and she wul 
remain at home, and your brother will go to the opera. — ^What did you 
say when your tutor was scolding you 7 — ^I said nothing because I had 
nothing to say, for I had not done my task, and he was in the right to 
scold me. — ^What were you doing while he was out 7 — ^I was playing 
on the violin, instead of doing what he had given me to do. — VHrnthBa 
my brother told you 7 — ^He has told me that he would be the happest 
man m the (del) world, if he knew the Spanish language, one of the 
most useful of all languages for the Americans in the present times. 



SIXTY-THIRD LESSON.^Leccum Sexagisima iercera. 

To get tiito a had §erap€. 

To get out of a bad terape. 
I got out of the scrape. 
That man it ever gettiog into bad 

■crapes, bat be always gets oat of 

them again. 

Caer en enredo, (empeno.) 
Metern en eiwedos, (maranag,) 
Salir de enredos, {empeiios.) 
He salido del enredo, (del lanee^) 
Else bombre cae siempre en enredos, 
pero siempre sale de ellos. 

Between, omonget, amidtU 

To wtmke some one's aeptaintance. 
To become oequainied with oome" 

I b«ye made his or her acquaint-' 

I haye become acquainted with him 
or her. 

To be acquainted with. 

Are you acquainted with him, (her 7) 
I do know bim, (her.) 

Tbe acquamtance. 
He is an acquaintance of mine. 
She b my acquaintance. 
He is not a friend, he is but an ac- 


Entablar (haeer) eonocimiento con 

Tener trato con alguno. 

He entablado eonocimiento con H, 

(con ella.) 
He hecho amistad con ^1, (con ella.) 

Conoeer. (See Torbs in cer.) 

I Le conoce V. 7 ^ La conoce V.? 

Yo le (la) conozco. Le trata 

EI coooctdo. La conocida. 

Es un conocido mia 

£s conocida mia. 

No es amigo, solo es conocido miow 

Obo. A. When to know means to be acquainted with, it is rendered in 
Spanish by conoeer, but in all other cases it is rendered by eaber. Exam- 
pie : — I know that gentleman (that lady) — Yo conozco & ese eaballero, {& eoa 
oenora.) I know my lesson — Yo oi mi leccion. I know what you wish to 
say — Yo »S lo que F. quiere decir. 

To enjoy. 
Ho you enjoy good health 7 
To be well 
She is well. 
To imagine. 


I Goza y. de una buena salud 7 

Eotar bueno. 

Ella esti buena. 

Imaginar. Imaginaroe. 

Fellow-creatures. I Criaturas de la roisma especie. 

FeUow, (match.) | Compaftera Compafiera. IguaL 

„. ... , ,. .,}£lno tiene oompafiero, (semejante.) 

Ho has not his equal, or his match. < ^. ■T^. ^ . ' 

^ ( £1 es sm par. No tiene par. 


To re aetMt 

lliat man reMmblM my brother. 
That beer looka like water. 

Each otker. 
We reeembte each other. 
They do not reaemble each other. 
Hie two brothen loTe each other. 

Are yon pleased with each other 7 


At, or «• wtU a$. 

> Pareeene & um. Ptreetr 
\ Aaemejmne i imo. 

I Eee hombre eeparece 4 mi 
I Eea cerreia parece agoa. 
' El uno el ofro. Uno d otro^ 
I Noa pareoemoa el imo al otrob 
I No 80 parecen el uno al otro. 

Lo> doe hermanoB le 

^Estan yy. aatnfechos el 
otro, (or imo do oCio) ? 

Si. Eetamos, (or lo estamoa.) 

Como, AHeamo. Tan 


Tlie appearance, the countenance, s 

To show a diapoeition to. \ 

ThtX man whom yon aee ahowa a 
deaire to approach as. 

To look pleated with oome one. 
To look crou at oome one. 
When I go to aee that man, inatead 
of receiving me with pleaaore, he 
k)oka diapleaaed. 

A good-lo<ddng man. 

A bad'Iooking man. 

Bad-looking people, or folka. 

To go to aee aome one. 

To pay aome one a yiatt 

To frequent a place. 

To frequent aocietiea. 
To aaaociate with aome one. 

To look like, to appear. 
How doea he look 7 
He looka gay, (aad, contented.) 

Yon appear very well. 
Yon look like a doctor. 

La apariencia. El aemblaiite. 
La cara. El ademan. 
Manifeatar una intencicm dow 
Parecer deaeoao de. 
Eae hombre que V. ye pareee 

de acercarse 4 noaotroa. 
t Mooirar {haecr) buena cara. 
t Mootrar {hacer) mala eara, 
Cuando voy 4 Ter 4 eae hombre, en 

yes de recibinne con goato, me 

mueatm (me pone) mala cara. 
Un hombre de buen pareoer. (de 

buena traza.) 
Un hombre de mal pareoer, (de mala 

Gente de mala traza. 
Ir 4 yer 4 alguno. 
Hacer una viaita 4 alguna 
Freeuentar un parage. Concmrir 4. 
Concuirir 4 tertuliaa. 
Freeuentar 4 uno. 

Tener oemhlanie. Pareeer, 

1 1 Que aemblante tiene 7 

t Tiene aemblante alegie, (triaCe, 

t V. tiene muy buen aemblante. 
parece medico, 
tiene traza de mMioo. 


< V.ti 



She kmka (appean to be) angry. 

They look (appear) contented. 

To loc^ good, (to appear to be good.) 

To drink to some one. 

To drink some one's health. 

1 drink your health. 

t Farece que ella eati enfadada. 

Parecen contentos. 

Parecer baeno. 

Brindar i, algono. 

Beber i la ealud de alguna 

Yo bebo i, la salud de V. 

It IB all o?er with me. 
It M all over. 

To halt wme one's feelings. 

YoQ have hurt that man's feelings. 

t Acabtee todo (para mf) pan eon- 

t Acab<)se. 


Herir d uno en el alma. 

Dar que tentir. 
V. ba herido d ese hombre ea el 


Ob9. B. The nouns alma, soni ; agua, water ; dguila, eagle ; aeiaf act, 
or record ; ala, wing ; ave, bird ; amuy the mistresB of a house, or house- 
keeper ; anela, anchor ; arma, weapon, and a few others, though feminine, 
require the masculine article ; but only in the singular number, and when 
they an immediately preceded by it ; as. The honest housekeeper said the 
nme: La mismo dijo el ama — (D. Quixote, ch. 6.) The good mistrMs re* 
ceired them : La buena ama lo» reciln6. There are those who drink the 
delicioQs waters of the celebrated Xantus : Alii eatan lo» que beben las 
duleea agoas del f omasa Xanto— (D. Quixote, ch. 18.) 

I know a good place to swim in. 

Un lugar. Un parage. Un sitio. 
Ck>noKco un buen sitio para nadar. 

m . , S Experimentar. Padeeer. 

To experience, to undergo, ^ p^sarpor, 

I hsTe experienced a great many ( He padecido mnchos infortunios. 
miifortanes. \ He pasado por muchas desgracias. 

To euffer. 
To feel a pain in one's head or 

I felt 

A psin in my eye. 

To neglect. 
To yield. 
^«nnil yield to necenty. 

Sufrir. Padeeer. 
I Sufres (padeces) ttk 7 
Yo padezco. Yo sufro. 
£il Bofre. tj] padece. 
Tener dolor de cabeza. 
Padeeer de la cabeza (del pta.) 

it He padecido de los cgo^ 
He tenido mal de ojos. 

Deeeuidar de. 

Coder. Rendiroe. Sujetaroe. 

t Se debe oeder & la necesidad. 




To spring forward. 

The eat ipriogB upon the rat 
To leap on honeback. 
An incnaae, an augmentation. 

For moro bad lack. 

For more good lack. 

For more bad lack I have lost 


Saltar. Ahalangarm A, 
Echaroe aobre. 

El gato n abalanza 4 la rata. 
Saltar aobre an caballa 
Aumento. Colma For mayor. 
For colmo de la deagracia. 
For mayor deagracia. 
Fara colmo de la deagracia. 
Fara colmo de la dicha. 
For colmo de la dicha. 
For mayor dich% 
For mayor deagracia be perdido 

To kae one'a wita. 

C Ferder lachabeta, (el juicio.) 

^ Ferder la cabeza. 

( Iraele d ano la cabeza. 

{Eae hombre ha perdido la c 
juicio,) y no aabe que bacer. 
A eae hombre ae le ha ido la 
y no aabe que hacer. 


Obstinately, by all means. \ 

That man wiahea by all means 
lend me money. 


For fuerza. FoaitiYamente. 
A toda fuerza. Abaolutamente. 
Eae hombre quiere abaolutamente 
(por fuerza) preatarme dincro. 

To follow. 
I follow, thou foUowest, he followa. 

To puroue. 

To preserve, to save. 

Seguir *. 

Sigo. Sigues. Signe. 

Peroeguir. (Conj. like SeguirS) 

Freaervar. Ahorrar. 

Why do yon associate with those people ? — ^I associate with them 
because they aie useful to me. — ^If you continue to associate with them 
you will get into bad scrapes, for they have many enemies. — ^How 
does your cousin conduct himself? — ^He does not conduct himself verj 
well, for he is always getting into some bad scrape, (or other.) — Do 
you not sometimes get into bad scrapes ? — ^It is true (verdad) that I 
sometimes get into them, but I always get out of them again. — Do 
you see those men who seem desirous of approaching os ? — ^I do see 
them, but I do not fear them, (temer,) for they hurt nobody. — ^We must 
go away, {retiramoSf) for I do not like to mix with people whom I do 


Qot know. — I beg of you not to be afraid of them, for I percdve jny 
imde among them. — ^Do you know a good place to swim in ? — ^I know 
one. — ^Where is it ? — ^On that side (Lesson XXXVIII.) of the river, 
behind the wood, {el bosqite,) near the high road, (el camino real,) — 
When shall we go to swim 7 — ^This evening, if you like. — ^Will you 
wait for me before the city gate 7 — ^I shall wait for you there ; but I 
beg of you not to forget it. — ^You know that I never forget my prom- 
ises. — Where did you become acquainted with that lady 7 — ^I became 
acquainted with her at the house of one of my relations. — ^Why does 
your cousin ask me for (Lesson XLI.) money and books 7 — ^Because 
he is a fool ; of me, (d mi,) who am his nearest relation, (su mas cer^ 
cano parieTitei) and his best friend, he asks nothing. — ^Why did you 
not come to dinner 7 — ^I have been hindered, but you have been able 
to dine without me. — ^Do you think that we shall not dine, if you can- 
not come 7 — How long (hasta que hora) did you wait for me 7 — ^We 
waited for you till a quarter past seven, and as you did not come 
we dined without you. — Have you drunk my health 7— We have drunk 
yours, and that of your parents. 


How does your uncle look, (que semhlante ?) — ^He looks very gay, 
for he is much pleased with his children. — ^Do his friends look as gay 
as he ? — ^They , on the contrary, look sad, because they are discontented. 
My uncle has no money, and is always contented, and his friends, 
who have a good deal (of it,) are scarcely ever so. — ^Do you like your 
sister 7 — I like her much, and as she is very good-natured {es muy 
carinosa)io(con) me I am so to her; but how do you like yours 7— We 
love each other, because we are pleased with each other. — A certain 
(cierto) man liked much wine, but he found in it (Ht) two bad qualities. 
'' If I put water to it," said he, "^ I spoil it ; and if I do not put any to 
it, it spoils me." — Does your cousin resemble you 7 — ^He resembles 
me. — ^Do your sisters resemble each other 7 — ^They do not resemble 
eafeh other; for the elder (mayor) is idle and naughty, and the younger 
Qa menor) assiduous and good-natured towards everybody. — ^How is your 
aunt 7 — She is very well. — Does your mother enjoy good health 7 — She 
imagines she enjoys good health, but I believe she is mistaken, for she 
has had a bad cough these six months of which (de la cual) she cannot 
get rid. — Is that man angry with you 7 — ^I think he is angry with me 
because I do not go to see him : but I do not like to go to his house, 
for when I go to him, instead of receiving me with pleasure, he looks 
diapleased.-^You must not believe that ; he is not angry with you, for 
he is not 80 bad (mah) as he looks, (jparece.) He is the best man in 
the world ; but one must know bim in order to appreciate him.— There 

288 BXxnr-FOuiaH lbbboh. 

is a gKMt difference (la d^erenda) between yon and him, {&;) yoaloak 
pleased with all those who come to see you, and he looks crosBaltlieD. 

Is it right to lao^ thus at everybody ? — ^If I lan^ at yonr coatl^ 
not laugh at everybody. — ^Does your son resemble tny one?— He 
resembles no one. — ^Why do you not drink ? — I do not Imow wfait to 
drink, for I like good wine, and yours looks like vinegar. — ^If joa vi^ 
to have some other I shall go down (Jk^ot) into the cellar to fetch yoa 
some.— You are too polite, Sir, I shall drink no more today.— Hire 
you known my &ther long 7 — ^I have known him long, for I made his 
acquaintance when I was yet at school. We often worked for one 
another, and we loved each other like brothers. — I believe it, for Toa 
resemble each other. — ^Wben I had not done my exercises he did them 
for me, and when he had not done his I did them for him. — ^Why does 
your father send for the physician 7 — ^He is ill, and as (y com) the 
physician does not come he sends for him. — ^Ah, (Ay,) it is all over 
with me ! — ^But, bless me, {Dios mio !) why do you cry thus ?— I haw 
been robbed (Obe. A, Lesson XLV.) of my gold rings, (la sortya ^ onx] 
my best clothes, and all my money ; that is the reason why I cij-— 
Do not make (no haga F.) so much ndae, for it is we who have ta^ 
them all, in order to teach you to take better care (de cuidar fi^i 
Lesson L.) of your things, (cosas,) and to shut the door of your 
room when you go out — ^Why do you look so sad 7 — ^I have experienced 
great misfortunes ; after having lost all my money I was beaten by 
bad-looking men ; and to my still greater ill-luck, I hear that my good 
uncle, whom I love so much, has been struck with apoplexy.—^ o° 
must not afflict yourself (no se t^ya V,) so much, for you know that 
we must yield to necessity. 

SIXTY-FOURTH LESSON.— Leocion SexagSsima euarta, 

Ob$, A. How, koto much, and how many, in exclamatory sentaneesy V9 
tranfllaied by cuan before adjectives, and by que de, euanto, or cumhIoi befo* 

Uowl {;Cuan! ;Quede! 

\ ; Cuonto ! ; Cuantoo ! 

I Caan bneno ee V. I 
How good yoa are ! ^\ Que de bonded tiene V. i 

How fooluh he ta ! 
How fooUeh ehe ia ! 

; Caanta bondad tiene V. ! 
I Cuan necio es ! 
; Cnan neda ea ella ! 

BJxnr-rouRTH lbbson. 


How rich that man m I 

How bandaome that woman is I | 
How mneh kindncM yoa have for 

How many 6bli|^aii8 I am under 
to yoa! 

To he under obligations to oome one. 

I am under many oUigatio: 

igations to him. < 

How many people ! 

How happy yoa are ! 
How moeh wealth that man has ! 
How much money that man has 
qpant in his life ! 


I Cuan rico ea eae hombre \ 

\ Que de riquezaa tiene eae hombra ! 

I* Cnantaa riquesaa tiene eae homfava ! 

\ Cuan hermoaa ea eaa seftora ! 

t \ Que de bonded tiene V. para mf ! 

t ; Cuanta es la bondad de V. para 

eonmigo ! 
\ Que de obUgacionea le debo yo i 


Dehor ohligaeiones. 
Tener obligaeionte. 
Estar obligado d una. 

Le debo (le tengo) muchaa obligii- 

Le eatoy may obligadob 
I Que de gente ! { Cuanta gente ! 
/ Cuantos ! 
\ Coan dichoao ea V. ! 
i Que de riquezaa tiene eae bombra ! 
\ Que de dinero ha gaatado eae hom« 

hre en au Yida ! 

To be obliged to aome one for aome- S Agradec^xaelo d uno. 
thing. { Eatimliiaelo & uno. 

To be indebted to aome one for aome- 

I am indebted to him for it 

To thank. 
To thank some one for aomething.- 
I thank you for the trouble you haye 

taken for me. 

DeberIa.a]go & una 

Se lo debo i, 61 

Agradeeer. Dor graeiae, 

Agradec^raelo i uno. 
Yo le agradezco i V. el trabajo que 
ae ha tomado por mi 

la there any tiling more grand 7 
li there any thing more cruel? 
la there any thmg mora wicked ? 

Can any thing be more handaome 7 

I Que coaa hay maa grande 7 

I Que ooaa hay maa cruel 7 

^Que coaa peor hay, (maa mala 

bay) 7 
I Que coaa maa hermoaa pnede ha- 


I De que tamaiio 7 

I De que alto 7^ ^ De que altara7 

I De que profundidad7 

> Inapeakmg of dimeaaion, the adjectire ia more generally wed tiiaiitfao 

How large 7 Of what aize 7 
How high 7 Of what height 7 
Howdeep? Ofwhatdepth? 




0h9. B. When ipeakiiig of 
when the Englidi use the verb to 
the noon or adjective of 

Of what height is her honoe 7 

It ia neatly GSty feet high. 

Our hooie is thirty feet broad. 

Tliat table ii u feet long. 

Tliat river ii twenty feet deep. 

Of what nie ia that man? 

How waa that child dreased? 
He waa dieaied in green. 
Hie man with the blue coat 
The woman with the red gown. 

la it true that hia hooae ia bomtT 

It ia tme. 
It ia not (tme.) 
bit not (tme 7) 

in Spanidi the fub teter 
be; andtheprepoaitiondeataiidibBfon 

1 1 Cuanto tiene de alto(de ftltnn)l& 
caaa de ella 7 

I Qne altnra tiene la caaa do ollat 
t Tiene cerca de cincoenta pidide 

alto, (de altnra.) 
t Noestm caaa tiene tneBtapi6i(k 

ancho, (de anchora.) 
tE^mesa tiene aeia pi^delargD, 

(de lar^gora.) 
t Eae no tiene veinte piA depnfia- 

do, (de profiindidad.) 
EltamaJio. El talle. Laflitatan- 

I I Que tamaiio tiene eae faombn? 
I De que tamafio ea ese faombrB? 
I Como Mtaba vcatido eae ninoT 

t £^taba yestido de verde. 
t El hombre de la caaaca azoL 
t La mujer del veetido encamada 



Efl verdad. 
No ea verdad. 
I No ea verdad? 


I ahall peihapa go there. 
To tkare. To dhide. 



It ia mine. It belonga to me. 

Whoae honea are theae? 

They axe mine. They belong to me. 

Whoae honae ia that? 

It is miiie. It belonga to me. 

Whoae hooaea axe theae? 

Tliey axe mine. Hiey belong to me. 


\ For Ventura. Tal vef. 

I Quixi ir6 alii. 

I Porftr. Dividn: FartidfV' 

iDo^uien? (SeeLeawniXXLaw^ 

I Da quien ea eae cabaUoT 
Efl mia 

I De quien aon eatoa eaballot? 
Son mioa. 

I De quien ea eaa caaa? 
Ea mia. Mtf pertenece. 
I De quien aon eataa caaos? 
Son miaa. t Son do mi fr9f**^ 



Th fimup. 

Many men had run up ; but instead 
of extinguishing the fire, they set 
to plondering. 

To run to the aanatance of some one. 
7*0 «aoe. To deUoer, 

To Bave anybody'e life. 
To plunder. To nbu 
To set abont something. 

Have they succeeded in extingoish- 
ing the fire? 

They ha^e succeeded in it 

Aeudir, Carrer 6. 

Muchofl hombres habian acudido, 

peio en vex de apagar el foego, se 

positron & saquear. 
Acodir i, socorrer & algono. 
Salvor, JUbertar. 
Salvar la yida 4 algono. 
Pillar. Saqnear. Bobar. 
Ponexse &. 
I Han logrado apagar el Aiego? 

Lo ban logrado. 

The watch indicates the houn. 
To indieaie. To mark» 

£1 reloj sefiala (aponta) la bora. 
Indicar. Senalar. Marear. 

Rehir *. PeUttr. 
Reiiir con alguno. 

To quarreL 

To qnanel with one. 

To dispute (to contend) about some- Disputar (altercar) sobre algo. 

About what are these people dispn- • i Acerca de que (sobre que) se dispu- 
ting 1 ' tan estas gentes 7 

They are disputing about who shall ' Se disputan sobre quien se irk pri- 
go first. I mora 

Thvu. So. 
To he ignorant of, (not to know.) 

7%« day before. 

The day before that day was Satur- 

The day before Sunday is Saturday. 

AH. De eata manera. 

Ignorar, (No saber.) 

El dia dntee. La vUpera. 

El dia intes de aquel dia era un 

La yfspera de aquel dia era un Si- 

t La yispera del Domingo es el Si- 


Can you not get rid of that man 7 (Lesaon LUI.) — ^I cannot get rid of 
turn, for he will absolutely follow me. — ^Has he not lost his wits 7 — ^It 
n»y be, {jntede ser.) — ^What does he ask you for 7 — ^He wishes to sell 
ine « horse which I do not want. — ^Wbose houses are those 7 — ^They 
UB mine. — ^Do these pens belong to you 7 — No, they belong to my 
■ster^— Are those the pens with which she writes so well 7 — They 
«n the same.— Whose gun is this 7— It is my fisher's.— Are theM 


books yonr aster's ?— Tliey are hers.— Whose carriage is thbt-ltfa 
mine.— Which is the man of whiHii you complain 7— It is he (d jw) 
who wears a redcoat— " What is the difference (to i^CTWicia) between 
a watch and me ?" inquired (pngunio) a lady of a young officser.- 
« My lady," replied he, (respmdio este,) ** a watch marks the hoon, 
and near (cerca) you one forgets them."— A Russian peasant who had 
never seen asses, (6urros,) seeing several in France, said, {i^ 
" Lord, {Dios mio!) what large hares (la liebre) there are in thU 
country !"— How many obligations I am under to you, my dear fiiend! 
you have saved my life ! without you I had been lost— Have those 
miserable men hurt you ?— They have beaten and robbed me, and 
when you ran to my assistance they were about to (iban) strip ((fecw- 
darme) and kill me.— I am happy to have delivered you from the (de 
Uu) hands of those robbers. — ^How good you are ! 

Will you go to Mr. Tortenson's to-night 7—1 shall, perhaps, go.- 
And will your sisters go 7— They wiU, perhaps.— Had you an? 
pleasure yesterday at the concert ? — ^I had no pleasure there, for there 
was such a multitude of people there that one could hardly geH^ 
— ^I bring you a pretty present with wluch you will be much pleased. 
—What is it 7— It is a silk cravat— Where is it 7—1 have it in my 
pocket, (en mi bolsiUo,)—Does it please you ?— It pleases me much, 
and I thank you for it witli all my heart. I hope that you will at last 
accept (aceptar) something of me.— What do you intend to give me ? 
—I wiU not tell you, for if I do tell you, you will have no pleasure 
when I give it to you. — ^Have you seen any one at the market 7—1 have 
seen a good many people there. — How were they dressed ?— Sooae 
were dressed in blue, some in green, some in yellow, and several m 
red, — ^Who are those jnen 7 — The one who is dressed in gny is mj 
neighbor, and the man with the black coat the physician whose son has 
given my neighbor a blow with a stick.— Who is the man with me 
green coat 7— He is one of my relations. — ^Are there many philosoj^era 
in your country 7 — There are as many there as in yours.— How 
does this hat fit me 7— It fits you very well.— How does that coat ffi 
your brother 7— It fits him admirably, — Is your brother as tall (aUo)^ 
you 7 — ^He is taller than I, but I am older (yi^o) than he.— Of what 
size is that man 7 — ^He is five feet four inches (una pulgada) h/gn--" 
How high is the house of our landlord 7 — ^It is sixty feet high-— I» J*^ 
well deep 7— Yes, Sir, for it is fifty feet deep.—" There are waBf 
learned men (unsahio) in Rome, are there not, (no es verdadf^) MUtoJ 
asked a Roman. " Not so many as when you were there," answeted 
(respondio) the Roman. 

SIZTT-riFTH LB880N. 298 


Is it tme that your uncle has arrived ? — ^I assure you that he has 

arrived. — ^Ls it tme -that the king lias assured you of his assistance, 

((fe fu asistencia ?) — ^I assure you that it is true. — ^Is it true that the 

six thousand (tnii ; takes no s in the plural) men, whom we were 

expecting, have arrived 7 — ^I have heard so. — ^Will you dine with us 7 

— I cannot dine with you, for I have just eaten. — Will your brother 

drink a glass of vnne 7 — ^He cannot drink, for I assure you thai he has 

just drunk. — Why are those men quarrelling 7— *They are quarrelling 

because they do not know what to do. — ^Have they succeeded in 

eztinguishiDg the fire 7 — ^They have at last succeeded in it ; but it is 

said (Obs. A, Lesson XLV.) that several houses have been burnt — 

Have they not been able to save any thing 7 — ^They have not been aUe 

to save any things ; for instead of ejctinguishing the fire, the miserable 

wretches (los mahados) who had come up, set to plundering. — ^What 

has happened ? — ^A great nusfortune has happened.— Why did my 

Mends set out without me 7 — ^They waited for you till twelve o'clock, 

and seeing that you did not come they set out.— What is the day 

before Monday called 7 — ^The day before' Monday is Sunday.— Why 

did you not mn to the assistance of your neighbor whose house has 

been burnt 7 — ^I was quite (enteramente) ignorant of his house being 

on fire, (que su casa se estdba quemando ;) for had I known it I would 

have run to his assistance. 

SIXTY-PIPTH LESSON.— l>cctofi Sexagi$ma quinta. 

5 Proponer, Proponer$e, 

To propose. ^ j^^^^ ^^^^^ ^ 

, S Me proponeo hacer un viaje. 

1 propoM pHng on . journey. ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^,^ ^ ^^ 

He propoeeB joining a hunting party. 

Inteuta jontane i una partida da 

Una partida de ajedrez. 
Una partida de billar. 
Uaa mesa de billar. 

A game at cheaa 

A game at billiarda. \ 

) Un juego de cartas. 
A game at canto. ^ jj^^ p^^^ ^^ ^^^jp^ 

^ _ 5 Consegttir. AUanxar 

Tooueeeed. \ Lograr. Salir bien. 

Do yoa nicceed in doing that 7 I i Logra V. hacer eao t 

I da iQcoeed in it I Si, logro hacerlo. 




I andeftTor to do it 

I ondeaYor to aucceed in it. 

EndeaTor to do bettor. 

Smet, anmdering. 

Bimob yoa an happyi why do yoa 

TV W i kan ug hly mcquminted with 

To wmk9 9fu*9 mXf thoroughly ae- 

fmmimUd with a thing. 
That man nndentandi that hanneH 

I ttndentand that weU. 
Snut vfram, 

fVom that time. 

IVom my childhood. 
fVom morning until night 
FVom the beginning to the end. 

From here to there. 
I hare had that book these two years. 

I haTO UTod in Madrid these three 

To blow, to blow out 

To rtduce. 

To froduee. 

To tran^ato. 

To introdmee. 

To doatroy. 

To conotruet. 

To reduce the price. 

To reduce the price a dollar. 

To translate into Spanish. 

To translate from Spanish into Eng- 

To translate from one language into 


I hiftrodooe him to you. 

Boforxaroe, Proeurmr, 
Yo procnro haceila 
Yo procnro lograrlo. 
Procure V. hacer mejor. 


Ya que. Pueo que. 

^Ya que es V. dichoso, pcnpec 

queja 7 
Conocer una eooa dfondo. 

Enter^oe a fondo en {de^ no cut^ 

Eee hombre conoce 4 fondo ese : 

to, (ese negocio.) 
Estoy bien enterado en eUo. 

Deode. Deode par. 

Desde ese tiempo. 

Dcflde mi nifiez, (infancia.) 

Deede por la manana hastaUnocbe- 

Desde el principio haste el £11. 

Dcsde aqui haste ailf. 

t Ya van dos anos quo tengo e» 

t Tree afios ha que estoy (« q" 

vivo) en Madrid. 

Soplar. Apagar. 







rir. S 

See verbs in a^- 

See verbs in tar. 

Reducir (bajar) el precia 
Reducir (bajar) un peso del preeio> 
Traducir al (en) eepafiol. 
Traducir del espailol al inglsB* 

Traducir de una lengua i otra. 


Yo le introduzco en su casa de *• 
Yo se le presento d V. 




One's aelfl 
He bi mi e lf has told it me. 
He has told it me, (to myself, not to 

another penon-) 
One doea not like to flatter one's solf* 

£vea. Not even. 

He has not even money enough to 

hoy some hread. 
We most lore everybody, even onr 


iltni. JVt 

No tiene bestante dinsro 

comprar pan. 
Debemos amar & todo el 

aon i nnostros enemifaa. 

Again, (anew.) 
He qpeaks again. 


Oira veM. Segwnda eca. 

De nuevo. t Volver L 
( HaMa otra vei. HaUa 
\ t y neWe i hablan 

To fall 
The price of the merchandise falla 
To deduct. 


Baja el precio de las mereaderfaa. 

Dedueir, Rebajar. 
fg, ( SohrecoTgOTm 

T,n,reharg,,U,a,kta,nmck. \ p„^ ,ig^ co»a i mueio rtci». 

Not having overcharged yon, I can- 
not deduct any thing. 

^ An ell, a yard. 
A mile. 
A league. 

No habiendole pnesto 4 V. mny sii- 
bido el precio (mny alto el pndo) 
no puedo rebajar nada. 

Una vara. 



Produdr. Dor. Vendor 

m ( Produeir. Dor 

r. ,,wl««, (to yield, to preBt.) ^ j.^^_ g^^^ 


„ ... C i Cuanto le prodooe & V. al afti 

Hour mneli does that employment i emuleo? 

yield yon a year? 

An employment 

2*0 mmk9 mu^9 escape, 
T» run away^JUe. 

Te tak€ to ene** luelM. 


He deaerted the battle. 
The thief has ran away. 

By no meant. 

f I Cuanio gana V. el 

I Unempleo. 

iEteapane. Htnr. 
Huir. Boeaparoe, 
C ApreUar Iom talonet. 
/ t Poner lo9 pie* en polmnm, 
i f Tomar loB de. VOUdiego, 

Ha deaertado de la bataila. 
El ladran ae fa« eeca p adou 


I De ningun modo. 
No del todo. De ningnn medo. 
Nada de «ao. 

Well, (y Men,} does your aiater make any progress ?— She would make 
some, if she were as assiduous as you. — ^You flatter me. — ^Not at all; 
I assure you that I should be highly satisfied, {muy,) if all my pnpib 
worked Uke you. — ^Why do you not go out to-day ? — ^I would go ool 
if it were fine weather.---Shall I have the pleasure of seeing you to- 
ihorrow ?— If you wish it I will come. — Shall I still be here when yoii 
arrive, {Uegue .* )— Will you have occasion (pcasion) to go to town this 
evening 7 — ^I do not know, but I would go now if I had an opportiiiiity> 
(una huena ocasion,) — ^You would not have so much pleasure, and yoo 
would not be so happy, if you had not Mends and books. — ^Man (cQ 
would not experience so much misery (la miaeria) in his career, (jfi 
oarrtra^ and he would not be so unhappy, were he not so bUnd, 
(ciqgo.)— You would not have that insensibility (esa msensUnUdad) to* 
wards the poor, and you would not be so deaf (sordo) to their snpplicar 
tion, (d nugo^ if you had been yourself in misery for some tune.— 
You would not say that if you knew me well. — ^Why has your sister 
not done her exercises 7 — She would have done them if she had not 
been prevented. — If you worked more, and spoke oftener, you woaH 
speak better. — ^I assure you. Sir, that I should learn better if I fa>d 
more time. — ^I do not complain of you, but of your sister. — You would 
have no reason (motiw) to compkun of her, had she had time to do 
what you gave her to do. — ^Do you already know what has happened Y 
*-I have not heard any thing. — ^The house of our neighbor has ))eep 


umt down, (quemadoJ) — Have they not been able to save any Uung ? 
-They were veiy fortunate (muy trfortunados) in saTing the pezsona 
liat weie in it ; but oat of the (de las) things that were there, they 
ould aave nothing. — ^Who has told yon that 7--Our neighbor himself 
las told it me. 

Why are yon without a light ? — ^The wind blew it out when you 
amc in. — ^What is the price of this cloth 7 — I sell it at three dollars 
ind a half the ell, (2a vara.) — ^I think it very dear. Has the price of 
tloth not fidlen ? — ^It has not fallen : the price of all goods has fidlen, 
except that of cloth, (menos el del pano,) — ^I will give you three dollars 
or it. — ^I cannot let yon have (dor) itfor(por) that price, for it costs me 
siore. — Will you have the goodness to show me some pieces (2a pieza) 
3f English cloth 7 — With much pleasure. — ^Does this cloth suit you 7 
—It does not suit me. — Why does it not suit ^ou 7 — ^Because it is too 
dear ; if you wiU lower the price, (rehe^'ar alguna cosa,) I shall buy 
twenty yards of it. — ^Not having asked too much, I cannot take off any 
tlung.— You learn Spanish : does your master let you translate 7 — ^He 
lets me read, write, and translate. — ^Is it useful to translate in learning 
a foreign language 7 — It is useful to translate when you {sabe) nearly 
know the language you are learning ; but while (cuando) you do not 
yet know any thing it is entirely (dd todo) useless. — ^What does your 
Spanish master make you do 7 — He makes me read a lesson ; after- 
wards he makes me translate English exercises into Spanish on the 
lesson which he has made me read ; and from the beginning to the 
end of the lesson he speaks Spanish to me, and I have to answer him 
in the very language (la misma lengua) which he is teaching me. — 
Have yon already learned much in that manner 7 — ^You see that I have 
already learned something, for I have hardly been learning it three 
months, and I already understand you when you speak to me, and can 
answer you. — Can you read (it) as well 7 — ^I can read and write as 
well as speak, (it.) — ^Does your master also teach German 7 — ^He 
teaches it — ^Wishing to make his acquaintance, I must beg of you 
O/o le suplico) to introduce me to him, {que me presente V. & il) 

How many exercises do yon translate a day 7 — ^If the exercises are 
not difficult I translate from three to four every day ; and when they 
are 80 1 translate but one.— How many have yon already done to-day 7 
—It is the third which I am translating ; but to-morrow I hope to be 
aUe to do one more, for I shall be alone, (solo.) — ^Have you paid a visit 
to my aunt 7 — ^I went to see her two months ago, and as she looked 
<fispleiaed, I have not gone to her any more since that time. — ^How do 



yon do tXHby f — ^I am very unwelL — How do yoa like that soup Y— I 
think it is very bad ; but aince I have lost my appetite (d apeHto) I dD 
not like any thing. — How much doea that emfdoyment yield to your 
father ? — ^It yields him more than four thousand doUara. — What news 
do they mention, (decir?) — ^They say nothing new. — ^What do yon in- 
tend to do to-morrow 7 — I propoae joining a hunting party. — Doea yoor 
brother pmpoee ikying (haeer) a game at billiaida? — He proposes 
playing a game at chess. — ^Why do some people laugh when I speak ? 
— ^Thoae axe unpolite people ; yon have only to laugh also, and they 
will no longer lau^ at you. If you did as I do (oomo yd) yoo would 
speak well. You must study (es menester) a little every day, and yoa 
will soon be no longer afraid to speak. — ^I will endeavor to follow your 
advice, for I have resolved (proponerse) to rise every morning at six 
o'clock, to study till ten o'clock, and to go to bed early. — ^Why does 
your aister complain 7 — ^I do not know ; since she succeeds in eveiy 
thing, and aince (y que) she is happy, even happier than you and I, 
Why doesahe complain 7 — Perhaps she complains (jquig'arse) because 
she is not thoroughly acquainted with that business. — Thai may be. 

SIXTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Leoctofi Sexaginma sexto. 

A kind, a sorf, (a epeeUi.) 

What kind of fruit is that? 
A BtODS, (of a fruit) 
A stone of a peach, an apricot, a 

One must break the stone before one 
comes to the kernel. 
A kernel. 
An almond. 
It is a keroeUfrait 

To gather. 
I gather, I gathered, I will gather. 
To gather fruit. 
To serve up the soup. 
To bring in the deeeert. 

The fruit. 

An apiicot 

A peach. 

Genero. Eepeeie. Close* 
I Que especie de frota es 
Hueso, (de fruta.) 

Un hueso de melocoton, albaricoque, 
I ciruela. 
Fruta de hueso. 
Es necesario romper el hneso pars 

conseguir la almendnu 
Una pepita. Una ahnendra. MeoUo. 
Una almendra. 
Fruta de pepita. 
Es fruta de pepita. 


Cojo. Cojia. Cojer6. 

Cojer fruta, 

Aervtr la sopa, 

Sermr los postres. 

La fruta. 

Un albariooque. Un dmasnOi 

Un melocoton. 


A plom. 
An aneedoCe. 
Roast meat 

The laat 

Last weak. 

To cetue, to Uave off. 

I leave off reading. 
She leaves off speaking. 

Una eiraela 
Una an^edota. 
£1 aaado. 


El lUtimo. La tUtima. 

Pasado. Pasada. 

La aemana pasada, (Ultima.) 

Cesar, Parar, Dtjar ie, 

Yo case de leer. 

Ella eesa de haUar. 

To OVOlttm 

To escape. 
To escape a misfortone. 
He ran away to avoid death. 

Evitar, Escapar, 

Escapar. Evitar. 

Evitar una deagracia. 

Se escap6 pan evitar la mnerte. 

To do loithout a tMng, \ Privar$e de. Paoar. PoBorm «m. 
Can yoo do withoot bread 7 


J I Pnede V. pasar nn pan? 
I Pnede V. privaxse de pan? 
iPuedo pasar sin €L 
Me puedo privar de €i 

Tlicre are many things which we I Hay mnchas cosas sin las enales se 
moA do without. I pnede pasar, (de las enales pnede 


To execute a eommiooion. 
To acquit on^o eelf of a eommie 

I have executed yonr conmiiamon. 
Hate yon executed my commisBion 7 


I hare executed it 

To do ow^e duty. } 

^0 ducharge^ to do, or to fulfil > 

»»«*• dpity, ) 

That man always does his duty. ) 

That man always fulfils his dnty. ) 

Cumplir con un encargo. 
Ejecutar una eomision. 
Haeer una common. 

He cumplido con ra encaigo de V. 
I Ha cumplido V. con mi encaigOi 

(eomision) ? 
He cumplido con H, (eDa.) 
Cumplir eon m ohligaeionf (de* 

Haeer su deher. 

Eee hombre iumple siempre con so 

'0 rely, to depend upon oomething. 
He depends upon it 
I tely upon it 
YoQ may rely upon him. 

Contar eon. Confiar en. 
£1 confia en eso. 
Cuento con eso. 
v. pnede contar oon €i, 
en 61.) 



Ii thai bread nifllcient for yon 7 

It IB ooflieiont for me. 

Will that nxmoy be sofficieiit for 

that man 7 
It win be eniScient for him. 
little wealth auffioes to the wise. 
Has that eom been sufficient for thai 

man 7 
Was thai man contented with that 


HotXar, Ser hatiamte, {nfdak.) 

I Le baota & Y. eae pan 9 

Si. Mebaata. 

^Seri soficienteeBedmen panan 

Seri raficiente pan fl. 
Poca ziqiK»xa baata al sabio. 
I Ha ado baatante esa somiputeie 

^Estaba oontento eee bomfan cob 

It has been aofficient for him. 
He has been contented with it 
To be contented with somethini^. 
It would be sufficient for him if you 

would only add a few doUan. 
He would be contented if yon would 

add a few doUan. 

Ha side baatante para 6L 
Ha estado satisfecho con eOa. 
firtar satisfedio con, (or de.) 
Seria battanU para el ■ V. aiia&n 

aolamente algnnes pesos. 
Si V. aiiadiese algnnos peaoif elih 

iaria aatiMfeeka. 


Ta emharh, to go on board. 

A saiL 
To set saQ. 
To set saU for. 
To set saO for America. 
To sail. 
Under faU sail. 
To set under full sail. 
He embarked on the sixteenth of last 

He sailed on the thirteenth instant 

Tlie instant, the present month. 
The fourth or fifth instant ,^ 

The letter is dated the 6th instant 


€ Anadir, Aerecentar *. 


I Edificar. Fahriear. 

EwAarcar, JBmbarearoe. 

Ir & horde Aborda, 

Una vela. 

Hacer vela. Hacene i la Tela. 

Hacer vela para. 

Hacexae & la Tela paia la AmAiei. 


A yelas llenas. A velas tendidaB. 

Andar i, boena vela. 

Se embarcd el dies y bmb dd td» 

Se hiao & la vela el tiece del off- 

El coiriente. 

El cuatro 6 cinco del oom'ente. 

La earU lleva fecha del aeit del 

Thai it to oay, (t. e.) 
Et catera, (etc., ^.) 

My pen (qnOl) is better than yours. 

I write better than yon. 

lliey will wann the soup. 

E» dedr. A oabor. 

Et cetera, (efc, 4^) 

Mi plnma es mejor que la de V. 

Yo eocribo mejor que V. 

t Pondrin la sopa i oalentar. 


Dliiner (or anpper) m on tho table. La oomida (or la cena) eati en la 

Do you choose any aoup 7 
Shall I help yoa to some soup 7 
I will tioable you for a lUUe. 

To aenre op, to attend \ 

I GuBta y. de sopa 7 

I Le servif^ 4 V. iin poco de sopa? 

H^ame V. el favor de daime un 

Serrir. Serviise. 
Poner en la mesa. 


' 207. 

I sboold like to (querria) know why I cannot Bpeak as well as yon 7 
— ^I will tell you : yon woidd speak quite as well (tan bien como) as I, 
if you were not so bashful, (corto.) But if you had studied your les- 
sons more carefully you would not be afraid to speak ; for in order to 
speak well one must know, (sepa,) and it is very natural that he who 
does not know well what he has learned, should be timid, (sea corto^ 
pres. subj.) You would not be so timid as yon are, if you were sure 
to make no faults. 

I come to wish you a good morning. — ^You are very kind, (bandoso,) 
— Would you do me a fiivor 7 — ^Tell me what you want, for I would 
do any thing {cvjdUpiiera cosa) to oblige you, (servirU.') — ^I want five 
hundred dollars, and J beg you to lend them to me. I will return 
them to yon as soon as I have received my money. You would oblige 
(Jimorecer) me much if you wpuld render Ouscer) me this service. — 
I would do it with all my heart if I could ; but having lost all my 
money, it is impossible for me (me es imposihle) to render you this 
service. — ^Will you ask your brother whether he (si) is satisfied with 
(con) the money which I have sent him ? — ^As to my brother, he is 
satisfied with it, but I am not so; for having suffered shipwreck 
(funtfragar) I am in want of the money which you owe me. 

Have they served up the soup? — ^Thy have served it up some 
minutes ago. — Then it must be cold, and I only like soup hot, (ealierUe.) 
— ^They will warm it for you. — ^You will oblige me, (favorecer,y^ 
ShaH I help you to some of this roast meat 7 — I will trouble you for a 
little. — ^Will you eat some of this mutton 7 — I thank you, I like fowl 
better. — ^May I offer you (le qfrecere) some wine 7 — I will trouble yoa 
for a little. — ^Have they already brought in the dessert 7 — They have 
brought it in. — ^Do ypu like fruit 7 — I like fruit, but I have no more 
appetite.— Will you eat a little cheese 7—1 will eat a little.— Shall I 
help you to English or Dotch cheese?— I will eat a little Dutch 



cheese.— What kind of fruit is that?— It is stone-fruit. — ^Wfaatisit 
called ? — It is called thus. — ^Will you wash your haincls ? — I should 
like to {querer) wash them, but I have no towel to (^para) wipe them 
with. — I will let you have (mandarS que le den) a towel, some soam 
and some water. — ^I shall be much obliged (agradecer) to yon. — May 
I ask you for (me hard V, d favor de) a little water 7 — ^Here is some, 
(aqui la tiene V.) — Can you do without soap 7 — ^As for soap I can do 
without it, but I must have a towel to wipe my hands with. — Do yon 
often do without soap 7 — ^There are many things which we most do 
without. — ^Why has that man run away 7 — ^Because he had no other 
means of escaping the punishment (castigo) which he had deserved, 
(iii«r0cer.)~-Why did your brothers not get a better horse 7 — If they 
had got rid of their old horse, they would have got a better. — Has your 
&ther arrived already ? — ^Not yet, but we hope that he will arrive this 
very day, (hoy mismoJ) — ^Has your friend set out in time 7 — ^I do not 
know, but I hope he has set out in time. 

Have you executed my commission? — ^I have executed it. — Has 
your brother executed the commission which I gave him 7 — ^He has 
executed it — ^Would you execute a commission for me ? — ^I am onder 
BO many obligations to you that I will always execute your ooomiis- 
sions, when it shall please you to give me any. — ^>^nil you ask the 
merchant whether (si) he can let me have (darme) the horse at the 
price which I have offered him ? — ^I am sure that he would be satiified 
if you would add a few dollars more. — If I were sure of that, I would 
add a few dollars more. — Good morning, my children ! have you done 
your task 7 — ^You well know that we alwajrs do it ; for we must be iU 
(seria menester que estuvi^semos eirfermos, imperfect of the subjnncdve, 
of which hereafter) not to (para) do it. — ^What do you give us to-day ? 
— I give you to study the sixty-sixth lesson, and to do the exercises 
belonging to it ; that is to say, the 207th, 208th, and 209th. Will you 
endeavor to commit no errors, (hacerfaltas ?)~-We shall endeavor to 
commit none. — ^Is this bread sufficient for you ? — ^It would be sufficient 
for me if I was not very hungry. — ^When did your brother embark 
for America ? — He sailed on the 30th of last month. — ^Do you promise 
roe to speak to your brother 7 — ^I promise you, you may depend upon 
it — ^I rely upon you. — ^Will you work harder (mgor) for next lessmi 
than you have done for this ? — ^I will work harder. — ^May I rely upon 
it 7 — ^You may. 



SCPTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— Leecum Sexagitima sSptima. 

To be a judge ofeomething. 

Are yoa a jiidg« of cloth 7 
I am a judge of it 
I am not a judge of it 
I am a good judge of it 

I am not a good judge of it 



8er perUo (inteligente, faeultatho) 

en alguna eoea. Conocedor de. 
t Entender de, Poderjuggar de. 

1 1 Entiende V. de pafios 7 

t Si. Entiendo. 

t No. No eoy perito. 

t Soy inteligente. t Ee mi oficio. 

t No entiendo nada. 

No puedo jnzgar. 

To draw. \ Dibujar. Boequejetr. 

To ehalk, to trace, (to counter- ( Dibujar eon yeeo. Trazar. 
draw.) \ Delinear. Calear. 

To draw a landscape. 
To draw after life. 

The drawing. 

The drawer. 


Dibujar un paisaje, (nn pais.) 

Dibujar al natnraL 

El dibujo. 

£1 dibujador. El dibujante. 

La naturaleza. 

To manage, or to go ahout a thing. 

How do you manage to make a fire 

withont tongs 7 
I go about it 80. 

Yoa go about it the wrong way. 
I go about it the right way. 
I)ow does your brother manage to 
do that 7 

Skilfully. Handily. 

Dexterously. Cleyeriy. 


Unhandily. Badly. 


t Mannar. Haeer para. 
Procurar. Lograr. 

1 1 Como hace V. para encender fnego 

sin tenazas7 
t Hago de esta manera. 
V. lo hace mal, (t al retee,) 
Yo lo hago bien. 

I De que mode procura sa hennano 
de V. hacer eso 7 
) Diestramente. Mafiosamente. 
\ Hibilmente. 

iDesmafiadamente. Toscameata 
Torpemente. Malamente. 

To forbid, 
I forbid you to do that 

To lower, to east down. 
To cast down one's eye. 
The curtain. 

The curtain rises — ^falls. 
The stocks have fedlen. 

Prohibtr. No querer. 
Yo le prohlbo A V. hacer 

t Bajar los ojosl 
La cortina. El telon. 
La cortina se leyanta, (baja.) 
El telon se levanta, (se baja.) 
j Los fondos pUblicos ban bi^ado. 




Theday falk. 
Night oomM on. 
It grows daik. 
It grows late. 

To Hoop, 


El dia caA. f ElmlM 
t Anockeee. t Se kaee 
t ObMcureee. 

I Se haoe tarde. 

i Eneorvar9€. IncUnarte. 

{ Bajarse. 


To feel 
He smells of gailic. 
To feel some one's pulse. 

To content to a thing, 
I consent to it 


Sentir ». 

Huele A aja 

t Tomar el polso & algima 

Coneenthr *. 

Yo consiento en ello, (en eso.) 

To hidef to eoneeoL 
The mind. 
In fact 
The truth. 
It is true. 
A true man. 
This is the right place for that |nc' 

Eeeonder, Octdtar. 
EI entendimienta La mente. 
En yerdad. A la Tezdad. 
En efecto. 
La yerdad. 
El efecto. 

Verdadero. t Verdad. 
t Es verdad. 
Es hombre aincero. 
Este es el yerdadero lugar para 

To think much of one, (to esteem ^ 

one.) f 

To eoteem oome one. \ 

I do not think mach of that man 

• { 

I think much of him. 
I esteem him much. 

The ease. 
The flower, the bloom, the blossom. 

On a level with, even with. 
That house is on a leyel with the 

To hhseom, (to flourish.) 

To grow. 

To grow talL 

That child grows so fast that we 

Tithy eyen see it 
The rain has made the com grow. 


Haeer gran (or mitcho) easo de mm. 

Haeer estimacion. 

Estimar a alguno. Apreciar. 

Yo no hago gran case de ese hombre. 

t No tengo en macho d ese hombre* 

Yo hago mucho case de ^L 

Yo le estimo machow 

El easo. 


A nivel de. Aflor de 

Esa casa esti A flor del agua. 

Eeharflores. Floreeer* 

Creeer* (See yerbs in cer, App) 

Ese nifto crece tan ripidamenle que 

podemos yeria 
La Iluyia ha hecho oreoer el grano. 



JL com* \ 

A ahelter. \ 

A cottage. A hut \ 

To didter one's aelf from ■omethtng. > 
To take dielter from emnething. y 
Let them rfietter themaelYes from 

the rain, the wind. 
Let w enter that cottage in order to 

be aheltered from the atonn, (the 


Un albergne. Una ponda. 

Una gnarida. Un abriga 

Una cabaiia. Una chosa. 

t Jaeal, (in Mexico.) 

Ponem al abrigo (i cubierto) de al- 

gnna ooaa. AJbrigane* 
Pdnganee elloe al abrigo (i enbierto) 

de la lluyia, del viento. 
Entremoa en eaa choxa paia gnaie- 

cemofl de la tempeatad. 

Everywhere* AU ever, 

AU over (throoghont) the town. 

A diade. 
Under the ehade* 
Sit down nnder the shade of that 

For todo. Per ioda. 
Par todoe. Par todaa^ 
Pot Sodae partee. 

For toda la cindad. 
For todo el pueblo. 

JL lo eowJbrsL 

Si^nteae V. A la aombra de 


To pretend, 


That man pretends to deep. 

That young lady pretends to know 

JAparentar, Fingiree, 
t Haeeree. Haeer fiie, or eeimo qme 

They pretend to come near us. 

( Ese hombre se finge dormida 
( t iSe hace {ee finge) dormido. 

t Esa seAorita hace que sabe 

Fingen acercane & nosotres. 



From. Since. 
From morning. 
FVom the hreak of day. 
From this time forward. 
Aa mxm as. 
As Kon as I see him I shall Epeek 

to him. 
From the cradle. From a child. 



Desde la mailana. 

Desde el amaneeer. 

t Desde hoy en adelante. 

Luego que* Aai que. 

t Asi que le vea yo le haUartf. 

Desde la cnna. Desde la niilex. 

For fear ef. 
To eateh a ceid. 

SPor miedo de. 
For no. 
I Reefriaree, 

For temor de. 



I will not go out for fear of catching 

a cold. 
He doee not widi to go to town, for 

fear of meeting one of his crediiora. 

He doea not wish to qien his posBe, 
for fear of losing his money. 

No saldrd por temor de wiiftiaTnw,cr 

de tomar una flwoon. 
£i no qtiiere ir £ la ciadad por temor 

de encontram con nno do m 

£l no qinere abrir sa boka por miedo 
de perder sa dinero. 

To copy. To transcribe. 

To decline. 

To transcribe^ fairiy. 
A sabstantiye. An adjectire. 
A pranoan. A verb. 
A preposition. 
A grammar. A dictionary. 

Copiar. Tranacribir. 


t Sacar en limpio. Copiar. 

Un substantivo. Un adjetiTfr 

Un pronombre. Un veibo. 

Una preposicion. 

Una gnuxUUica. Un dioeioaaM 

Are you a judge of cloth 7—1 am a judge of it. — ^Will you buy some 
yards for me ? — ^If you will give me the money I will buy joa 8ome. 
— You will oblige (hacer favor) me. — ^Is that man a judge of cloths- 
He ia not a good judge of it. — ^How do you manage to do that ?— I 
manage it so. — ^WiU you show me how you manage it ? — ^I will show 
you, (yo lo quiero.) — ^What must I do for my lesson of to-morrow 1— 
You will transcribe your exercises fairly, do three others, and stndjr 
the next lesson, (siguiente,) — ^How do you manage to get goods (fii«r- 
eaderias) without money ? — I buy on credit. — ^How does your sister 
manage to learn French without a dictionary ? — She manages it thus. 
— She manages it very dexterously. But how does your brother 
manage it 7 — ^He numages it very awkwardly ; he reads, and looks for 
the words in the dictionary. — ^He may learn in this manner twenty 
years without knowing how to make a single sentence, (una soila tofr 
tencia,) — ^Why does your sister cast down her eyes 7 — She casts them 
down because she is ashamed of not having done her task. — Shall we 
breakfast in the garden to^ay 7 — ^The weather is so fine, that we 
should take advantage of it, (apravecharse,) — ^How do you like that 
coffee ? — ^I like it very much. — Why do you stoop 7 — ^I stoop to pick 
up the handkerchief which I have dropped. — ^Why do your sisters hwte 
themselves 7 — ^They would not hide themselves if they did not fear to 
be seen. — ^Whom are they afraid of 7 — They are alraid of their 
governess (una aya) who scolded them yesterday because they had 
not done their tasks, (fa tarea.) 



Have yon already seen my son ? — ^I have not seen him yet ; how k 

he 7 — ^He is yeiy well ; yon will not he able to lecogniae him, fiv be 

has grown very tail in a abort time. — ^Why does that man give nothing 

to the poor ? — ^He is too avaricioas, (avaro ;) be does not wish to open 

his pnrse for fear of losing bis money. — ^What sort of weather is it t — 

It is veiy warm ; it is l<Hig since we had any rain : I believe we shall 

have a storm, (una ten^pestadJ) — ^It may be, (juede serS) — ^The wind 

rises, (lerantorse,) it thmiders already; do you bear it? — ^Yea, I 

hear it, but the stonn b still hi off, (Igos.) — ^Not so far as yon think ; 

see how it lightens. — ^Bless me, (Dios mio /) what a shower, (que 

aguacero /) — ^If we go into some place we shall be sheltered from the 

storm. — ^Let ns go into that cottage, then, (pues ;) we shall be sheltered 

there from the wind and the rain. — ^WhereshallwegD tonow? Which 

road shall we take ? — The shortest (corto) will be the best — ^We have 

too much son, and I am still very tired ; let os sit down under the 

shade of that tree. — ^Who is that man who is sitting under the tree ? — 

I do not know him. — ^It seems be wishes to be alone, (estar 9oio;) for 

when we ofier (querer*) to approach him, he pretends to be asleep. — 

He is like your sister : she understands French very well ; but when I 

begin to speak to her, she pretends not to understand me. — ^You have 

promised me to speak to the captain ; why have you not done so ? — 

1 have not seen him ; but as soon as I see him (Jv^go que le vea) I 

shall speak to him. 

SIXTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— Leccion Sexaginma ocUna. 

THE PLUPERFECT, (Na 2, p.)— Pref mto Plvscuamperfeeio, (Na 2, p.) 

This tense is formed with No. 2, the imperfect of the anzifiaiy haber, 
sad the past participle (p.) of the verb to be conjugated. 

This tense is used to express an action which was already past when an 
Bctioii alao past took place. Example : — I had already finished my task 
when you came in — Ya kabia aeahado vu tarea, euando V. enird. 

I had dined when he arrived. i Yo habia eomido euando DegO. 

Fott had lost your parse when I ' V. kabia perdido su bolsa euando yo 

firand mine. 

hall^ la mia. 

Had you finUhed your exercise i Hahia aeahado V. su ejercicio 
when I came in ? euando yo entr^ ? 

^^t Sir, / had not finished it. 
^c had dined when it struck 

No, seiior, yonoU hahia aeahado, 
Hahiamoo eomido euando di^nm las 


Bzxrr-sxaBTH usflsoK. 

/ kmd read your lettar when I wrote 

7o hahia leido la carta deV. ciuadi 
eicribf la mia. 

ST It will be perceived that thie tenee ie used in connection with tiie 
PretSrito Perfecto Remoto, (No. 3.) For the nee of that tense eee Lem 
XL. Obflerve that the Pret^to Imperfecto (No. 2) answers to the Eng&k 
U9ed to : the Fh»t^rito Perfecto Remote (No. 3) to did ; and that the Yr^irta 
Flnscoamperfecto (Now 2, p.) conesponds to the Ehiglirii plopetfecL \ 

He came (used to come) to see me 

every day. 
They came (did come) yesterday. 
/ had eeen them before. 
After you had spoken yon used to 

go out 
After shaving / washed my face. 

He king had appointed an admiral 

when he heard of you> (did hear.) 
After having warmed themselves 

they went into the garden. 
As soon as the bell rung (did ring) 

you awoke, (did wake.) 
As soon as they eaUed me (did call) 

I got up, (did get) 
As soon as he trot ready he came to 

see me. 
As soon as we had our money we 

agreed to that 
As soon as he had his hone he came 

to show it me. 
AAer trying several times they suc- 
ceeded in doing it 
As ' soon as I saw him I obtained 

what I wanted, (was wanting.) 
As soon as / spoke to hJm he did 

what / wanted. 
The business was soon over. 

El venia i. verme todos los diia 

EUos viniSron ayer. 
Yo los habia visto dntes. 
Despues que V. habia haUais V. 

Despues de afeitarme me lavsbs la 

El rey hahia nombrado nn afaniiaotSi 

enando le habldron de V. 
Despnes de baberae calentado m 

fueron al jardin. 
Asf que repic6 (mmiS) la eampana V. 

Luego que me Uamaron me UvanU- 

Luego que 61 estuzo pronto (W 

vino £ verme. 
Asi que tuximos nnestio dinerocM* 

venimos en ello. 
Luego que tuvo sa caballo vino i «• 

Despues de |»Dbar muchas Tecea 

logrdron hacerlo. 
As! que le vi consegvi lo que 7« 

AI memento que le habU hixohtp^^ 

yo qtieria. 
Pronto se ftcabd el asontfr 


Del Pretirito Perfecto Anterior, (Na 3, p.) 

This tense is formed with No. 3 of haher and the past participle (p*) ^^^ 
veih to be conjugated. It is used (from its name anterior) to ezpr0« ^ 
aotion past before another which is likewise pMt, and is haidly efer ^ 
except alter one of the CQnjunction& 


^ 5 Luego qae. Arf que^ 

As soon SB. J A 1 

( Al momento que. 

Despues que. 

No Booner, scarcely. 


It also expreflBee an action quickly done. Elxamples : — 

As soon as / had finished my work 

I carried it to him. 
As soon as / had drtated myself I 

-went oat 
When I had dined it struck twelve. 
/ had soon done eating. 

Luego que hube aeahado mi trabajo 

se le Uey^ 4 ^L 
Asf que yo me hube yestido sail. 

As( que hube eomido di^ron las does. 
Pronto hube aeabado de somer. 

(17 No. 3 shonld be preferred to this tense, which is seldom used m 

What did you do when you had finished your letter ? — ^I went to my 
brother, who took (Uevar) me to the theatre, where I had the pleasure 
to find one of my friends whom I had not seen for ten years. — ^What 
didst thou do after getting up this morning ? — ^When I had read the 
letter of the Polish count I went to see {salir*) the theatre of the 
prince which I had not seen before, (todavia,) — What did your father 
do when he had breakfasted ? — ^He shaved and went out. — ^What did 
your friend do after he bad been a-walking ? — ^He went to the baron, 
(baron,) — ^Did the baron cut the meat after he had cut the bread 7 — 
He cut the bread after he had cut the meat. — ^When do you set out ? 
— ^I do not set out till to-morrow ; for before I leave I will once more 
see my good friends. — What did your children do when they had 
breakfasted ? — They went a-walking with their dear preceptor, (pre' 
ceptor.) — ^Where did your uncle go after he had warmed Mmself 7— 
He went nowhere. After he had warmed himself he undressed and 
went to bed. — ^At what o'clock did he get up 7 — ^He got up at sunrise. 
— ^Did you wake him 7 — ^I had no need to wake him, for he had got up 
before me.— jiVhat did your cousin do when he heard of the death (la 
muerte) of his best friend 7 — ^He was much afflicted, and went to bed 
without saying a word. — ^Did you shave before you breakfasted 7 — 
I shaved when I had breakfasted. — ^Did you go to bed when you had 
eaten supper 7 — ^When I had eaten supper I wrote my letters, and when 
I had written them I went to bed. — At what (de que) are you afflicted 7 
—J am afflicted at that accident — Are you afflicted at the death of 
four relatioa 7 — I am much afflicted at it, (de eUa.) — ^When did your 


relation die ? — He died last month. — Of whom do yon oomplam t— 
I complain of your boy. — ^Why do you complain of him 7 — ^Because h& 
has killed the pretty dog which I received from one of my friends.— 
Of what has your uncle complained ? — ^He has complained of what 
you have done. — Has he complained of the letter which I wrote to him 
the day before yesterday ? — He has complained of it 

Why did you not stay longer in Holland 7 — ^When I was there the 
living was dear, and I had not money enough to stay there longer. — 
What sort of weather was it when you were on the way to Vienna ? — 
It was very bad weather, for it was stormy, and snowed and rained 
very heavily, (fd cdrUaros.) — ^Where have you been since I saw you 7 
— ^We sojourned long on the sea-shore, until a ship arrived, which 
brought ns to France. — ^Will you continue your narrative 7 — Scarcely 
had we arrived in France when we were taken (Uevar) to the king, wb»j 
received us very well, and sent us back to our country. — ^A peasant 
having seen that old men (anciano) used (servirse de) spectacles (antt- 
cjos) to read, went to an optician {optico) and asked for a pair, (pedir.) 
The peasant then took a book, and having opened it, said the spectacles 
were not good. The optician put another pair (otro par) of the best 
which he could find in his shop (la tienda) upon his nose ; bnt the 
peasant being still unable to read, the merchant said to him : ** My 
friend, perhaps you cannot read at all 7" *' If I could, (si yo supiera 
leer,^^) said the peasant, " I should not want your spectacles." — ^Henn 
IV. meeting one da^r in his palace (d palacio) a man whom he did not 
know, asked him to whom he belonged : " I belong to myself," replied 
this man. ^ My friend," said the king, " you have a stupid master.*^— 
Tell us (cuirUenos V.) what has happened to you lately, (e? otro dia.) 
— ^Very willingly, {can mucho gusto :) but on condition that you will 
listen to me (que VV. me escuchen) without interrupting (interrumpir) 
me. — ^We will not interrupt you | you may be (poder contar) sure of 
it, (con ello,) — ^Being lately at the theatre, I saw La Pintura pai^ 
Jante and La Mxijer Uorosa performed, (ver representor,) This latter 
play (la ultima comedia) not being very amusing to me, I went to the 
concert, where the music caused me a violent headache. I then left 
(defar) the concert, cursing it, (maldecir,) and went straight (en 
derechura) to the madhouse (la casa de los locos) ^ in order to see my 
cousin. On entering the hospital of my cousin I was struck with 
horror (estar penetrado de horror) at seeing several madmen, (el foctij 
who came up to me, jumping (saltar) and howling, (auUando.) — 
What did you do then 7 — ^I did the same, and they set up a laugh 
(echar d reir) as they were withdrawing, (al reiirarse.) 



SIXTY-NINTH LESGOS.-^Leccim SexagSsima nona. 

To get beaUtL , 

To get paid. 
To get one'B self inTited to dine. 




Thitdly, &c. 

1m yonr mother at home ? 

She is. 

I am going to her house. 

A eauM. 

A cause of complaint 
She has reason to be sad. 

Grief, sorrow, aadnesB. 
Is that woman ready to go out? 
She is. 

C t Llevar una paUza, 

•? Llevar una tunda, 

( t Sufrir una tunda, {una paliza,) 

I f HacerM pagar. 

I t Hacerse conyidar & comer. 



Primera Al principiow 

t Desde luego. 

Primeramento* Primero. 

En primer Ingar. 

Segnndamente. Segnndow 

En aegnndo lugar. 

Terceramente. Tercero. 

En torcer Ingar, &C. 

I Estd en casa la seiiora madre de V. 7 

Si, esUL Si, seiior, (seiiora.) 

Voy i casa de eUa. (Voy & su casik) 

Una eauta, Una raxon. 
Un mjeto. Un motno. 

Un snjeto (nn motiyo) de qneja. 
Ella tiene motive de estar tristo. 
Pesar. Pesadnmbre. Tristeza. 
I Esti esa mnger pronta para nlir? 
Sf, estd. 

Notwith9tanding, in tpite of. 1 No ohttante. Sin embargo. A peoar 
In qiiie of him, her, them. I A pesar de H, de ella, de ellos. 

To manage. 

SConoeguir. Lograr. 
Ingeniaroe para. Procurar. 

Do yoa manage to finish yonr work 

every Satorday night 7 
Do yon manage to have yonr work 

done every Satorday night 7 

Try to do that, to oblige me. 

I Consigne V. acabar sn trabajo todos 
los sdbadoB por la noche 7 

I I Se ingenia V. para tener acabado 
sn trabajo todos los sibados por 
(or en) la noche 7 

Procnre V. hacer eso para servipne, 

06c When in order to can be snbstitnted for the prepoeition to, the 
latter is rendered in Spanish by para, to express the end, the design, or the 
canse for which a thing Is done. 

I win do erery thing to oblige yon. { Yo lo har6 todo para senrir i. V. 



To look upon, into. 
The window lookfl into the street 
The window looks out upon the river. 
The back door looks into the garden. 

Caer a. Dar A. Mirar a. 

La ventana cae t la calle. 

La yentana mira al ria 

Lit puerta trasera da si jaidm. 

To drown. 

To drown a dog. 

To be drowned, to be drowning. 

To drown one's self, to get drowned. 

To leap through the window. 

To throw oat of the window. 

I am drowning. 

He jumped out of (he window. 

Anegar, Ahogar. (En el agina^) 
Ahogar an peno en el agoa. 

> Ahogane. 

Saltar por la yentana 

Echar por la ventena 

Me ahogob Me ealoy ahogaado 

Saltd par la yentana. 

To f oaten. 

He was fastened to a tree. 

The cattle. 

To keep warm. 

To keep cool. 

To keep dean* 

Atar. Amarrar 

t Le amarriron (atiron) £ on irM 
El ganada 
MantenerM caliente. 
Montenerse fresu?. 
Mantenerse limpio, (aseado.) 

_ , , . . ^ C Gnardarse de algano, (de nno.) 

To keep on on.'. gii«d .gauMt «»ne > p^,,^ j^ ^^ ^^^ ,^j 

f Estar sobre ayiso con rei;>ecio i. 
Keep on your gnard against that Guibndese V. de ese hombre- 

To take core (to beware) of eome' 
body or eomething. 

If you do not take care of that hone 
it will kick yon. 

A kick, (of a horse or oz.) 
Take care that you do not fall. 
Take care. 

Ouardaroe de. Tener cnidado de 
{con) algunOf (eon alguma «s«s) 

Si V. no se gnazda de eoe cabaDo 1« 
dari cocas. 

Una coz. 

Tenga V. cnidado da oo 

t Cuidado. 

A thought 
An idea. 


To be struck by a thought 
A thought strikes me. 

That neyer passed my mind. 

Un pensamiento. 

Una idea. 

Un dicho agudo. Un chiste. 

Una agudeza. Un arranqae. 

Una yiyeza. Un repente. 

Darie golpe i uno un pensamiento. 

Harcerie fuerza 4 uno una idea 

Me da golpe van pensamiento. 

Eso nunea me pas6 por el pensa- 

Eso jamas me 9ntt6 en el pensa- 



C t PaaarU (ponhtele duno enp€r)lm 
To UU:e into one*o head, ^ eabexa. 

f Metereele a uno en la eahoxa. 
He took it into his head lately to rob I Ultimamente se le pueo en la cabeia 

I robanne. 

;l Que le pasa i V. por la cabeza ? 
I Que tiene V. en la cabesa 7 

What m m yonr head 7 

In my place. 
In your place. 
In his place. 
In her place. 
We must pat every thing in ita place* 

Aionnd, roond. 
We sailed around England. 

They went about the town to look 
at the cnrioBties. 

To go annind the honae. 

To go about the boose. 

How much does that cost you 7 
How much does this book cost you 7 
It casta me three dcdlan aud a halil 


That table costs him twenty doilars. 
Alone, by one*» eelf. \ 

I was alone. 

One woman only. 

One God. 
God alone can do that 
The very thought of it is criminal. 
A single reading is not sufficient to 
satisfy a mind that has a tme 

En mi lugar. 

En su lugar de V. En sa lugar. 
En sn lugar. En el lugar de €L 
En su lugar. En sn lugar de ella. 
t Todas las cosas se deben poner en 

su lugar. 
AI rededor, (vuelta.) 
Navegimos al redodor de Ingla- 

t Fu^ron por toda la ciodad pun 

examinar las cnriosidadea. 
Ir al rededor de la casa. 
t Dar la yuelta de la casa. 
t Ir por toda la casa. 
t Ir de aquf para alU en la casa. 
t Andar toda la casa. 
Coetar •. 

I Cuanto le cuesta i V. eso 7 
[ Cuanto le cuesta i V. este libro 7 
Me cuesta tres pesos y medio, (Teinie 

Esa mesa le cuesta veinte pesofc 

Solo, Sola, 

Por H oolo, Por H mUu 

Yo estaba solo, (sola.) 

Una sola muger. 

Un solo DiosL 

Solo DkM pnede hacer esa 

t El mero pensamiento es enlpaUe. 

Una sola lectma no basta para sa* 

tisfaeer i on mgenio que tiene nn 

gusto ezaoto. 

To kill by ohooting. 
Be has blown oot his brains. 

I Matar d iiroo. 
t Se ha leyantado la tapa da b» 



Se ha tirade vn tiro (mortal) 


Ha has Uown ont his hnam with a I Se void la tapa de loa sem Ab in 
piiteL I purtoletazo. 

He aenred for a long time, acquired 
honon, and died contented. 

He airiyod poor, pew rich in a short 
time, and lost all in a still shorter 

Sirnd laj^go tiempo, adqoiri6 honara, 
7 morid aatiafecho, (cootento.) 

IAeg6 aquf pobre, ae hixo rico (enri- 
queci6) en pooo tiempo, y perdid 
cnanto tenia en menos tkasfo 



What is the matter with you 7 Why do you look so melancholy, 
(parecerjy-l should not look so melancholy if I had no reason to be 
sad. I have heard just now (Lesson L.) that one of my best friends 
has shot himself with a pistol, and that one of my wife's best fiieods 
has drowned herself. — ^Where has she drowned herself? — She has 
drowned herself in the river which is behind her house. Yesterday, 
at four o'clock in the morning, she rose without saying a word to 
any one, (ninguna 'persona^ leaped out of the window which looks 
into the garden, and threw herself into the river, where she was 
drowned. — I have a great mind (mucha gana) to bathe (banarse) to-day. 
— ^Where will you bathe ? — In the river. — ^Are you not afraid of bring 
drowned ? — Oh, no ! I can (saber) swim. — ^Who taught yon ?— I^ 
summer I took a few lessons in the swinmiing-school, {eseuda de nadar.) 

When had you finished your task 7 — ^I had finished it when yoa 
came in. — ^Those who had contributed (contrUmir) most to his elevation 
to the throne (trono) of his ancestors, were those who labored (tra^ 
U^ar) with the most eagerness to precipitate {precipitar) him from 
it, (de SL) As soon as Caesar (Cesar) had crossed (pasar) the 
Rubicon, he had no longer to deliberate, (deliberar:) he was obl^ 
to conquer (veneer) or to die. — An emperor (emperador) who was 
irritated at (irritado contra) an astrologer, asked him: <* Wretch, 
(miserable!) what death dost thou believe thon wilt die 7"—'' I shall 
die of the fever," replied the astrologer. « Thou liest," said the 
emperor, « thou wilt die this instant of a violent death, (muerle rto- 
laUa.^^ As he was going to be seized, (asir,) he said to the emperor, 
** Sire, order some one to feel (pres. subj.) my pulse, (senar, maide 
V. M. que se me tome el pulso,) and it will be found that I have a fe- 
ver." This sally (agvdeza) saved his life. 

Do you perceive yonder house, (aqueUa f) — ^I do perceive it : whai 
house ia it 7 — ^It is an inn, (una venta ;) if you like we vnll go into it 


to drink a glaas of wine, for I am yery thirsty. — ^Yon are always 
tMrsiy when you see an inn. — ^If we enter I shall drink your health. 
-—Rather than (Lesson LXI.) go into nn inn I will not drink. — 
When will you pay me what you owe me ? — ^When I have money : 
it is useless to ask me for some to-day, for you know very well that 
there is nothing to be had of him who has nothing. — ^When do you 
think you will have money 7 — I think I shall have some next year. — 
Will you do what I shall tell you ? — ^I will do it if it is not too difficult. 
— ^Why do you laugh at me ? — ^I do not laugh at you, but at your coat. 
^Does it not look like (Lesson LXm.) yours 7 — It does not look 
like it, for mine is short (corto) and yours is too long, (largo ;) mine 
is black and yours is green. — ^Why do you associate with that 
man 7 — ^I would not associate with him if he had not rendered me 
great services, (d favor,) — ^Do not trust him, for if you are not on 
your guard, he will chfeat (enganar) you. — ^Why do you work so 
much 7 — I work in order to be one day useful to my countiy. — ^When 
I was yet little I once (un dia) said to my &ther, " I do not know 
commerce, (el comercio,) and I do not know how to sell; let me 
(permUame F.) play." My father answered me, smiling, («o»- 
rUndose,) ^ In dealing (traficartdo se aprende a) one learns to deal, and 
in selling, to sell." *' But, my dear father," replied (replicar) I, *' in play- 
ing one learns also to play." " You are right," said he to me, " but you 
must first learn what is necessary and useful." — Judge not, (nojuzgve 
V.f) that you may not be judged, (si no quiere que le juzgven !) Why 
do you perceive the mote (una pt^'a) in your brother's eye, you who 
do not perceive the beam (una viga) which is in your own eye 7 — 
Would you copy your exercises if I copied mine 7 — I would copy 
them if you copied yours. — ^Would your sister have transcribed her 
letter if I had transcribed mine 7 — She would have transcribed it — 
Would she have set out if I had set out 7 — ^I cannot tell you what she 
would have done if you had set out. 

SEVENTIETH LESSON.— Leccion SephiagSsima. 

OF THE IMPERATIVE.— Z>f I Imperativo, Na 5. 

See the taUe of tenninations. 

This mood is used when the action exprenes commandinj;, prayfaig, or 
exhorting, llie eubjeet (when expreased) is always placed after the veiik 
This mood hea the three pemns in both numbert. 





No. 5 of 7o ie. 

1st Let me be. 

2d. Be thou. 

3d. Let him be. 

2d. Be thou not 

Irt. Let UB be. 

2d. Be ye or you. 

3d. Let them be. 

2d. Be ye not 

No. 5 of To have, (active.) 
Let me haye, &c 

Let UB haye, &c. 

Haye patience. 

Be (ye) attentiye 

Go (ye) there. 
Give it me. 
Send it to him. 
Lend it to me. 

No. 5 de Ser. 

1. Sea yow 

2. Settk. 

3. Sea 6\, (eUa, or V.) 
2. No seas tii.> 

1. Seamos noeotros. 

2. Sed yo8, (yosotroe.) 

3. Sean eUoe, (ellas, or W.) 
2. No seais yos, (yosotros.') 

J No. 5 de Tener, (actiyo.) 

{ Tonga yo, ten tH, no tengaa td, tea* 

I ga 61, (eUa, V.) 

TengamoB nosotros, teoed yoaofioa, 
no tengais yomtioe, tengan eilos, 
(ellas, W.) 

Tenga V. paciencia. 

Sean W. atentoa. (Sed atento^) 

Eaten W. ateotos. (Estad atenta&)' 

VayanW. alld. (Id aU&.) 

D^mele (d^mela) V. 

jfenyieeele (^nyieeela) V. (i €L) 

Pr^etemele (pr6stemoIa) V. 

06«. The pronouns object and complement are placed after the Im- 
peratiye, and joiued to it so as to form a single word, wiiea the yerb is used 
affirmatiyely ; but, when used negatiyely, the proiiouns are placed beforob 
(See Lesson XX. Obs. A.) 

Do not giye it to me. 
' Do not lend it to him. 
Haye the goodness to hand me that 

No me le (no me la) dj6 V. 
No se le (oo se la) presto V. & 61 
Tenga V. la bondad de pasarme 

To horrotD. 
I will borrow some money of you. 

I will borrow that money of you. 

Borrow it of (or from) him. 
I borrow it from him. 

Do not tell it to him — to her. 


Do not return it to them. 

Pedir prettado. 

Yo quioro pedir & V. algun dineio 

Yo quiero pedir prestado eoe dinoro 

4 V. 
Pfdasele V. prestado & 61. 
Yo se le pido prestado i 6L 
No se lo digs V. 4 61 — & ella. 
No se le (la or lo) vuelya V. i ellos, 

(& ellas.) 

^ 07 When the second person, either singular or plural, is used nega- 
tively, its termination is the same as the second person singular or plural of 
tho subjunctiye. 



Vatimco. ImpatieDca. 
Th» flmff-box. 

Be (ye) good. 
Know (ye) it 

I -Paciencia. Impaeiencia. 

I £] prdjimo. 

( La tabaquera. 

{ Caja de pdvo, (de tabaca) 

Obey your maatem, and never giro 
them any trouble. 

Pay what yon owe, comfort the af- 
flicted, and do good to those that 
have ofiended you. 

Lo¥e God, and thy neighbor as thy- 

To obey. 
To eotnfort. 
To offend. 

Let 08 always love and practise vir- 
toe, and we shall be happy both 
in this life and in the next 

To practise. 
Let vs see which of ns can shoot 

To expreat. 
To express one's self. 
To make om^s self understood. 
To have the habiU 
To accustom. 

To accDstom one's self to something. 
Children most be accustomed early 
to labor. 

To be accustomed to a thing, 

I am accostomed to it 
I cannot express myself in Spanish, 
beeaase I am not in the habit of 
Too speak properly. 
To converse. 
To chatter, to prate. 

Sean W. buenoi. Sed boenoa. 
S^panlo W. Sabedlo voaotna. 

Obedescan W. & sua maestros, y no 

les den jamas ninguna pena. 
Obedeced A vueetros maestros, y 

nonca les deis ninguna pena. 
Pagne V. bus deodas, ampaie i. Um 

aflijidos, y haga bien A los qne le 

hayan ofendidow 
Ama i Dies, y i tu prdjlmo como A 

tf mismo. 

Ohedecer. (See verbs io eer.) ^ 
Amparar. Consolar. 

Amemos y practiqoemoa siempie la 
virtud, y ser^mos feliees tanto en 
esta vida como en la otra. 

Practicar. Ejereer. Haeer. 

VeamoB cual de nosotroa pnede tirar 



Hacerse comprender, (entender.) 

Tener costumbre. Soler *. 

Acostumbrar. Acostumbrarse. 

Acostumbrarse & alguna ooaa. 

A los ninos se les debe aoostombrar 

temprano al trabajo. 
Estar aeostumbrado d una cosa. 

£2stoy aeostumbrado i ello. 

No puedo ezpresarme en espafiol, 

porqoe no tengo costumbre de ha- 

V. habla propiamente. 



A prattler t a chatterer, 
I practise q>e&kiiig. 

To permit, to allow. 
The pemunoiL 
I peimit yoa to go there. 

Do good to the poor, have oompas- 
■oa on the unfortunate, and God 
will take care of the rest 
To do good to tome one. 

To have ooopatBon on aome one. 




i Un eharlanU. Un haiUdtr. 
( Unplaticon. ParlmUe. 
t No hago mas que haUar. 

Permitir. Coneeder. 

La pennision, (licencia.) 

Yo le permito 4 V. que Taya aUi 

Haga V. bien d los pobrw, tragi 
compaaion de los infortoowioa, y 
Dios caidarA de lo demaik 
Haeer bien d algvno. 
C CompadecerBo. 
\ Tener compaaion de algnna 
El leato. Lo demas. 

If he comes, tell him I am in the 

Ask the merchant whether he can 
let me have the hone at the |>rice 
which I have offered him. 

Si €1 viene, dfgale V. que ertoy end 

Inf6rmew V. del mercader ai p««d6 
dejarme (venderme) el cabalJopor 
el precio que Ic he ofrecido. 

I read, and was told. 

There they laugh and weep by turns. 

If they knew what you have done. 
The country where diamonds are 

You haye been, or will soon be told. 

WhM we conceive well we ezpren 

T^appear before my eyes, his merit 

1S400 great 
We do not like to see those to whom 

we owe so much. 
It is from a king (Agesilaus) that 

we have that excellent maxim — 

" Hiat a man is great only inas- 

nmeh as he is just" 

I Lol, y me dij^ron. 

i Alii uno no y llora por tumos. 

i t Allf rien y Uoran altemativamMite. 
Si supieran lo que V. ha becbc 
EI pais (la tierra) en donde se haUan 

los diamautes. 
Ya le han dicho 4 V., 6 pnmto !♦» 

Lo que se concibe bien se expit» 

con claridad. 
Para preeentane ante mf, sn mento 

es demasiado grande. 
No nos gufita ver i aquellos i qn«n» 

debemos tanto. 
De un rey (Agesilao) es da qaMnt«- 

nemos eea gran mixinia— "*••* 

uno no es grande sino en cn«ff 

es justo." 


Have patience, my dear friend, and be not sad ; for sadness alters 
(en nada remedid) nothing, and impatience makes bad worse, Qo tnalo 
peor.) Be not afraid of yonr creditors ; be sure that they will do you 
no Imrm. They'wUl wait if yon cannot pay them yet. — ^When will 
you pay me what you owe me ? — Aa soon as I have (tenga) money I 
will pay all that yon have advanced (for) me. I have not forgotten it, 
for I think of it (en eUo) every day. I am yonr debtor, (deudor,) and I 
shall never deny it. — ^What a beautiful inkstand you have there ! pray 
lend it me. — ^What do you wish to do with it ? — ^I wish to show it to 
my sister. — Take it, but take care of it, and do not break it — ^Do not 
fear, (no tenga V, cuidado,) — ^What do you want of my brother 7 — ^I 
want to borrow some money of him. — ^Borrow (pedir) some (le) of 
aomebody else, (<& otra persona.) — ^If he will not lend me any I wiU 
borrow some (le) of somebody else. — ^You will do well. — Do not wish 
for (apetecer) what you cannot have, but be contented with what 
Providence (la Providencia) has given you, and consider (considerar) 
that there are many men who have not what you have. — ^Life being 
short, let us endeavor (Lesson LXV.) to make it as agreeable as pos- 
sible. But let us also consider that the abuse (el abuse) of pleasure 
(in the plural in Spanish) makes it bitter, (amargo^ fem.) — ^Have yon 
done yonr exercises ? — ^I could not do them, because my brother was 
not at home. — ^You must not get {dor d hacer) your exercises done by 
your brother, but you must do them yourself, (V, mismo) — ^What are 
you doing there 7 — ^I am reading the book which you lent me.— Yon 
are wrong in always reading it. — ^What am I to do 7 — ^Diaw this land- 
scape, (Lesson LXVII.,) and when you have drawn it you shall dedine 
some substantives with adjectives. 

What must we do in order to be happy 7 — Always love and practise 
virtue, and you will be happy both in this life and in the next— Since 
(ya que) we wish to be happy, let us do good to the poor, and let us 
have compassion on the unfortunate ; let us obey our masters, and 
never give them any trouble ; let us comfort the unfortunate, (tT^br- 
iunados,) love our neighbor as ourselves, and not hate those (aborrecer) 
that have offended us ; in short, (en una pdldbra,) let us alwaj^s fulfil 
our duty, and God will take care of the rest. — ^My son, in order to be 
loved you must be laborious (laborioso) and good. Thou art accused 
(acusar) of having been idle and negligent in thy afialrs. Thou know- 
eat, however, that thy brother has been punished for having been 
naughty. Being lately (el otro dia) in town, I received a letter fiom 


tbjr talor, in wUch he stnogljr (JuatemaUe) complained of thee. Dc 
not weep; now go into thj room, learn thy lesaon, and be a good boy, 
(htfaoj olhennae (de ciro modof tboa wilt gel nothing for dinner. — I 
iball be ao good, my dear &ther, that you will certainly be satisSed 
with mew— Has the little boy kept his wmd, (eumpUr con su pcUabra l) 
«-Nol quite ; fiv after having eaid that, he went into his room, took 
his books, sat down at the table, and fell asleep. — *^ He is a very good 
bof wbfBa he sleeps," said his &ther, seeing him some time after. 

Good moniing. Miss N. — ^Ah! here you are at last. I have been 
waiting for yoa with impatience. — You will pardon me, (peniofMir,) my 
dear, I ooold not come sooner. — Sit down, if you please. — How is yoor 
■Kither ? — She is better to-day than she was yesterday. — ^I am glad of 
it, (flufcko me aiegro it dhSy-Were yon at tli^ ball yesterday ? — ^I was 
dieie. — ^Were yoa moch mmiiBAH, (divertirse ?) — Only so-eo. — ^At what 
o'clock did you retum home ? — ^At a quarter past eleven. 


Have yoQ been learning Spanish long 7 — ^No, Sir, I have only been 
learning it these six months. — ^Is it possible! you speak tolerably 
well (basianie bien) for so short a time, (ton corto tiempo.) — You jest, 
(hyrlane;) I do not know much (of it) yet — ^Indeed, you speak it well 
already. — ^I think you flatter me a little. — ^Not at all ; you speak It 
property. — ^In order to speak it properly one must know more (of it) 
than I know. — ^You know enough (of it) to make yourself understood. 
—I still make many faults. — ^Tbat is nothing, {^ esonole hace ;) yon 
mast not be bashful ; besides (ademas) you have made no faults in all 
you have said just now. — ^I am still timid, because I am afraid of being 
laughed at, {que se rian de fni, pres. of the subjunctive.) — ^They would 
be very unpdite to laugh at you. Who would be so unpolite as to 
laugh at you, (que se riese de V.?) Do you not know the proverb ? — 
What proverb 7 — ^He who wishes to speak well must begin by (por) 
apeaking badly. — ^Do you understand dl I am telling you 7 — I urider- 
atand and comprehend it very well ; but I cannot express myself well 
in Spanish, because I am not in the habit of speaking it — ^l*hat will 
come in (am el tiempo) time. — ^I vdsh (2o deseo) it with all my heart 

Do yoQ sometimes see my brother 7 — ^I see him sometimes ; when I 
met him the other day he complained of you. ^ If he had behaved 
better, and had been more economical," said he, *^ he would have no 
debts, and I would not have been angry with him." — ^I begged of him 
to have compassion on you, (se compadeciera de V.,\ telling him that 
you had not even money enough to buy bread. — ^ Tell him, when you 
aee him," replied he to me, " that notwithstanding his bad behavior 
(2a eondticta) towards me, I pardon {perdonar 6 uno) him. Tell him 



alao»" oontiiraed he, ** that one should not laugh (que no se ddfe retr) 
at tiioae to whom one is under obligation. Have the goodness to 
do this, and I ahaU be mach obliged to yon/' added he in going awaj, 
(ol trse.) 


3^ stand ujp. 
To ritnain up. 

Win yon pennit me to go to the 

To hasten. < 

Make haste, and retam aoon. | 

Go and tell him that I cannot come 

He came and told ne he conld not 

Go and eee your (nende. 

'Leccion SeptuagSsima primera, 

Estar en fiL 
Permaneeer en pii. 

^Me pennite V. ir al meicado, (i 

la plaza) T 
I Quiere V. pemiitirme que Taya i 

la plaza ? 

Apreeuraree. Despaeharee. 
Ir presto, (pronto.) 

Deepicheee V., y vuelva pronto. 
Vaya V. d deciiie que no pnedo ye- 

nir hoy. 
Vaya V., y dfgale que no puedo ve- 

nir hoy. 
Vino k decimoB que no podia Tenir. 
Vino y noe dijo que no podia Tenir. 
Vaya V. i. yer i bos amigos. 

To weep, to cry. 

The least blow mak^ him cry. 

To frighten. 

To be frightened, to startle. 

The leaet thing irightens him. 

Be not frightened. 

To be frightened at something. 

What are you fii^tened at 7 



£1 manor golpe le hace llorar. 
Asustar. Espantar. 
Asustarse. Sobresaltarse. 

La manor cosa le eepanta. 
Se Bobresalta de la menor cosa. 
No fle esponte (sobresalte) V. 
Asostarae (espantane, sobresaltane) 

de algo, (de alguna cosa.) 
I De que se asosta V.7 

At my expense. 

At his or her expense. 

At our expense. 

At other people's expense. 


A expenses mias. A mi 
A expenses suyas. A su 
A expensas nnestras. 
A nuestm oosta. 
A expensas agenas. 
A oosta agena. 



To depend, 
Tliat dependi upon cii€iiinituioc& 
That doM not depend upon me. 

It depends upon him to do it 

Oh ! yee, it depends vpaa him. 
That man Ktss at OTerybody's ex- 

Depender de, Eetm" em. 
Eso depende de las 
Eoo no depende de mL 
C Depende de €i el haceilow 
I Esti en €i el haoerio. 
;Ah! a, depende de6L 
Ese hombre Ytwe £ ezpensss 
el mondob 


To aetoniekt to eurprioe. 
To he aetoniehedt to toonder. 
To he eurprieed at aomething. 

am smpnsed at it 
An extnoidinaiy thing happened 
which sorprised everybody. 
To take place. 

Many things have pasMd which will 
surprise you. 


Bfany days will pass before that 

A man came in who asked me how 
I was. 

I Aeo mb ra r, Paemar. Sorpnoier. 

JAeombraree. Eetar aoomhroie, 
Admiraree, MaramlUarwe. 
Eetar aeombrado de algnna tern, 

(de algo.) 
Estoy sotprendido de ello, (de eio-) 
Aoonteci6 una cosa extraadiMiii 

que sorprendid 4 todo el maado. 
Aeonteeer. Sueeder. 
Han acontecido mncfaas oosas que le 

soiprenderin i. V. 
Pasarin muchoe diss Antes que n- 

ceda (acontexca) eeo. 
Entr6 un hombre que me pr^pmtd 

como estaba, (como lo pissbs.) 

Then, tkue, eoneeptenily. 


Tlie other day. 

In a short time. 


i Puee. Ent6neee. AeL 

\ Par eonsiguiente. 

i Por eoneiguieute. Aei paee. 

\ Por tanto. 

I EI otro dia. 

I Ultimamente. Poco ha. 

iDentro de poco tiempa 
Dentro de poco. 
I Dentro de. En. De ajui i. 

the epoch, « ^ 

Obe. In speaking of time, dentro de ezp] 
duration, and de aqui d, both. 

He will arrive in a week, (when a ^ £l Uegari dentro de una semana* 
week is elapsed.) ( f De aqui & echo diae. 

It took him a week to make this ( Hixo este viage en una ssmtna. 
journey, (he made it in a week.) ( t Oaetd echo diae en eu viafe. 

He will have finished his Studies in 

three months. 
Ha finiriied his studies in a year. 

Habid acabado sus estndios deDbo 

de tres meees. 
Acabd sus estndios en un afiO" 



He has applied himwlf particniaily 
to geomeCiy. 

To apply one*9 self. 

Se ha dedicado partieiilaiiw&te i fai 

Dediearse, ApHcarte, 

He haa a good many friendi. 
A good many, 

Toa haTe a great deal of pettence. 


Tiene muchoa amigoa. 

Muehot. Mvehao. 

y tiene muchlaima paciencia. 

t V. tiene un granfondo de paeien* 

To make a present of oomething 
oone one* 


Bfr. Lewis Martanex wiote to me 
lately, that his aiateis would be 
here m a dioit time, and requeated 
me to tell yon ao ; yon will then 
be able to see them» and to give 
them the books which you have 
bought They hope that yon will 
make them a present of them. 
Their brother has assured me that 
they esteem yoa, without knowing 
you peiBonally. 

Haeer preoenie de algo {de alguna 

eoea) & alguno, 
Haeer un regalOf (t unajineza,) 

Me eseribi<> el otio dia el Sefior Don 
Luis Maitines que mm hermanaa 
estarian aqui dentro de poco tiem- 
po, y me rog<6 se lo dijera d V. ; 
entdnces podri V. yerias y dar- 
les los libros que ha comprada 
Ellas piensan que V. se los pre- 
sentarA come un regala Sn her- 
mano me ha aaegurado que ellaa 
estiman i V., sin conocerie pen»- 

To get at to be tired. 
To want amueement. 

How oould I get tired in your com- 
He gets tired everywhere. 

> AburHree. Faetidiaree Canearee. 

^Como podria yo abmriime en la 

compaftla de V.T 
fA en todas partes se fastidia. 

Agreeable, (pleasing.) 
To be welcome. 

Tod are welcome eyeryi^ere. 


Agradable. GostosOi Flaoenteraii 
t 8er bien venido. t Agaeajar. 
t En todas partes le agasijan i V. 
Es y. bien venido (recibido) en todas 


Win you drink a cup of tea ? — ^I thank yon ; I do not like tea. — 
Do yon like coffee 7—1 like it, bnt I have jnst drunk some, (le.) — ^Do 
yon not get tired here? — ^How conld I get tired in this agreeable 
society ? — Aa to me I always want amusement — If yon did as I do, 
you would not want amusement, for I listen to all thoiie who tell m0 



uyUung. IntfaUiDMiuierl leaniathoiiaaxidagreeaJbletfaings,i]idI 
have no time to get tired ; bat you do nothing of that kiiid, {it esoO 
that is the reaaon why you want amnaement. — ^I would do every thing 
like (eomo) you, if I had no reason to be sad. — ^Have yon been Mr. 
Lambert ? — ^I have seen him ; he told me that hia aisters would be 
here in a abort time, and deaired (me rogd 9e lo digera a F.) me to 
tell yon ao. When they have (hayan) arrived, yoa may give them the 
gold rings which you have bought ; they flatter themselves that yoo 
will make them a present of them, for they love you without knowing 
you personally. — Has my sister already written to you ? — She has 
wiitlen to me ; I am going to answer her. — Shall I tell her that you 
ate here ? — ^Tell her; but do not tell her that I am waiting for her 
impatiently, (pen impaeiencitL) — Why have yon not brought your asr 
'ter along with you 7 — ^Which one ? — ^The one yoa always bring, the 
youngest — She did not wish to go out, because she has the toothache. 
— ^I am very sony for it, for she is a very good girl. — How ckl is she ? 
— She is nearly fifteen years old. — She is yery tall (aito) for her age, 
(edad) — How old are you? — ^I am twenty-two. — Ib it pOBoble! I 
thought you were not yet twenty, (no Uegda V. dlos veinte.) 

SEVENTY-SECOND LESSON.— Leocton Sepiuagisima segwuda. 

Not I No. 

ST Remember that no n always placed before the verb in negative aad 
intemgattve-negative sentences. 

I No tiene V. mi libro T 

No le tengo. 

No hable V . i eae hombre. 

I No ha visto V. i mi hermanoT 

I No ha aprandido 61 el eepafiol t 

No le ha aprendido. 

Me qniere demasiado para no hMor 

eso por mL 
Me voy para no desagradailei (I*-) 

Ha de ser un graa menteoato ei qw 

no perciba eso. 
Cesar. Fsiar. Deaiatir. Dejarda 
Osar. Atreveise. 

Have yon not my book 7 

I have it not 

Do not apeak to that man. 

Have you not eeen my brother? 

Has he not learned Spanish 7 

He baa not learned it 

He ia too fond of me not to do it 

I go away net to diapleaae hhn, or 

One mnat be a fool not to peiceive 

To cease. 
To dare. 
To be able. 



7oa oointiiuiali7 aok me for money. 

She doQB not ceaae complaiaing. 

I do not dare to ask you for it 
She does not dare to tell you so. 
I cannot go there.. 
I cannot teli you. 
Yon cannot believe it 
They found on her a letter, in which 
Lucinda stated and declared in 
her own handwriting, that she 
could never be the wife of Don 
Fernando* being already the wife 
of Cardenio. 

Continnamente me pide V. dineio. 

t Siempre me anda V. pidiendo di» 

Ella no ceea de quejarse. 

t EUa nempre se eaid quefando. 

t No para en bub quejaa. 

No me atreyo & pedinelo i V. 

Ella no ae atreye i dednelo i V. 

Yo no puedo ir alii. 

Yo no puedo decir d V. 

V. no lo puede creer. 

Halldron un papel eacrito de la nuB- 
ma letra de Lucinda, en que decia 
y declaraba que ella no podia aer 
nunca espoBa de Don Fernando, 
aino de Cardenio de quien ya lo 

D. QuuoTB, Cap. S8. 

Moreover, beBtdes. 

BendeB that 
BeBides what I have just aaid. 
Tliere are no means of finding money 

iAdemas de. A maa de OBto, (eoo.) 
Par otra parte. Aun. 
AdemaB de oBa 

Ademaa de lo que acabo de decir. 
No hay medio de hallar dinero ahora. 

To push. 

Along the road. 

Along the Btreet 
All along. 

All the year round. 


iEmpujar. Impeler. 
Impartunar. MoUeiar, 
A lo largo (por lo largo) del camioow 
Todo el largo del camino. 
A lo largo (por lo largo) de la calle. 
I Por todo. 
C Por todo el afia 

< t Todo el afio complete, (en redoa- 
( da) 

To enahU to. 

To be able. 


To the right On the right aide. 
On the right hand. 
On the left. On the left flido. 
On the left hand. 


Poner en eituacion de. HabUitar, 
Poder. Poner en eetado de, 
Ser eapaz. Poder. 
Tener faeuliad. 

A la derecha. Al lado derecha 
A mano derecha. (Mano, fern.) 
A la izquierda. Al lado izquierdo. 
A mano izquiexda. A mano ainiertra. 



Could yoa not toll me which is the 
nearait way to the city T 

Go to the bottom of the street, and 
when you are there, torn to the 
right, and yon will find a croi»* 
way, which yoa mwt take. 

And then? 

Ton will then enter a broad street 
which will bring yoa to a great 
square, where yoa will see a blind 

Yon mwt leave the blind alley on 
year left, and pas nnder the ar- 
cade that is near it 

Then you most ask again. 

An arcade. 
The cross-way. 
The blind alley. 
The shore, (the bank.) 


I Podria V. docirme cnal es el 
mas corto para ir i la dndad? 

Vaya V. per la calle abajo, y cosado 
Ue^e al fin, tuerza V. & la itn- 
cha, 7 hallari. nna encracijads, 
que atraveear^ 

^V que mas? 

f lY fue hare erUSnees? 

Ent6nces entrari V. en mia caUe 
ancha que le Uevari i nna gnode 
plaza, en donde reri V. im eaUejon 

DejarA V. el callejon A la iiqoierii, 
y paaarA debajo del arooqnee^ 

junto 4 &* 
Entoncea tendiA V. que informaisB 

de nuero. 
Un area 
La encmcijada. 

El callejon. 

La oriUa, (ooi*a, libera, pUya, mil- 


To get nuarriedf (to enter into mat' 

To many oomehody. 
To marry, {to give in marriage.) 
My cousin, having given his sister in 

marriage, manied Miss Alvarez. 

Is your cousin married 7 

No, he is still a bachelor. 
To be a bachelor. 

Emhanraooed, fuzzUd, at a loot, \ 

An embanamment, a puzile. \ 
Vou embairasB me, (puzzle me.) 

The marriage. 
Ue asked my sister in marriage. 

t Caoaroe. Contraer matrimomo. 

Caoaroe eon aiguno, {alguM.) 
Caoar. Dar en matrimomo. 
Despues de habor casado 4 sa ber- 
mana, mi primo se casd con ia 

Sefiorita Alvarez. 
iEe (esU) casado el senor pnmo 

No, todavia es soltero. 
Ser soltero. 

Embarazado. Peri^ejo. EmMledo. 
Confundido. Perdida 
Un embaraza Una poiplejidad. 
Un embroUa Una coalaaoa. 
V. me embaraza, (me perplejat « 

me embroUa.) 
El casamiento. 
t El fidid la mono de m *€nw»« 

The measure. 
To take measures. 
I diall take other measures. 

Tomar medidaa. 
Tomar^ otiaa medidaBi 


Goodnofli ! how npidly time pMsea i ; Diot mio ! coan pronto ae pan el 
in yoor aociety I \ tiempo en la oompaiifa de V ! 

5 ^' cumplimiento. £U complida 
The compliment ^ ^a atencion. 

Too make me a compliment which I V. me hace nn compUdo al enal no 
I do not know how to answer. | b6 como coneaponder. 


It IB not my fault 

Do not lay it to my chazge. 

To lay to on/^» charge. 

Who ean help it 7 
Whose fault is it 7 
I cannot help it 

The delay. 
He does it without delay. 
I mnat go, (most be off) 
Go away ! Begone ! 


The jest, joke. 

Yoa are jesting. 
He cannot teke a jest, he is 

To heg some one's pardon. 

To pardon. 

I beg yoor pardon. 
The pardon. 

To advance. 
The watch goes too fast, (gains.) 

To retard. 
The watch goes too dow, (loses.) 


I Culpa, Fatta, 

No es culpa mia. No es mi lalta. 
t Yo no tongo la culpa. 
I No me le (la, or lo) impute V. i mL 

JlmputarU d una, 
Echar la culpa 6, 

I Quien lo puede remediar 7 

I I Quien tiene la culpa 7 
No puedo remediarlow 

La tardanza. La dilacion. 

La detencion. La demora. 
I Lo (le, or la) hace sin tardanza. 

t Tengo que irme. 

Es roenestor que me vaya. 
I \ V&yase V. ! \ M&rchese V. ! 

( Burlaree, Chaneearoe 
\ Chacotearoe, 

La burla. La chanza. 
La chacota. 

V. ae burla. V. se chancea. 
no t it\ no entionde de bnrlas. 




Pedir perdon i alguno. 
Pedir el perdon de alguno. 
I Perdonar, 

Yo pido perdon d V. 
Yo pido el perdon de V. 
Perd6neme V. t Con perdon de Y 
I £1 perdon. 


E9 reloj adelante. 


El reloj atraia. 



My wateh hai gtopped. 

When did we atop 7 
We left off at the fortieth 1< 
page one hundfed and thirty-oiz. 
To wind up a watch. 
To r^pilate a watch. 
Yoor watch is twenty minntea too 
faat, and mine a quarter of an 
hour too alow. 

It haa not etnick twehre yet 

It will aoon itrike twelve. 

Haa it already atnick twelve ? 
To Hrike, (apeakinijr of horns.) 

Mi reloj ae ha pandow 
Pararme, Parar. 

I En donde hemoe parado T 

Noa parlLmoe en la leccion coadn- 
g^aima, p4jina ciento tnintayaeii 

t Dar cnerda 4 on vdoj. 

Aireglar on reloj. 

El reloj do V. adelanU veinte mins- 
toa, y el mio atraaa on cnaito de 

t Todavfa no han dado laa does. 
t Laa doce eatan al dar. 
t Laa doce van k dar. 
t Pronto dar4n laa doce. 

I I Han dado ya loa doce? 


On condition, provided. 

He will lend yon nx>ney, provided yon 
will henceforth be more economi- 
cal than you have hitherto been. 

Hereafter, for the future, hence- 

The future. 


To renounce gamblinf^. 
To follow advice, (counael.) 
You look BO melancholy. 

Adieu, farewell 

Ood be with you, good^hy, 

I hope to aee you again aoon. 

Con tal que. Con condicion qna 

Bajo de condicion que. 

£l le pieatard A V. dinero con tal 
que en adelante aea V. maa eeood- 
mice de lo que ha aido haata ahoia. 

En adelante. De aqui en adelante. 

En lo veniderob En lo futnro. 

Lo futuia Lo venidero. 

Econ6mico. Frugal. Parca 


Haata ahora. 

RenuQciar al jqego. 

Seguir el cooaejo de alguno. 

V. parece tan melancdlico. 

A Dioo, Vaya F. can Du>$. 

Quede V. con Dioe. 

Eapero tener el gaato de volveri^ < 

Eapeio volveiie A ver 4 V. pronto. 


What o'clock is it ?— It is half-past one.— You say it is half-past one, 
and by (par) my watch it is but half-past twelve.— It will soon strike 
two. — ^Pardon me, it has not yet struck one. — I assure you it is fiw 
and twenty minutes past one, for my watch goes veiy well-— Bleas 
me ! how rapdly time passes in your society ! — ^Yon make me a co^ 


pHment which I do not know how to answer. — ^Have yon bought your 
watch in Paris 7 — ^I have not bought it, my uncle has made me a 
present of it. — What has that woman intrusted you with 7 — She has 
intrusted me with a secret about a count who is in great embar^ 
rassment aboat the (d causa) marriage of one of his daughters. — Does 
any one ask her in marriage 7 — ^The man who demands her in mar^ 
liage is a nobleman of the neighborhood, (la vecmdady-^li he rich 7 
— Noj he is a poor devil (diablo) who has not a penny.— -You say you 
have no friends among your schoolfellows, (ej candiscipulo ;) but is it 
not your fiiolt 7 You have spoken ill of them, and they have not 
offended yon. They have done you good, and nevertheless (sin em- 
hargo) you have quarrelled with them, (Lesson LXIV.) Believe me, 
he who has no friends deserves (merece) to have none. 


Diiilqgve (didlogo) between a tailor and his Journeyman, (el ofieiaL) 

— Charles, have you taken the clothes to the Count Narissi 7 — ^Yes, 

Sir, I have taken them to him. — ^What did he say 7 — ^He said nothing 

but that he bad a great mind to give me a box on the ear, (brfetadas, 

plur.,) because I had not brought them sooner. — What did you answer 

him 7 — Sir, said I, I do not understand that joke : pay me what you 

owe me ; and if you do not do so instantly I shall take other measures. 

Scarcely had I said that, when he put his hand to his sword, (a su 

espada,) and I ran away. 


What are you astonished at 7 — ^I am astonished to find you still in bed. 

— If you knew how sick I am, you would not be astonished at it Has 

it already struck twelve 7 — ^Yes, Madam, it \b already half-past twelve. 

-—Is it so late 7 Is it possible 7 — ^That is not late, it is still early. — 

Does your watch go weU, (bien ?) — ^No, Miss N., it is a quarter of an 

hour too fast. — And mine is half an hour too slow. — ^Perhaps it has 

stopped. — ^In fact, you are right. — ^Is it wound up 7 — It is wound up, 

vdA yet (sin embargo) it does not go. — Da you hear 7 it is striking 

one o'clock. — ^Then I will regulate my watch and go home. — ^Pray 

stay a little longer ! — ^I cannot, for we dine precisely at one o'clock, 

(a 2a una en punto.) — ^Adieu, then, till I see you again. 

What h the matter vrith you, my dear friend 7 why do you look so 
melancholy 7 — Nothing ails me, (nada tengo.) — Are you in any trouble, 
(esta V, apurado ?) — ^I have nothing, and even less than nothing, for I 
have not a penny, and I owe a great deal to my creditors : am I not 
my imhappy 7-— When a man is well and has friends he is not un« 


happy. —Dare I ask you a j&vor? — ^What do you wish ?— Have the 
goodness to lend me fifty dollars. — ^I will lend you them with all my 
heart, hut on condition Uiat you will renounce gambling, (otendov 
d ju^Oy) and be more economical than you have hitherto been.^ 
see now that you are my friend, and I love you too much not to follov 
your advice. 

John, (Juan .O^What is your pleasure. Sir ? — ^Bring some winc- 
Presently, Sir.— -Heniy !— Madam ?— Make the fire, (endenda V. caur 
dda,) — ^The maid-servant has made it already. — ^Bring me some paper, 
pens, and ink. Bring me also some sand (artmlld) or blodiog^paper, 
{papel de estraza^ sealing-wax, (lacre,) and a light, (una vda encendxda.) 
Go and tell (rayo V. a decir) my sister not lo wait (que no we espere) 
for me, and be back again (volver) at twelve o'clock in order to cany 
my letters to the post, (correo.) — Very well, madam. 

SEVENTY-THIRD LESSON.— jLeccton Septuagisima iercera. 

To iflrt, (to wear well) j ^Z'largo tiempo, {m^he,) 

That doth will wear well 

How long has that coat lasted you ? 

Eae pafio dorari lBi;go tiempo. 
^Coanto tiempo le ha dorado 4 V. 
eea casaca 7 

TV. my liking. \ i """ ^"'- «"* "" ^'^ 

' ^ ( Que me agrade, 

m u J » fL. i -A.! gusto de todos. 

To everybody's hkmg. \ ^ J ^ ^^ ,^ ^^^ ^^ ^^) 

Nobody can do any thing to his | t NadiepuedehacercoM algunaqoe 
liking. I le guste, (que le agiade.) 

A boarding-house. I Casa de hn^spedes. Posada. 

A boarding-school. | Pupilage. 

To k«ep a lKmitluig.houw. \ Z""' ™' ""^ * hoAped* 

^ ( Tener una posada. 

(Hospedane (tomar posada) eon a/- 
Vivir con algima 
Elatai en posada con algOB^ 

TV cxclotm. I Exelamar. 

Tt make tuieosy. | Inquietar. MoUetar. JkeeMtigV' 



Tq gtty or grato uneasy. 
To be nneaay. 

li¥hy do yoQ fret, (are yon uneasy?) 
I do not fret, (am not uneasy.) 

That news makes me nneasy. 

I am tmeasy at not raceiring any 

She is nneasy about that affiur. 

0o not be nneasy. 
The nneaaneas, trouble. 


To fuief. 

Compose yonnelf. 

' To alter, to change, 

Hiatman has altered a peat deal 
siiice I saw him. 

i InquteUsree. Moleetarae, 
( Deeaeoeegarse. Ineomodaree, 

Estar inqoieto, (ansioso, cnidadose» 

desasosegado, tncdmodo.) 
I Porqu^ se inquleta V. T 
Yo no me inquieto. 
Esa notieia me inqt^jeta. 
t Me da euidado eea notieia. 
Me inqaieta el no lecibir noticias. ' 
t No §i ^ue hacerme porque no 

reeibo notidae. 
Ella se inquieta d ceica de ese 

No se inquiete V. 
La inquietad. La incomodidad. 
El desasosiego. 
I TranqoOo. Sosegado. Quieta 

iTranquilixar. Soeegar, 
Aquietar, Apaciguar, 
Trunquillcese V. Sosi^guese V. 

Alterar, Camhiar. Mudar, 

Ese hombre se ha mudado mucho 
desdo que ]e v(. 


To he of use. 
Of what nse is that to you 7 
That is of no use to me. 
Of what use is that to your brother? 

It is of no use to him. 

Of what use m that stick to you ? 

I use it to beat my dogs. 

Of what use is that hone to you ? 

I use it to cany my TogetaUes to the 

Of what nse are these bottles to your 

They serve him to put his wme in. 

To stand instead, to be as. 

I use my gun as a stick. 

This hole serreo him as a house. 
He and hv cravat as a nightcap. 

To awtU. 


Sertftr de. 

t £ De que le sirve d V. eso ? 

t De nada me sinre eso. 

t ^ De que sinre eso al hennano de 


t De nada le sirve. 
t ^ De que le sirve d V. ese palo ? 
t Me sinre para apalear mis perros. 
t ^ De que le sirve A V. ese caballo 7 
Me sirve para Uevar las verduras al 

mercado, (la plaza.) 
^De que sirven estas botellas d sn 

hu^sped de V. 7 
t Le sirven parq Uenarlas de vino, 
Servir de, Usar eomo. 
Mi escopeta me sinre de baston. 
Uso mi escopeta como baston. 
Este hueco le sinre de casa. 
Se sirvi6 de su coroata como de 

gorro de dormir. 
Servir de. Aprovechar de. 


What aTaOa it to yoa to ciy T 
It ayaUfl me notkinflf* 


t ^ De que le airre i. V. liotar T 
I Qae le aprorecha a V. Uorart 
I t De nada me arra. 


Opposite that hooae. 

Opposite the garden. 

Opposite to me. 

Right opposite. 
He lives opposite the casUe. 
I live opposite the king's library. 

To get hold of. 

To take possesnoa of. 

En f rente. Frenie A, 

Enfrente de esa caaa. 

Enfrente del jardin* 

Frente i mt 

Frente &. For frente. 

Vive en frente del castilla 

Yo vivo en frente de (frente 4) la 

biblioteca real 
Aflir. Agarrar. 
Apoderaise de. 

To witness, to show. 

To give evidence against some one. 

The witness. 
He has shown a great deal of friend- 
ship to me. 
To turn some one into ridicule. 
To become ridiculous. 
To make one's self ridiculous. 

I Atestigoar. Testificar. Miinifriatsr. 
t Ser testigo contra algnna 
t Salir testigo contra algnno. 
£3 testigo. t La testigo, (fern.) 
Me testified mw^ 



Ridiculizar i alguno. 
Hacerse ridfcula Ridieuiigt 
Volvene ridicnla 

To be horn* 
Where were you bom 7 
I was bom in this country. 
Where was your sister bora 7 

She was bora m the United States 

of North America. 
Where were your brothers bom? 

They were bora in Spain. 

t Naeer, (See Appendix.) 

t ^ En donde naci6 V. 7 

t Yo naci en este pais. 

1 1 En donde nacid su heraottna de 

t Ella naci<) en los Estados Unidos 

de la America del Norte, 
t ^ En donde nacidron los hermanos 

de V.7 
t Naci^ron en Espaiia. 

The boarder. 
The pouch. 
A pillow. 

El hu^sped. EU pensionista. 

EI monal. Ia bolsa de caxadofe^ 

Una funda. 



• 224. 

Sir, may (atreverse) I aak where the Earl of B. lives ? — ^He lives 
near the castle on the other side of the river. — Could yon tell me 


which load 1 most take to go thither ? — ^You must go {seguir) (aloEig) 
the shore, and you will come (Uegar) to a little street on the right, 
which will lead you straight (en derechura) to his house. It is a fine 
house, you will find it easily. — I thank you, Sir. — Does Count N. live 
here ? — Yes, Sir, walk in, (sirvase V, pasar a dentro,) if you please.— 
Is the count at home ? I wish to have the honor (el honor) to speak 
to him. — ^Yes, Sir, he is at home ; whom shall I- have the honor to 
announce, (anunciar ?) — ^I am from B., and my name is (Uamarse) F. 
Which is the shortest (corto) way to the arsenal, (un arsenal ?)— * 
Go down this street, and when you come (Jlegue) to the bottom, (cabo,) 
turn to the left, and take (pose por) the cross- vay; you will then 
enter into a rather narrow (baslanle estrecha) street, which will lead 
yoa to a great square, (la plaza,) where you will see a blind alley. — 
Through (por) which I must pass ? — No, for there is no outlet, (la 
sMida.) You must leave it on the right, and pass under the arcade 
which is near it. — And then ? — ^And then you must inquire, (further.) 
— ^I am very much obliged to you.— Do not mention it, (no hay de que.) 
— ^Aie yoa able to translate an English letter into Spanish ? — ^I am*— 
Who has taught you ? — ^My Spanish master. 

Why does your mother fret ? — She frets at receiving no news from 
her son who is with the army. — She need not be uneasy about him, 
for whenever he gets into a bad scrape he knows how to get out of it 
again. — ^Last summer when we were a^-hunting together (juntos) night 
grew upon us (se cerro la noche) at at least ten leagues (una legua) 
from our country-seat, (Id quinta,) — ^Well, (pues^) where did you pass 
the night ? — I was veiy uneasy at first, but your brother not in the 
least, (710 ;} on the contrary, he tranquillized me, so that I lost my 
uneasiness. We found at last a peasant's hut where we passed the 
night. Here I had an opportunity to see how clever your brother is. 
A few benches and a truss of straw (un haz de pt^'a) served him to 
make a comfortable (bueno) bed ; he used a bottle as a candlestick, 
our pouches served us as a pillow, and our cravata as nightcaps. 
Wlien we awoke in the morning, we were as fresh and healthy as if 
W3 had slept on down and silk. — ^A candidate (un candidato) petitioned 
(pcdir) the king of Prussia (Prusia) for an employment, (un empko.) 
This prince asked him where he was born. ** I was bom at Berlin," 
answered he. ^ Begone !" said the monarch, (el monarca,) '* all the 
men of Berlin (las hyos de Berlin) are good for nothing." ** I beg 
your majesty's (la mc^'estad) pardon," replied the candidate, *^ there are 
some good ones, and I know two." ** Which are those two ?" asked 
the king. ** The first," replied the candidate, *' is yotir majesty, and I 


axymrr-rouBTH ueasoir. 

am the aeoond." The king conki not help lao^img (tio jnufo mhm 
quA reir) at thia anawer, and granteJ (coneeder) the request, (Is 

SEVENTY-FOURTH LESSON.— Leccion S^tuagisima cuorta. 

Ta lorn mgkt of. 
I wear qpcctaclea b canae my aght 

ia bad, (I have bad aigfat) 
I am near-Mghted. 
Hie ship ia K> far off that we ehall 

•con kwe sight of it 
I have lost sight of that. 
Aa it is long since I was in England, 

I have lost sight of year brother. 

Aa it is long anoe I have read any 
SpaniA, I have lost sight of it 

Ought Skotdd, 

Ton onght or dioald do that 

Yon ought not to speak thus to his 

We oaght to go there earlier. 

Tliey dioold listen to what yon say« 

Yon shook! pay more attention to 
what I say. 

Yon ought to have done that 

Yon should have managed the thing 

He should have managed the thing 
better than he has done. 

Tliey ought to have managed the 
thing as I did. 

We ought to have managed it dif- 
ferently from what they did. 

Perder algo de ottlo. 

La vista. 

Llevo anteojos porqne tengo U vA 

mala. (See Ohs. B, Leia XITl) 
t Tengo la vista coita. 
El buque eati tan lejos que pronto 

le perder^mos de vista. 
He perdido eeo de vista. 
Como hace roncho tiempo desk qoe 

estuve en Inglateira, he perdkio 

de vista 4 aa hermano de V. 
t Como hace mncho qoe no he ieido 

espafiol, casi le he olTidada 

No. 8 of Deber. (See Leaa IX) 

V. deberia hacer eso. 

V. no deberia haUar aaif si nfior pt- 

dre de 61. 
Deberfamoa ir alii mas tempfsna 
Deberian eacachar lo qoe V. dieft 
yy. deberian hacer mss ateodoai 

lo que digo. 
y. deberia haber hecho esa 
y. deberia haber manejado la con 

de otro modo, (diferentemente.) 
£l podrla haber hecho la con iwjor 

de lo que la ha hecho. 
EIIos deberian haber manejado h 

cosa como yo lo bice. 
Deberfamoa haber lo hecho deotn 

modo que ellos. 

To bid or to wish. 

I bid you a good morning. 
I widi you a good morning. 

I wirii yoQ a good journey. 

I Desear. 
t Mny buenos dies tenga y« 
Deaeo 4 V. fetices dia& 
Buenos diss. 

I Le deseo 4 Y. feiis viaga 



To play a game at biflianb. 
To play upon the flute. 
To have a falL 
A stay, a flojoum. 
To make a stay. 
Does your brother intend to make a 
long stay in the town 7 

He does not intend to make a long 
stay in it 

Jugar una mesa (partida) de biOar. 

t Tocar la flaota. 

Una caida. 

t Dar una caida. 

Restdencia. Morada. 

t Estar de asiento. Morar. Residis 

1 1 Fiensa sn hermano de V. estar 

largo tiempo de asiento en la 

ciodad 7 
t £l no piensa estar de asiento en 


To propose, (meaning to intend.) } .-.^ . ,_ . 

I propose going on that journey. 
I propose (intend) joining a hunting 

\ • Tener inteneion. 
t Pienqo hacer ese viage. 
Intento juntarme & una partida de 

To mepeet, to guess. 

I suspect what he has done. 

He dioes not suspect what is going to 

happen to him. 
To think of some one, of something. 

Of whom do you think ? 

Of what do you think ? 

iSospeehar. Presumir. Recelar. 
^ Adiviwar. Suponer. 
Yo presume lo que ha hecha 
No Bospecha lo que va & sucederle. 

Pensar en alguno, en alguna cosa. 
I En quien piensa V. 7 
I En que piensa V. 7 

To turn upon. 
To be the question. 
It is qnestioned, it turns upon. 
The question is not your pleasure, 

but your improvement 
Ton play, Sir, but playing is not the 
thing, but studying. 
What is going on 7 
Hie question is to know what we 
riiaU do to pass the time agreeably. 


Tratarse de dlgo. Volver la vistiu 

Se trata de. 

No se trata del ]4acer, sine de su 

adelantamiento de V. 
V. juega, seiior, pero no se trata de 

jugar, sine de estudiar. 
^De que se trata 7 
Se trata de saber lo que har^mos para 

emplear el tiempo gustoeamente. 

On purpose. \ A propdsito. 

, , , • C Yo pido perdon & V., no lo he hecho 

I beg yoor pardon, I have not done J ^ propiito. 

it CMi poipose 

< a prop<3sito. 

( t JVo 2o A« kecho & mal hacer. 

To hold one^s tongue. 


CaUarse. t CaUarse la boca. 
t No abrir la boca. 



Do 700 hold your tongue ? 
I hold my tongue. 
He holds hio tongue. 
After Bpeaking half an hour» he held 
hii tongue. 

i Se calla V. 1 
Yo me cailo. 
£i ae calla. 

Deepuea do haber habUdo por mei^ 
hore, se callA. 


A thief haying one day entered a hoarding-house, stole three cloaks, 
(^ capa,) In going away he was met by one of the boaideis who 
had a fine laced (galoneado) cloak. Seeing so many cloaks, he asked 
the man where he had taken them. The thief answered bcddlj (con 
mitcho sosiego) that they belonged to three gentlemen (cabaUeros) of 
the house, who had given them to be cleaned, (para que los Umpiase.) 
" Then you must also clean 'mine, for it is very much in need of it," 
said the boarder ; '* but," added he, ** you must return it to me at three 
o'clock." " I shall not fail, (faUarS Sir," answered the thief, as he 
carried off (Uevar) the four cloaks, with which he (que) is still to 
return, (todavia no han parecido.) — You are singing, (cantor,) gentle- 
men, but it is not a time for singing ; you ought to be silent, and to 
listen to what you are told. — ^We are at a loss. — ^What are you at a 
loss about 7 — ^I am going to tell you : the question is with us how we 
shall pass our time agreeably. — Play a game at billiards or at chess. — 
We have proposed joining a hunting-party ; do you go with us, (venirJ) 
— ^I cannot, for I have not done my task yet ; and if I neglect it, my 
master will scold me.-'^Every one according to his liking ; if you like 
staying at home better than going a-hunting we cannot hinder yon. — 
Does Mr. B. go with us 7 — ^Perhaps. — ^I should not like to go with 
him, for he is too great a talker, (muy hablador,) excepting that (menos 
eso) he is an honest man. 

What is the matter with you 7 You look angry. — ^I have reason to 
(motivo) be angry, for there is no means of getting money now. — 
Have you been to Mr. A.'s 7 — ^I have been to his house ; but there is 
no possibility (ningun medio) of borrowing from him. I suspected 
that he would not lend me any, that is the reason why I did not wish 
to ask him ; and had you not told me to do so, I should not have sub- 
jected myself (exporter) to a refusal, (d UTia negaiiva.) 


I suspected that you would be thirsty, and (that) your sister (would 
be) hungry; that is the reason why I brought (traer) you hither. 
1 am Sony, however, not to see your mother.— Why do you not drink 
▼our coffee 7— Tf I were not sleepy I would drink it.— Sometimes you 



are sleepy, sometimes {otras) cold, sometimes waim, and sometimes 
something else is the matter with you, (y muchas veces otras cosas.) 
I believe that yon think too much of the misfortune that has happened 
to yoar friend, (fern.) — ^If I did not think about it, who would think 
abont it ? — Of whom does your brother think ? — ^He thinks of me, for 
we always think of each other (uno de otro) when we are not 
together, (juntos.) 

The Biscayans are excellent ball-players, (jttgitdores,)'— The two 
chess-players were veiy skilful. — Do you know any flute-player, 
(Jlauiista,) or any violin-player, (yiolinista?) — ^I know a very good 
finte-player, but I do not know any violin-player. — For what purpose 
do yon ask 7 — ^Because I intend to have a musical entertainment. — ^Do 
you sometimes practise (hacer) music ? — ^Very often, for I like it much. 
— ^What instrument do you play 7 — I play the violin, and my sister 
plays the harpsichord. My brother who plays the bass (e/ coiUrabiffo) 
accompanies (acompanar) us, and Miss Stolz sometimes applauds 
(aplavdir) us. — ^Does she not also play some (musical) instrument 7 — 
She plays the harp, {d harpa,) but she is too proud (orguUoso) to 
practise music with us. — A very poor town went to considerable 
expense (hizo gastos considerables) in feasts and illuminations (Jiestas 
e ilumnaciones) on the occasion of its prince passing through, (ctumdo 
paso su principe.) The latter seemed himself astonished at it. — ^* It 
has only done," said a courtier, (cortesano,) '* what it owed (to your 
majesty.") " That is true," replied another, ^ bat it owes all that it 
has done." 

SEVENTY-FIFTH LESSON.— Xeccion Septuagisima qidnta. 

He eames towards me. 

He behaved very well towards me. 

We mnfll always behave well to- 
wards everybody. 

Hie behavior of othen is but an echo 
of our own. If we behave well 
towards them, they will also be- 
have well towards us ; but if we 
use them ill, we must not expect 
better from them. 


Con, Para eon. 

Yiene hdcia mf . 

Se port6 may bien oounigo. 

Siempre noe debemos portar bien para 
con todo el mando. 

La conducta de los otros no eo mas 
que el eco de la nnestra. Si nos 
portamoB bien eon elloe, ae porta- 
r&n ignalmente bien con noaotros ; 
pero ai no loa tratamoa bien, no 
debemoa eaperar que nea traten 


aiyxHTT-FirrH lesbov. 

T» treat or te um mmehody toett. 
Tf u»e 9omebody UL 



Am yoQ have always imd me well, I 

will not use yoa til. 
He haa always need me well, and I 

have always need him in the tame 


Tratar Hen d um, {algum,) 
TVaf «r mat 6 vno, (aJ^vmO 
Todo el mundo. Tadoa. 
Otro. Otroe. 

(Indefinite Pronoans, bm A|i|k) 

Como V. me ha tratadoacmpiebieB, 

yo no le tratar^ maL 
Siempre me ha tratado bien, 7 70 le 

he tratado aiempre de la nnma 


To delays {to tarry,) 
Do not be long before yon return. 
I ihall not be long before I return. 

To long to or for. 


I long to see my brother. 

He longs to receive his money. 

We long for dinner, because we are 

▼ery hungry. 
They long to sleep, because they are 


Tardar. Tardaree, Detauru. 
No tarde V. en volyer. 
No tardar^ en volver. 

Eeperar con aneiae. 

Eetar aneioeo. 

Deoear con vehemenda. 

Tener gran gana. 

Tener muchaa ganaa de. 

Estoy amriosa de ver A mi hennaBO. 

Deeea mucho recibtr su dinero. 

Tenemos mnchas ganas de oohmt, 

porqne tenemos mucha hambre. 
Tienen mnchas ganss de donnb, 

porque estan cansadoa 

To be at one's eaoe. 

To be eomfortabU, \ 

7^ be uncomfortable. \ 

I am very much at my ease upon 

Yon are uncomfortable iqwn your 

What can that be 7 

We are uncomfortable in that board- 

Tliat man is well off, for he has 
plenty of money. 

Eetar uno con deeakogo. 

Eetar a eua anckvrae. 

Eetar bien, 

Eetar edmodamente, 

t Paaarlo bien* 

Eetar incdmodamente. 

f PaearlomaL 

t Estoy mnyd mis anchurasone^ 

v. esti incdmodamente en an dla. 


I Que puede ser esoT 

Estamos incdmodamente eatt^V^ 

t Lo pasamos muy mal en eaa po- 

t Ese hombre lo pasa bieD,/M^ 

tiene mucho dinero. 



Hist man 10 badly off, for he ii I t Eie hombfa lo pMa mal, poiqoe m 

I pobro. 

{Haeer uno lo que le aeotnoda. 
JEttar uno c&modamente. 

iP<ingafle V. cdmodamente. 
t Haga V. lo que le aeomode. 

To make on£*9 eelf comfortable. 
Make yoniBoIf oomfoitable. 

To inconTenience one's self. 

To put one's self out of the way. 

Do not pot 3foai«elf oat of the way. 

That man never inconvenieaces him- 
self ; he nerer does it for any- 

Can yoQy without patting yonnolf 
to inconyenience, lend me your 

Ineomodarse* Moleetaroe. 

No le incomode V. No le moleste V* 
Em hombre nonca le inoomoda; 
nunca le molesta por nsdie. 

I Paede V., nn inoomodarwi pmrtar- 
me an eecopeta 7 

To make enireatiee. 


Solieitar. Haeer itutaneiao. 

Hacer diligenciae. Ituiar* 

_- , .... i Pedir eneareeidamente. 

To beg wtth entreattee. \ n j- ■ ^ 

^ ( Pedir con tnetaneta. 

1 employed every kind of entreaty to I t Me vali de toda especie de o&plicao 
engage him to do it | jMira empenarle a que lo hiciera. 

T9 aoUeit^ to preeo, to met to en^K Solieitar. Inetar. 
treat ( Suplicar. Rogar. 

Here and there. 

Now and then, (from time to time.) 
Indifierentlyy (as good as bad.) 
I have done my composition tolera- 
bly welL 


Aquf y allA. Ac& y allA. 

Aci y acuUi. 

De cuando en cnanda 

Tal cual. Ad aof . 

He hecho mi ccnuposiaon tal cnaL 

To impart oomething to eomebody. 


HsTe yoa imparted that to yoar( 

&therT \ 

I have impaited it to him. | 

Informar d alguno de alguna coea. 
Dar parte de alguna eoea d uno. 
Comunicar algo d alguno. 

I Ha informado V. de eao & an padie? 
I Ha dado V. parte de eso & so padie? 
Le he informado de ella 

To pootpone, to put off. 
Let Of put that off until to-morrow. 
Let HI put off that lewon until another 

Poeponer *. Diferir •. 
Difiramos eso hasta mafiana. 
Difiramos en leookm hasta otm 


0KVXllTT*nnH U880K. 


In Tain I looked aroond, I nw neither 
man nor house : not the least sign 
of settlement 

A dwelling, habitation, settlement 

In vain I speak, for you do not listen 
to me. 

In Tain I do my best, I cannot do 
any thing to his liking. 

You may aay what you please, no- 
body will believe you. 

It is in vain that they earn money, 
they will never be rich. 

We search in vain, for what we have 
lost we cannot find. 

To talute, I 

To icUh a good morning. | 

I have the honor to bid you adieu. \ 

Present my compliments to him, to 

Remember me to him, to her. 

Pray, present my complimeuts to 
your sister. 

Remember me (present my compli- 
ments) to him, to her. 

I shall not faU. 

At your service. 

The present, (the present time or 

The past 
The future. 
The loss of time. 
Enjoy all the pleasures that virtue 

To enjoy. 

En mmo. Por vuu 911c 

Por mas que volvia los ojos i (odM 
partes, no veia ni casss, ni horn- 
brea : ni la mas minima senal da 

Una habitacion. 

En vano haUo yo, pues W. no me 

Por mas que haga, yo no pnedo hacer 
nada d su grusto. 

Por maa que diga V. ningono te 

Por mas dinero que ganen, jamai 

ser^ ricos. 
En vano buscamos, pues lo qne he- 
mes perdido no lo hallar&nos. 

Saludar. Para taludar, 
t Darle a uno lo» buenos diat. 
Tengo el honor de saludaile i V. 
Tengo el honor de despedimie de V 

Encomfendeme V. A ^1, ^ eW** 
D(gale V. muchas cosas de mi part* 

Higame V. el favor de encomendar- 
me & su sefioro hermana. 

Dele V. memoriss y expwsioneB 
finisimas mi'as. 

No faltai^. t Con mucko guio. 

Para servir A V. 

EU preaente. Lo presente. 

EI pasada Lo pasado. 
Elfuturo. Lo future. Lovenideia 
La p6rdida de tiempo. 
Gozad de todos los placeies qoe per- 

mite la virtud. 
Gozar. « 

Have you made yonr Spanish composition 7 — ^I have made it— Wtf 
yonr tntor pleased with it?— He was not In vain I do my beat; 1 


camioi do any thing to his liking. — ^Yon may eay what you please, 
Qo ifue qaieret^ nobody will believe you. — ^Can you, without putting 
yourself to inconvenience, lend me ^\q hundred dollars ? — ^As you have 
always used me well I will use you in the same manner, (modo,) I 
will lend you the money you want, but on condition that you will re* 
tam it to me next weekw — You may depend upon it, (pcxfer conlar,) — 
How has my son behaved towards you? — ^He has behaved well to; 
wards me, for he behaves well towards everybody.. His fiither told 
him often : The behavior of others is but an echo of our own. If we 
behave well towards them, they will also behave well ^towards us ; but 
if we use them ill, we must not expect better (mas) from them.— May 
I see your brothers ? — You will see them to-morrow. As they have 
just arrived from a long journey they long for sleep, for they are ver}' 
tired. — ^What has my sister said ? — She said that she longed for dinneri 
because she was very hungry. — Are you comfortable at your boarding- 
house ? — ^I am very comfortable there. — ^Have you imparted to your 
brother what I told you ? — As he was very tired, he longed for sleep ; 
so that I have put off imparting it to him till to-morrow. 

I have the honor to wish you a good morning. How do you do 7 — 
Very well at your service.— And how are all at home 7— Tolerably 
well, thank God, (i Dios gracias /} My sister was a little indisposed, 
but she is better ; she told {encargar) me to give you {que le fresentase) 
her best compliments. — ^I am glad (alegrarse) to hear that she is well. 
As for you, you are health itself, (la misma salud ;) you cannot look 
better, {es imposible tener mg'or seTnblarUe,)'^! have no time to be ill : 
my business would not permit me. Please to sit down ; here is a chair. 
— ^I will not detain you from your business ; I know that* a merchant's 
time is precious. — ^I have nothing pressing (urgente) to do now, my 
courier is already dispatched, (mi correo esta despachado.) — ^I shall not 
stay any longer. I only wished in passing to inquire about youi 
healtfaw — ^You do me much honor. — ^It is very fine weather tonday. 
If you will allow me I shall have the pleasure of seeing you again this 
afternoon, (al pasar par aqui,) and if you have time we will take a 
little turn together. — ^With the greatest pleasure. In that case I shall 
wait for you. — ^I will come for you about seven o'clock. — Adieu, then, 
till I see you again. — I have the honor to bid you adieu. 


The loss of time is an irreparable loss. A single minute (tin saio) 

cannot be recovered (pagar) for all the gold in the world. It is then 

of the greatest importance to employ well the time, which consists 

only of minutes, of which we must make good use, (buen um.) We 




have but the present ; the past is no longer an j tiling, and the fataio 
ia uncertain, {incierto,) — ^A great many people ruin themselves («^ 
ruinarse) because they wish to indulge themselves too much, (fvtem 
jMuarh bienJ) If most -men knew bow to content themselves (con- 
lentaru) with what they have, they would be happy ; but thdr g;reed)- 
ness (codicia) very often makes them unhappy. — ^In order to be \m^ 
we must forget the past, not trouble ourselves about {acongiyarse) the 
future, and enjoy the present. — ^I was very much dejected (triste) when 
my cousin came to me. '* What is the matter with yon ?*' he asked 
me. ** Oh, (; Ay de mi !) my dear cousin," replied I, ** in losing that 
money I have lost every thing." ** Do not fret," said he to me, ** for I 
have found your money." 

SEVENTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Leccion Septuagesima texta. 

iQuerer decir. Haeer intnM. 

1 1 Que quiere V. decir? 
t Quiero decir. 

1 1 Que quiere decir ese hombre? 
t £l qoieie decir. 
1 1 Que quiere decir eeo 7 
1 1 Que sigaifica eso? 
I t £bo quiere decir. Eso ngnifica. 
t E280 no significa nada. 
t Nftda quiere decir eeo. 
t Yd no 86 lo que quiere decir eeo. 
t Yo no a6 lo que signifies es& 

To mean. 

What do you mean? 

I mean. 

What does that man mean 7 

He means. 

What does that mean 7 

That means. 

That does not mean any thing. 

I do not know what that means. 

7^ he particular. 

I do not like to deal with that man, 
for be ii too particular. 

7b grolo tmpatient. 
To fret. 
Do not fret about that 

k Ser singular. Ser eotrano. 
( t Tener uno raretao. 
No me gusta tratar (<efier negociot) 
con ese hombre, porque ee may 

JInquietaree. Enfadaree. Apurarte 
Itnpadentaroe. Contumiroe. 
t No ee impaeiente V. de eso^ 

To sit up. To watch, 
I have sat up all night 
To adeise. 

The dress. The costume. 
Elegant dress. 


He velado toda la noche. 


El vestido. El tnige. El obo. 

Trage elegante. Vestido de modii 



T« dre99 ow^m self. 
IbMi man always dreaoi well. 


Ebo hombro ae vh/ke aiompvD bien. 

To find fatiU with mfmthing. il«^ f^ta en^k^ caoa. 

^ ^ t HaUoT que deetr ae algwm c 

That man always finds fault with 

every thing he sees. 
Bo yon find fault with that? 
I do not find fault with it 

t Ese hombre halla siempre que dsdr 

de cuanto y4, 
1 1 Halla v. que decir de esoT 
t Yo no hallo que decir de ello. 

A triek. 
To play a triek. 
To play a trick upon some one. 

He i^yed me a trick. 

Engano, Chaeco, BurUu Piega, 
Jugar una pieza. Dor un ehaoeo, 
Jugar una pieza & alguno. 
t Me jngO una pieza. 
( t Me di6 nn chasco. 
Take care, that man will play yon I Cuidado, ese hombre le jogaii & V. 
a trick. I una pieza, (t le dar& un ehaoeo.) 

Besides, (more.) 

Yon haTe given me three books, but 
I vrant three besides. 

Three less. 
Three too many. 

To reach. 
My reach. 

Within my reach. 
Out of my reach. 

These things are not within 

reach of everybody. 
Within gun-shot 
A gnn'«hot, (meaning distance.) 
Two gun-shots, ( " « ) 


How many shots have yon fired 7 

Ademas de. 

Ademas de los tree libros que V. mo 

ha dado, quiero otros tree, (quiero 

tree mas.) 
M^nos. t FaUan, 
t Faltan ties, 
t Sobran tres. 

Alcanxar, t Aieanxar & entendsr. 
Mi alcanee, Alcanxo it, 

A mi alcanee. Alcanzo & ello. 

Fuere de mi alcanee. 

No alcanzo i. ella 

t No alcanzo & entenderlo. 

Todo el mundo no alcanza k entender 

estas cosas. 
A tiro de escopeta. 
t A tiro de bdla, 
A doe tiros de escopetas. 
I Cuantos tiros ha disparado V. ? 
I Cuantos escqpetflZos ha tirade V.? 
I Cuantas voces hizo V. fiiegoT 

rQuisiera saber porqu^ haee tanto 
I ruido ese hombre. 
I wonder why that man makes such I Estraiio mncho que haga tanto mido 

ese hombre. 
t Me adnUro porqui hoes tanto mi- 
do ese hombre. 



MientTOM. En Unto que. 

Le amarin 4 V. mi^BtiBi fo porti 
( Llevane. Quitar. 
I Quitar del media 

IUn bocado. Uu pedacho. 
Colmar. Llenar. Abmmar. 
i Llenar 4 alguno de goio. 
\ Colmar 4 alguno de goioi 
I Generoao. 
I CaritatiTO. Ben^fioo. 

V. me ha colmado de beneficut. 


Sinceramente. (AdTetb, Ma Api^) 

Una ventaja. 

La desFentaja. £1 peijuieio. 

Nunca dfr^ nada en jwrjaido do V. 

To owrrender. Rendiroe *. Entregar, 

Tho enemies have sairendered. Los ettemigos se ban rendido. 

To frtfer. Preferir •. 

I piefer the Qsefui to the aurreeable. | Yo prefiero lo iltil i. io agndaUe. 

Oho. A, A^jectivefl naed Bubatantively are preceded hy the indefinite 
pronoon lo, (See Appendix.) 

So long ao. 

fio loMg as you behave well* people 
will loFe yon. 

To cany off 

A monthfuL 
To overwhelnu To heap. To load. 

To OTerwhelm aome one with joy. 


Charitable. Beneficent 
Ton have heaped benefita upon me. 



An advantage. 
The dioadyantage. The prejudice. 
I ehall never say any thing to yoor 

The drinking. 
The eating. 

EI beber. 
El comer. 

Obo»B» VeiiM used sobetantively take the article et (See Appendix.) 

To behold. 

Behold thoee beautiful flowexa, with 
their colon oo fresh and bright 

The coldr. 
The lUy. 
The violet 
Tlie forget-me-not 
The lose. 
An emblem. 
IVerii verdure is salutary to our eyes. 


Miren W. (or mirad) eoas henuoM* 

floree, con bus coIopb* ten fi««5" 

y vivos, (or brillantes.) 
El color. 
La violeta. 
La trinitaria. 
La rosa. 

Un emblema, (mas.) 
El verdor frasco es ogndoblo i » 




Wlqr bave you played a trick upon that man ? — ^Because he always 
finds &alt with every thing he sees. — ^What does that mean, Sir 7 — 
That means that I do not like to deal with you, because yon are too 
particular. — ^I wonder why your brother has not done (haya hecho) his 
task.— It was too difficult He has sat up all nig^t, and has not been 
able to do it, because it was out of his reach. — ^As soon as Mr. Flausen 
aeea me he begins to speak English, in order to practise, (^'ercilar^ 
and overwhelms me with politeness, (corte^as,) so that I often do not 
know what to answer. I£s brothers do the same, (h mismo.) How- 
ever, they are very good peq>le, (gentes ,*} they are not only rich and 
amiable, but they are also generous and charitable. They lov^ me 
sincerely, therefore I love them also, and consequently shall never say 
any thing to their disadvantage. I should love them still more, if they 
did not make so much ceremony ; but every one has his fiiults, and 
mine is to speak too much of their ceremonies. 


Have the enemies surrendered 7 — ^They have not surrendered, for 

they did not prefer life to death. They had neither bread, nor meat, 

nor water, nor arms, nor money ; notwithstanding they determined to 

die lather than surrender. — ^Why are you so sad ? — ^You do not know 

what makes me uneasy, my dear friend, (fem.)— Tell me, (lo^) for I 

assure you that I share your sufferings as well as your pleasures.— I 

am sore that you feel for me, ((pie V, me catnpadece,) but I cannot tell 

yon now what makes me uneasy. I will however tell you when an 

opportunity offers, (se preserUe.) -Let us speak of something else now. 

What do you think of the man who spoke to us yesterday at the 

concert 7 — ^He is a man of much understanding, (takrUOy) and not at 

all wrapt up in his own merits, (y nada presumido,) But why do yon 

ask me that 7 — ^To speak of something. — ^It is said : contentment (coip- 

tento) surpasses (valer mas) riches ; let us then always be content 

I^t us share (partir) (with each other) what we have, and remain our 

Ufelinie (mientras vivamos) inseparable friends. You will always be 

welc<Mne at my house, and I hope to be equally so at yours. If I saw 

yoo happy I should be equally so, and we should be more contented 

tlua the greatest princes, who are not always so.* We shall be happy 

when we are perfectly contented with what we have ; and if we do 

ow duty as we ought, God will take care of the rest The past being 

iK> kxDger any thing, let us not be uneasy about the future, and enjoy 





Behold, ladies, (sefkoras,) those beaatiful flowers, with their colon ao 
fresh and bright ; they drink nothing but water. The white lily fau the 
color of innocence, (inocencia ;) the violet indicates gentleness, (ta&tf 
la dulzura ;} you may see it in Looisa's eyes. The forget-me-not baa the 
color of heaven, our future dwelling, and the rose, the queen of flowers, 
is the emblem of beauty and of joy. You see all that persooified (per- 
Bonyicado) in seeing the beautiful Amelia, (^Anudia,) How beaoiiM 
is the fresh verdure ! It is salutary to our eyes, and has the color of 
hope, (de la esperanzay) our most faithful friend, (fern.,) who never 
deserts (ahcmdonar) us, not even in death, (en el momento de la muerte.) 
—One word more, my dear friend. — What is your pleasure ?— I forgot 
to tell you to present my compliments (que me encomendara) to yoor 
mother. Tell her, if you please, that I regret (sentir) not having been 
at home when lately she honored me with her visit. — ^I thank yoa for 
her, (en su nombre,) I shall not fail. — ^Farewell then. 

SEVEN*rY-SEVENTH LESSON.— Leccion Septuagesma ieptima. 

A nlk gown. 

A kitchen taUe. 

A mahogany table. 

A brick house. 

A witone house. 

A windmiU. 

A coflfee-milL 

A sogar-milL 

A velvet bonnet 

A silver tankaid. 

A water-mill. 

A steam-milL 


A two-wheeled wagon. 

A four-wheeled carriage. 

A one-story house. 
A two-story house. 
A three-story house. 

A one-horse wagon. 
A four-hone carriage. 


Un tunfoo (trage, vestido) de seda. 
Una mesa de cocina. 
Una mesa de caoba. 
Una case de ladrilla 
Una casa de piedra. 
Un molino de viento. 
Un moliniUo de cafd. 
Un trapiche. Ingenio de azttear 
Un gorro de teociopelo. 
Un jarro de plata. 
Un molino de agua. 
Un molino de vapor. 
Armas de fuego. 
Un carro de doe niedas. 
JJn carruage (coche) de cuaCro me- 

Una casa de un alta 
Una casa de dos altos. 
Una casa de tree altos. (See I>mod 

II., Obe, A.) 
Un carro tirade por un cabaUo. 
Un carruage tirado por caatrD ci> 




Obt. A. We have Men (Lenon II.) that the prepoeitioii ^ m pot be- 
tween two Bobatantivefly the latter of which ezpreaes the eubstance of which 
the former ■ made ; but the prepoeition para is eometimes made oee of 
"vrhen the latter ezpreaBee the use of the fonner. In both cases the order of 
the two sabstantivea ia inverted in Spanish, when they make a compoond 
in Ungtish. 

3^ exaggerate. 

Thai man exaggerates all that he 
■ays and does. 

AU that 
To take the place of, to be instead 


Exagerar. Ponderar, 

Ese hombro exagera cnanto dice y 

Cuanto. Todo lo que, 
Ser. Servir de. 

That man is a father to me. 

That umbrella serves him as a cane. | Ese pardguas le sirve de caiia. 

iEse hombre me es un segondopadnu 
Eee hombre me sirve de padre. 

An inch. 
On a small scale. 
On a large scale. 
Thereabouts, nearly. 
Alternately, turn by turn. 
To endeavor, to etrive. 

To give one^e self up to grief. 

To melt. 
To melt in teank 

To raise, to cauee. 

Una pulgada. 

En pequeno. For menor. 

En grande. For mayor. 

Cerca de. Poco mas 6 mi6am de. 

Altemativamente. For tumos. 

Eaforzarse, Empeiiaree. 
K Abandonaree {entregarae) al dolor. 
( Dejaree veneer del dolor, 
I Derretir •. Derretiree. 

Derretirse en Ugrimi 


To raise difficulties. 
To cause quarrels. 
To cause suspicions. 
The behavior of that man 
picions in my mind. 


Excitar. Ineitar. Mover, 

Excitar dificultadesi 
Mover pendencias. 
Excitar sospechas. 
La conducta de eee hombre me iad- 
t6 d sospecharie. 

To ohake. I Saeudir. 

Shake that tiee, and the fruit will Sacnda V. ese dibol, y la fruta eaeri 

come down. 

al suelOb 

To be in want of. C t Hacerfalta. Haber meneeter. 

To be short of. < t Faltarle a uno. 

To wanL ( Neeesitar. 

That man is in want of every thing. I A ese hombre todo le hace falta. 
I am hi want of nothing. | A mi nada me falta. 

A|M% knife, te^iPMB.ii^ikiii,f^^^^^^^ 

in, f 



A writiny ta h lii . 
A diBiiif -foom. 

A bsdnMBL 



A nualaid-pot 

A pitcher. 

A fowfing-piece. 

A 6B!ung-]ine. 


T9 cMKt, fo wml ^ 



Plato, eqduflo, tw»> 
dor, cochaia, nr- 
TiQeta, y pan. 

Una mesa do cuatro cubiertoB. 

Una mesa de diez cabiertoa 

Una mesa para eBcribtr. Ua bofeto. 

Una aala do comor. Un oomedot 

Un doimitorio. Una aicoba. 

Un ^Mioento para donnir. 

Un reloj do repeUcion. 

Una botoUa para acoite. 

Una mostacora. 

Un jano. Un pichel. 

Una eecopota de cazador. 

Una cnerda para caiia de peectf. 

Una caiia do pescar. 

What do joa want of 
What do yon exact of 

I exact nothing of 70a. 
A tea-pot 

OU. B. Sneh oompooBde 
wwd in Spanirii : — 

Hie oyaCer-woman. 
Hie tinmaiu 

I Exijir. Querer. 

lQueezi)e V. domf; 
1 1 Quf wte quiere V. ? 
I Que quiere V. do mlt 
Yo no ezijo nada de V. 
t Fo no fuiero mada de F. 
I Una tetera. 


aa the following are generally expnmd by 

La oetrera. 
El hojalatero. 

iTATioin on TBI nopSE NAMn OF nxaom taken jeom the Litw 


Oh§.a FtapernameeondinginEngUdiina, M,oref, aretfaoiaiDeui 
both langnages. But it moet be obeerved, that nonna having a double ood- 
nnant, drop one of them ; that nouns that haye tht eapprees the h; tbu 
pk k changed into/; y into i ; the diphthongs «, m, into e; ek into 9« be- 
Ibie « or t, and into c before atO,u; and that names beginning with o, 
followed by a consonant, generally add E before it. Examples >" 



























06«. 2>. Fhiper names ending in o generally add an n. Examples : 







OAs. E, Fropet names ending in us change that termination into o 
JELnonpies: — 

Cyras. Ciro. 

Camillos. Camilo. 

Oxpheos. Ot£6o, 

O&s. F. Most of those ending in al or m are the same in both langaages. 
Examples: — 



Oh9. G, Those endmg in English in ander, change that tennination 
into ait^ro. Examines: — 



Remark. The proper names of kingdoms, provinces, and towns, ending 
in English in a, are the same in Spanish ; and those of towns ending in 
ivrg, add frequently o. Examples : — 










He is fond of dainties. 

At bnad daylight 
To Rt down to dinner. 

I Golosinas. Manjares delicados. 
i El es amigo de golonnaa, 
i A SI U guttan mueho las golo' 

IDe dia claro. 
Sentarw i la mc 






Has your sister been out io-daj ? — She has been out to buy aerenl 
things. — What has she bought ? — She has bought a silk gown, a v^ 
bonnet, and a lace veil, (un velo de cncii/e.)--What have yon done 
with my silver tanloini ?— It is on the kitchen table (together) with the 
oil-bottle, the milk-pot, the pitcher, the mustard-poi, and the coffee- 
miU.— Do you ask for a wine-bottle ?— No, I ask for a bottle of wine, 
and not for a wine-bottle. If you had the goodness to give me the 
key of the wine-cellar, (la bodega^ I would go for one.— What does 
that man want of me?— He exacts nothing; but he will accqitwhat 
you will give him, for he is in want of every thing.— I will tell you 
that I am not fond of him, for his behavior raises suspicwns in my 
mind. He exaggerates all that he says and does.— You are wnMg m 
having such a bad opinion of him, for he has been a &ther to you.— 
I know what I say. He has cheated me on a small and on a laige 
scale, and whenever he calls he asks me for something. In this 
manner he has alternately asked me for alll had : my fowliiig-p«fic«i 
my fishing-line, my repeater, and my golden candlesticks.— Do «* 
give yourself up so much to grief, else {si no) you will make me melt 
in tears, {deshacerse.) 

Democritus and Heraclitus were two philosophers of a very different 
character : the first laughed at the foUies {la Iccura) of men, and the 
other wept at them.— They were both right, for the follies of men 
deserve to bo laughed (se debe reir) and wept at, (Uorar per eUas,) 


Have you seen your niece ? — ^Yes ; she is a very good gin» ^°^ 
writes well, and speaks Spanish still better ; therefore she is loved m 
honored by everybody.— And her brother, what is he doing ?— Do not 
speak to me of him ; he is a naughty boy, who writes always badly, 
and speaks Spanish still worse ; he is therefore (asi) loved by ncbodj. 
He is very fond of dainties, but he does not like books. Sometimes he 
goes to bed at broad daylight, {cuando cs,) and pretends to be ill ; bot 
when we sit down US dinner he is generally better (again.) He is to 
study physic, (la medicinuy) but he has not the slightest inclinatian for 
it, (afickm^y^Ue is almost always talking of his dogs, which he lovf 
passionately, (apasionadamenle,) His father is extremely sony for it- 
The young simpleton (d tomudo) said lately to his lister, " I ^ 
enlist as soon as a peace (ia pa%) is proclaimed, (que se publiqii^*) 

My dear father and my dear mother dined yesterday with some 
Mends at (dpalacio) the King of Spain. — ^Whydo you always 5/»«* 
English and never Spanish ?— Because I am too baahful.— Yon tf9 



joikiiig: la an Englishman ever bashful? — ^I have a keen appetite, 
(grande apetitoi) give me something good to eat — ^Have yon any 
money ? — ^No, Sir. — ^Then I have nothing to eat for you. — ^Will you 
not let me have some (no me dard V.) on credit 7 I pledge my honor. 
—That is too little.— What, {como;) Sir ! 

SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON, ^Leccion Septuagesima octava. 

{Presenie del Subjuniivo.) 

N. B. For the sake of brevity, the Present of the Subjunctive is desig- 
nated by N. 6. For the formation of thni Tense, see Appendix. 

N. 6 of To HAVE, (active.) 
That I may have. 

N. 6 of To HATE, (aaziliary.) 
That I may have. 

N. 6of ToBK. 

That I may be. 

N. 6 of MAT or CAN, (to be able.) 
That I may be able. 

N. 6 de Tkner, (active *.) 

Que tenga, tengas, tenga, tengamoi, 

tengais, toogan. 

N. 6 de Haber, (aaxiliar *.) 

Que haya, hayas, haya, h&yamos, 

b&yais, hdyau. 

N. 6 de Ser ana Ebtas. 
Que Bea,8eas, sea, soamos, seaiSfSean. 
Que est6, estes, estd, estemos, esteis, 
N. 6 de PoDEB *. 
Que pueda, paedas, pueda, podamos, 
podais, paedan. 

Ohs. A. May and can are not translated, when the emphasis is on the 
principal verb. Example : — 


May you Hto happy. 

I fear he may be displeased. 

Viva V. felix. 

Temo que ^1 se enfade. 


In Spanish a verb governs another verb in the ir{finitive, in the indiea- 
tive, or in the subjunctive mood. To elucidate this subject, the following 
niles are laid down, in which the governing verb will be designated by the 
name of tux i.bading verb, and the governed verb, by that of the sui- 



The subordinate verb is in the infinitive, when the action it exprasses 
nfoi to, and is to be performed by, the subject (nominative) of the lead* 
Example : — 


FBM«iitlM gTMtoit good that men 
can wUi Ibr in this life. 

La pax 08 el mayor bien quo ki 
hombroB pueden dettar on 

waiA n. 
The eiiaoamif ATI Tna m in the tftdtMlioe, when the uuljubm tom 
merely declaree, or point* out a fact, or action expnoBed by the enbar- 
dinate. Example : — 

I will tell them that they do not Yoleodii^quonooa&eiiloqQetfKcii. 
know what they eay. 

nuxjE in. 
The euaoRDDiATX Txaa is in f A0 •vA^imettve, when the action expreaed 
by it is indicated as doubtfuU uncertain, eonditional, or contingent, by 
TBI LSADiMG YBXB. Examples : — 

ETon if this shoold not happen, bat Y coando eoo no tmceda, sine qne d 
merciful HeaTon {(nard and pre- Cielo piadooo le guarde y conmrve 
aenre him safe and sound, he con- sano y viTO, podrd ser que se 
tinues as poor as ever. qnede en la minna pohreza que 

1 antes estaba.' 
I doubt he will come this eyening. j Pitdo que ^1 venga esta noche. 

V. no esti seguro do que elkis lo As- 

I Que quiere V. que yo kaga ? 

Remark* — It must be observed, that although in the paradigms of the 
conjugations the Englieh potbntial, as well as the subjunctitk aioodf 
are translated into Spanieh by the subjunctive, the use of the latter depends 
entirely on the meaning of the leading verb ; in coosequence of which, a 
▼eib in the present of the infinitive mood, or iu the future tense in English, 
requires often to be placed in the subjunctive. Examples : — 

You are not sure that they will do it 
What do you want me to do 7 

It is necessary for you to write to 

He says he will do it, whenever 

they ekaU pay him what he asks. 

£s necesario que V. les eaeriha. 

£1 dice que lo hail, aempire que elks 
le paguen lo que pide. 


I. When TBI LKAniNG vsrb means admiration, application, approbation, 
command, demand, duty,doubt,fear, fondneeo, ignorance, inUUigence, 
intention, permistion, prohibition, aatiefaetion, eupplication, oorrow, oar- 
priee, euepicion, conoenieney, wish, neceeaity, toill, aeking, advioing, coun- 
oelUng, entreating, rejoicing, eoUciting, or any act of the mind, such aa 

' CiEVANTXSi D. Q^ijote, cap. xxxviL pt iL 

6SVS2«TY-lCiaHTH LK880V. 


ikmking^f htlieving, dtc, it ^venw thb ■uboedinatk TimB in the ktmoiio- 
rvTEj preceded by the conjajiction qve. 

S. Thk flVBOROiNATK TEEB miwt alflo be placed in the subjunetive, pre* 
ceded by que, when the ieju>dio terb is preceded by an interjeeUon ez- 
jmamag wUh or denrtt or when it ie an impertonal verbf indicating^ doukt, 
dutjff Migation^ or eome contingent and future effect produced by the ac- 
tion of mch 8UBOEDINATE YEEB. But this 10 placed in the preaent of 
the infinitiye mood, vrithout the conjunction, when its subject is not ex- 
prMwd. Example: — 

It i. HMMwy that yoo riioutd do it J ?' °~'~^*' "l"* \ '» *«** 

- ( £s necesano hacerlo, 

3. The leading verb goreme the bubobdinate verb In the mbjuncHve, 
when the former is connected with the latter by a conjunction implying 
amdUion, (conditional terms or clause,) doubt, exception, such aa if, uri' 
leu, fromded that, although, Alc., when they mean also a contingent and 
fntnre effect of the action ezpreased by the subordinate verb. 



Any of the verbs contained and set forth in the preceding rules, being 
THE LEADING VERB, and in the preeent or future tense of the indicativCf or 
Id the imperative mood, governs the subordinate verb in the frbsbnt of 
the iuuunctivk. 

N. R To show to the learners the relation of the tenses, and in order 
to make easy to thera the use of the above rules, the number of each tense 
■ here employed for the sake of brevity, instead of the name of the tense. 
Should they not remember them, they must consult the Appendix. 

O" N. 1 stands for the present of the indicative — ^N. 6 for the present 
of the subjonctive — p. for participle^ 


C When the action is 

< to take place after a 
f certain time. 
^ When the action 

< has taken place before 
f a certain time. 



Simple tenees. 

4n. 1. 



Compound tenses. 



I Que quiere V. que Kaga il 7 
Serd necosario que el haya acabodo 
su tema 4utes de las dos. 

What do yon want him to do ? 

It will be necessary for him to have 

finished his exercise before two 

It will be sufficient for yon to know ^ Bastard que V. eepa eeo. 

that. I Serd suficieute quo V. lo eepa. 

It ■ enoDgfa for him to have written j Bostn que ^1 Juiya escrito dos oai- 

twolettank I tas. 




I win be Teiy glad for your haTinf 

tfpokOD BO. 

He will give yoo paper, without your 

aiking for it. 
Let me know when he wriiea. 

Yo me alegrar6 macho de qu V. 

haya hablado asi. 
iAie dar4 & V. papel, nn qnaT.k 

Ariaeme V. coando A 


Leading Verbs, N. 2, of the use of the Suhfunetive. 

It IB necBBBary that 
It needs to, or that. 

It IB Btrange, or a wonder that 

It IB a pity that 
It ia right that 

It IB wrong that 

It IB proper that. 

It IB Barpriaing that 

It IB becoming that 

It ia time that ' 

It IB important, or it matters that 

It Bufficea, it is sufficient that 

It is to be wished that 

It is poasible that 

It is better that 

Yoo must have the goodneas to do 

It is neceasary that you should be 

here at an early hour. 
You must do that 
It needs that one should have money. 
I must go to market 
He must go away. 
It is just that he should be punished. 
It is sufficient for you to know that 
It ia time for you to speak. 
We muBt sell our goods immediately. 

What must I eay 7 

It is unportant that thia riiould be 

^* ^ Pwper that we ahonld aet out 

Es necesario qae. 

Es menester que> 

£2s un prodigio que. 

EIb an tnilagro que. 

fis Mtftima qae. 

Es baeno (bien) que. Es josto que- 

Es malo (es injosto) que. 

t No hay razon para que. 

No 06 baeno que. 

Es piopio (conFeniento, or i prop*- 

silo) que. 
Es sorpr«ndiente (maraviDoso} que. 

Conviene que. 

ISa tiempo que. 

Importaque. Es impwtante que. 

Basta que. Es suficiente quo. 

Es de desear qoe. 

Es poeible que. 

Es mejor que. Vale mas que. » 

Es menester que V. tenga U boodtA 

de hacer eso. 
Es necesario que V. eete aqaf tern- 

Es menester que V. haga esa 
Es menester que one tenga diaatf- 
Es menester que yo wtya i la !««»• 
Es menester que el se vaye. 
Es justo que 61 eea caatigado- 
Basta que V. lo eepa* 
Es tiempo de que V. hahle. 
Es menester que vendamot inmedit- 

tameute nuestras mercaderia*. 
I Que es menester que yo 
Importa que eso se hage. 

Conviene que jMrtesM* 



It is to be wished that yoa ahoald 

go to the country. 
It is necesBary that we ahoald finish 

It m rafficient that you are satisfied. 
I am sorry that she is ill. 
I am charmed that you are here. 
I am glad that he has received his 

She is angry that you are my friend. 

I sum surprised that you are not more 

I am extremely glad that your sister 

has recovered. 

Yoor father is afflicted that you misB 

your lesmns. 
I am surprised that you have not 

done your task. 

Es de desear que V . 9e eays a! cam* 

Es uecesario quo acahemoM hoy. 

Basta que VY. esten satisfechos. 
Siento que ella ette mala. 
Estoy encantado de que V. eBti aquf. 
Me alegro de que el haya rteibido 

su dinero. 
Ella esti enojada de que V. sea mi 

Etifoy torprendido de que V. no sea 

mas atenta 
Ettoy extremameute alegre de que 

su hermana de V. esti restable- 

El padre de V. estd afiigido de que 

V. pier da bus lecciones. 
Estoy sorprendido de que V. no 

haya heeho su tarea. 


Win yon relate (covUar) something to me ? — ^What do you wish me 
to relate to you 7 — ^A little anecdote, if yon like. — ^A little boy one day 
at table (a la mesa) asked for some meat ; his father said that it was 
not polite to ask for any, and that he should wait until some was given 
to him, (jjue le dieran, imperf. subjunctive ; see the following Lesson.) 
The poor boy, seeing every one eat, and that nothing was given to 
him, said to his father : ^ My dear father, give me a little salt, if you 
I^eaae." ** What will you {tu) do with it ?" asked the father. *" I wish 
to eat it with (echarbi en) the meat which you will give me," replied 
{replicar) the child. Everybody admired (admirar) the little boy's wit ; 
and his father, perceiving that he had nothing, gave him meat without 
his asking for it, (sin que la pidiera,) — ^Who was that little boy that 
asked for meat at table 7 — ^He was the son of one of my friends. — ^Why 
did he ask for some meat 7 — ^He asked for some because he had a good 
appetite. — ^Why did his father not give him some immediately 7 — Be- 
cause he had forgotten it. — ^Was the little boy wrong in asking for some 7 
—He was wrong, for he ought to have waited. — Why did he ask his 
father for some salt 7 — ^He asked for some salt, that his father might 
perceive that he had no meat, and that he might give him some. 

Do yoa wish me to relate to yon another anecdote 7 — ^You wUl 
greatly (mucfdsimo) oblige me.— Some one purchasing some goods 


of a ■hopkBeper, nid to lum : ** Yoa aak too much ; yoa thaM ui 
sell 80 dear to roe as to another, becauae I am a fnend." The mei^ 
chant replied : " Sir, we moat gain something by {eon) onr friends, ftr 
oar enemies will never come to the shop." 


A young prince, seven years old, was admired by everybody for his 
wit, (4 cau$a de su ingenio.) Being once in the society of an old officer, 
the latter observed, in speaking of the young prince, that when children 
discovered so much genius in their early days, they generally grew 
very stupid when they came to maturity. — ** If that is the case," said 
the young prince, who had hea|d it, *' then you (yos) must have been 
very remarkable for your genius when vou were a child." 

An EngUahman, on fint visiting France, met with a veiy yoong 
child in the streets of Calais, who spoke the French language with 
fluency and elegance. — ^ Good heaven, (Santo cielo,) is it possible ?". 
exclaimed he, ** that even children here speak the French language 
with purity, {purexaJ**) 

Let us seek {solicUar) the friendship of the good, and avoid the 
society of the wicked ; for bad company corrupts good manners. — 
What sort of weather is it to-day 7 — ^It snows continually, as it snowed 
yesterday, and according to all appearances, will also snow to-morrow. 
-^Let it snow; I should like it to snow {que iietara, imperf. sub- 
junctive ; see next Lesson) still more, for I am always very well when 
it is very cold.— -And I am always very well when it is neither cold 
nor warm.^It is too windy to-day, and we should do better if we 
stayed at home. — ^Whatever weather it may be I must go out ; for I 
pramised to be with my sister at a quarter past eleven, and I must 
keep my word. 

SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON.— jLeccion Septuagesima tuma. 


{Imperf eeto del Subjuntivo.) 

N. B. For the formation of this tense, see the Appendix. 

The Spanish verbs have three words to express the imperfect tense of the 
subjunctive mood, to wit : one ending in ra, one in au, and one in aa 
I^amples : — 


To desira. Deseor. 

I might, oould, would, or should de- Yo dssears 7, desearia 6, desease 




To fear. 
mi^t, could, would, or ehoold fear. 


Yo Umiera 7, Xemeria 8, temiefe ft 


To anite. 
I mighty coold, would, or ehoold 


Yo nniera 7, uutrui 8, unieM 9. 


The same lsadino vcrbs that govern the subordinate terb in the 
preaent of the subjunctiye mood with que, being iu any of the past tenses 
of the indicative , govern the subordinate verb iu the fast (N. 7) or 
third (N. 9) imperfect tense of the subjunctive, preceded by que. 



Simplo tenses. 

Ciimpoiiiid tenses. 

I doubted 

I did doubt 

I would doubt 

I had doubted 

I would have doubted 

I doubted 

I did doubt 

I would doubt 

I had doubled 

I would have doubted 



N. 7. 


N. 7, p. 


that you 
would come 


that you 
would have 


When the action is to 

take place after a 

certain time. 

I When the action has 

< taken place after a 

( certain time. 

Yo dndaba 

Yo dndd 

Yo dodsria 

Yo habia dudado 

Yo habria dudado 

Yo dudaba 

Yo dod^ 

Yo dudaria 

Yo habia dudado 

Yo habria dudado 

que V. vtn- 
iera ; or que 
F. otniese. 

ra venido ; 
que F. 
hubiete «e- 

>m q 

I hubU 

J nido. 

Remark A, on the use or the subjunottve. 

After the following conjunctions, the verb is in the subjunctive, present, 
or imperfect, io conformity with the rules above explained. 

That, in order that, d fai que, 

to the end that, 
UnloH, except, d mhio$ que. 

If, tdiould it hap- en eato que-^eL 
Beto, ante* que. 

Though, although, hien que. 
For fear of, lest, por temor de no, 
unless, fl«<r que, & mi* 

noe que. 
In case, if, en eaeo que eu 

Though, aunque. 


8ubj, If he had gahied (that b, had \ SubJ. Si ^1 huUera ganadoel pieito 
he gained) the suit, he would have I habria peidldo un amigOi y as no 
lost a friend, and therefore he had \ tenia razon de qoejane. 
no reason to be sorry. 

M'Hemr^e Gram. 
Ind, Aunqoe yo habia ettado i me- 

undo allf, nonca la habia Tisto. 
SuJbj. Aunque yo kuhUra eitado alli 

i menudo, nunca la KahriA Tisto. 

Ind, Although I had been there 

often, I had never seen her. 
Suhj* Although I had been there 

often, (or had I been,) I never 

should have seen her. 

Obt. B, The subjunctive is used after the conjunction fue wfaea it is 
elliptic or substituted for other conjnnctionB, such as : dfin jue, (de f ve,) «■ 
que, 9m que, eon tal que, dntee que, despuea que, d menos que, haeU fue. 

Whether I read or write, it is always Que yo lea, 6 que eMcriba, aiempre 

found fault with. hallan falta. 

He can say nothing witliout your tA no pnede decir nada, fve V. no 

knowing it sepa. 

Wait till your father comes. Aguaido V. que mi padre vuehoa. 


M. de Turenne would never buy any thingr on credit of tradesmen, 
(tenderos,) for fear, he said, they shoidd lose a great part of it, if he 
happened to be killed. All the workmen (menestral) who were em- 
ployed about his house had orders to bring in their bills (una euerUa) 
before he set out for the campaign, and they were regularly paid. 

You will never be respected unless you forsake (abandonar) the bad 
company you keep. — ^You cannot finish your work to-night, unlesa I 
help you. — ^I will explain to you every difficulty, that you may vxi^ be 
disheartened {desanimar) in your undertaking, (una cmprejfl.)— Sup- 
pode you should lose your friends, what would become of you ?— 1" 
case you want my assistance, call me, I shall help you. — ^A wise and 
prudent man lives with economy when young, in order that he may 
enjoy the fruit of his labor when he is old. — Carry this money to Jfr. 
N., in order that he may be able to pay his debts, (una devd/a,)-^^ 
you lend me that money 7 — ^I will not lend it you unless you promwe 
to return it to me as soon as you can. — ^Did the general arrive ?— He 
arrived yesterday morning at the camp, (d campo,) weary, and tired, 
but very seasonably ; he immediately gave his orders to b^ ^ 
action, though he had not yet all his troops. — Are your sisters happy" 
—They are not, though they are rich, because they are not contented. 
Although they have a good memory, that is not enough to lesrn Any 
language whatever, (cualquiera que sea ;) they must make use of their 


judfrment. — ^Behold Iiow amiable that lady is ; for idl that she has no 
fortune, I do not love her the less. — Will you lend me your violin 7-* 
I will lend it you, provided you return it to me to-night. — ^Will your 
mother call upon me ? — She will, provided you will promise to take 
her to the concert. — I shall not cease to importune (impartunar) her, 
till she has forgiven me. — Give me that penknife. — ^I will give it you, 
provided you will not make a bad use of it. — Shall you go to London 7 
^— I will go, provided you accompany {acompanar) me; and I will 
write again to your brother, lest he should not have received my letter. 


Where were you during the engagement ? — ^I was in bed to have 
mj wounds dressed, (curar.) Would to God (Q^'oZa) I had been there ! 
I would have conquered (veneer) or perished, (monr.)— We avoided 
an engagement for fear we should be taken, their force being superior 
to ours. — God forbid (no quiera el cielot with the subjunctive) I should 
blame your conduct, but your business will never be done properly 
unless you do it yourself. — ^WiU you set out soon 7 — ^I shall not set out 
tiU I have dined. — ^Why did you tell me that my &ther was arrived, 
though you knew the contrary 7 — ^You are so hasty, (vioienlo,) that 
however little you are contradicted (amtradecir) you fly into a passion 
(eneolerizarse) in an instant. If your fiither does not arrive to-day» 
and if you want money, I will lend you some. — I am much obliged to 
you. — ^Have you done your task 7 — Not quite ; if I had had time, and 
if I bad not been so uneasy about the arrival (flegadd) of my father, I 
should have done it — ^If you study and are attentive, J assure you thai 
you will learn the Spanish language in a very short time.-7-He who 
wishes to teach an art, must know it thoroughly, (a fimdo;) he must 
give none but clear and well-digested notions (jtglas) of it ; he must 
instil (infundir) them one by one into the minds of his pupils, and above 
aD, he must not overburden (sobrecargor) their memory with useless 
or unimportant rules. 

My dear friend, lend me a dollar. — ^Here are two instead of one. — 
How much obliged I am to you ! — ^I am always ghd when I see you, 
and I find my happiness in yours. — ^Is this house to be sold 7 — ^Do yon 
wish to buy it 7 — ^Why not 7 — ^Why does your sister not speak 7 — She 
would speak if she were not always so absent, (distraida,) — I like pret^ 
anecdotes ; they season (satonai^ conversation, and amuse everybody. 
Pray relate me some.^ — ^Look, if you please, in some of the numbers of 
the Spectator, and you will find many. 


EIGHTIETH LESSOH.—Leccum Octogitima. 
THE SUBJUNCTIVE, (coMnNUKO.)— CMltrntAcwit dd Smbj) 

Oi*. A. Por, or p&r mac, beforo a noim or on adjediye, govems the 

HowoTor food 700 may be. 
How rich noTor they may be. 

Wh0ie9€r, wiaUoever. 

For baeno qoe Y. 

For mat riooe que aean. 

Ptr (n) file. Par mat (n) fiic. 
Cmtdfuiera, CukU§qwierm^ (pliir.) 
Tedo 2o giie. Sem el que, {U qmt.) 
Sem emaljuer; Sem cimI jco. 

Oia. B. Sem el fue, &e., fonowed by a noon, reqairee de after it, and 
fse when a verb oomee afler it It alwaye gorems the rabjmictiTe. 

For yalor que V. tenga, €i tieae mas 
que V. 

Sea eual fuere el valor de V. H 
t tiene mat. 

For mee pacieneia que tengamoib 
nnnca tendi^mos baatante. 

Whataoeyer courage you may hare, 
he haa more than you. 

WhataoeTer patience we may haTe, 

we will never have enough. 
Whataoerer richea he may have, he 

will aoon aee the end of them. 
Whataoever Idndneaa I may have 

lor hun, I never afaall have aa 

mnoh aa he merita. 
Whataoever fanlta yon may make, I 

wiD take care to correct them. 
Whatever may be the happineaa yon 

enjoy, I am happier than you. 

Whataoever may be the fortune 

which yon enjoy, you may loee it 

in an inatant 
Whataoever may be the effi>rta which 

you make, you never can aucceed. 
Whataoever may be the paina which 

yon take, no one will be under ob- 
to yon for them. 

No one. 


Sean cualea fueren 

pronto laa verA acabadaa. 
For maa afecto que yo le tenga, 

nunca le tendrtf tanto como me- 

Cualeoquieia faltaa que Y. haga, yo 

tendnS cuidado de oorregiriaa. 
Sea eual fuere la felicidad que Y. 

goce (voB, or voootroa goeeie) yo 

aoy maa felix que V., (que voa, or 

Par maa fortuna que tengaia (V 

tenga) podieia, (podriL,) perdetla en 

un inatanta. 
Par mae eafucnoa que Y. kaga^ 

nunca podri aalir con bien. 
Por mae trabajo que V. ae tome, 

ninguno ae creeHL obligado i. Y., 

(nadie ae lo agradeoeri, or ereerd 

deberle nada.) 
Nadie. Niii^ima 



_-- , . . .. C Todo lo que, Todo euanto. 

things soever.) 

WhataoeTer yoa may do for my 

&tber, he will reward yoa for it 
I complain of nothing whatsoeyer. 

( Cualquier (cualquiera) eoea que. 

Todo euanto V. haga por mi padie, 

sa merced (6\) se lo recompensahL 

Yo no me quejo de nada, (or de cosa 

ningana, or de nada que valga la 


Whoever, whosoever, Quienquierei, Cualquiera, 

Ohs. C. The indeterminate pronouns quienquiera, cualquiera, whoever, 
whosoeTer ; quienquiera, or cualquiera que sea, whoever, whosoever ; 
nsdie, nobody ; ninguno, nt uno solo, no one, not any ; nada, nothing ; 
r^uire the next verb in the subjunctive. 

Of whomsoever you may speak, De quienquiera que V. hahle, evite 

avoid slander. murmurarle. 

I know nobody who is as good as No conozco 4 nadie (4 ninguno) que 

yon. sea tan bueno como V. 

I have seen nothing that could be Yo no he visto nada que pudiera 

blamed in his conduct tacharae en la oonducta de ^I, (en 

su conducta.) 

Obs. D, Hie subjunctive is emi^oyed at the beginning of a sentence to 
express surprise, a desire, or an imprecation. Examples : — 
May heaven ever preserve you firom t Quiera el cielo preserver i V. (pre- 

■nch a misfortune. 

Would to God! 
Would to God it were so ! 
Would to God he had done it ! 

Would to God that aU the great 

lords loved peace ! 
Would to God we may never be 

more unhappy ! 


May yon be happy I 

servaros) de una tal desgracia. 
/ PUgue & Dios ! / Plegue al cielo ! 
; Quiera Dios, (el cielo) ! 
; Ojali ! (See Placer •, m App.) 
; Pluguiera & Dios que eso fuese 

; Pluguiera & Dios que ii lo hubiese 

hecho ! 
I Pluguiera i Dios que todos los 

grandes sefiores amasen la paz ! 
; Plegue al Cielo que nosotros nunca 

seamos mas infelices ! 

Sea V. feliz ! 


( I Ojald que V. sea feliz ! 

Obs. E. The subjunctive is also sometimes employed at the beginning 
of a sentence, when for the sake of energy an elUpsis is made of the con- 
ditional conjunctions aunque, si, &c. 

Though it cost me all I have, I shall 
know how to preserve myself from 
nch a misfortune. 

Costdrame todo euanto tengo, yo me 
sabria precaver de una tal de^gra* 


^ Instead of, Aun^flte (or aun cuando) me eostara, &c. 



Wen lie to do whit they advise him, 
he would not have caiwe to com- 


A to que le 
tendrim mothro do quoj 



It may be nmaikedt in ooneloaoD, on the nee of the cubjancthre, thai 
whenever the mhorditute vtrh, or the eecond member of a eentenee, ■ 
mited to the Umdimg vcr^, or the fimt member of a sentenoe, by one of the 
relative ptonooiM, qme, fuUn, cual, &«., it ■ pat io the indjcatire when it 
expraaMO any thing certain ot posittTe, and in the eubjunctiTe nHien it re- 
lates to any thing uncertain, doubtful, or contingent Examples: — 

llci^ is a book for you, which you 

may consult occasionally, 
( me a book that I may be able 

to consult occasionally. 
Ix>nd me that book which you do 

not want 
Lend me a book which yon may not 

be in want of. 
Do not leave a place where you are 

comfortable, and whence you hear 

Choose a place where you may be 

comfortable, and whence you may 

bear well 

Ind, Aqui tiene V. un libro fue 

fuede consultar i ocasiones. 
Suhj, Deme V. un libro fpu yo ptie- 

da consultar t cuando se ofrexem. 
Ind. Prtfsteme V. aquel libro de que 

no neeesita, 
Subj, Pt^eme V. un libro de que 

no necente. 
Ind No deje V. un aaento en que 

V. e»td cOmodamente, y desde el 

eval V. oye bien. 
Subj, Escoja V. un asiento en que 

eeti cOoMxlamente, y desde el euml 

V. 9iga bien. 


Will your wonhip allow me to con- ^Quiero vuestra merced danne li- 
fer a little with you 7 cencia que departa un poco con 

€\ t D. Quijoie, cap. xxi. pt L 

In these crosi-paths, though your En estas encmcijadas aqpque se 

worriiip conquer, and achieye the rensan, y acaben las mas peligio- 

most perilous exploits, there is no- sas aventuras, no hay quien las 

body present to be witness of vea, ni eepa. Ditto, ditto. 

of, St il 




Keithfir will tfaero be wutting some 
penon to write the hiatory of your 
wcnhip^B exploits. 

Andrew must wait for my return, as 
yoa, madam> say. 

I leqnest thee agaiiii not to toll it to 

Bat I poattiTely wish it not to be 
known, till it is donei 

Is it possible that a Christian preacher 
can have the boldness to profo 
■och an ofHnion 7 

Aovided that two (religioos persons) 
make themselves exempt, or be 
not able to pass the roads, I shall 
be certainly called. 

I am calm, and will be the same, 
although the triumph of the Geran- 
be complete. 

By this means, and provided that 
yon can pronounce as well, ss 
Heaven may grant, the name of 
the iOustrions Sbakspeare, nobody 
win doubt of your authority. 

In Older that ignorant penons may 
not confound them with the trtly 

AU no faltari qnien ponga per 
escrito Iss hazaiiss de Vnestra mer- 
ced. Ditto, ditto, 

Et forxooo que Andres tenga pa- 
ciencia basta mi vuelta oomo tos^ 
sefiora, decis. 

JHitOf cap. zzzL pL i. 

May Jiqiitor preserve yon from all 

Te vuelvo i eneargar que i nadie 
lo deocuhrao. 

MoriKt»— £< 8it Act I. 

Pero quiero absolutomento que no se 
stfjNi haste que eote hecho. 

Ditto, ditto. 

I E* poaible que tenga allento para 
profeiir semejanto proposicion un 
orador cristiano 7 

P. Ula — Fr. Oerundio. 

Con tal que dos (religiosos) se s^r- 
eueen, 6 no puedan pasar los 
puertoB, ser^ infaliblemento llama- 
do. JDitlo— Carta LI. 

Estoy fresco, y lo estar^ aunque $ea 
complete el trionfo de los Gt>mn- 
dios. Ditto— Carte LXVL 

Con eeto, y coroo proTtuneieis, como 

el cielo ob di & entender, el nom- 

bre del insigne Shakespeare, nin- 

guno dndari de vuestro vote. 

CadaUo—Eruditoo & la VioUta. 

A fin de que los ignoraates no los 
confundan con los verdaderos sa- 
bioB. Ditto, ditUk 

\ Jdpiter OS guarde de todo mal I 

DiUo, ditto 



gnat jaa would 
piifld the Uttle biid. 

AUhaagb. the critxsi I am opeakiii^ 
oi, may abuse me, I will describe 
them in other fable. 

If the atatotea of knight-errantry 
were loat, they would be foond in 
your ironhip'o heart 

Don Qoizote told him to relate some 
stofy ; and Sancho said he would 
do eoy if the dread of what he heard 
did not prevent him. 

V I were permitted to speak freely 
as usnal, I conld perhaps give saeh 
naaoum as would convince yoor 
wonhip, that yon are mistaken in 
what yon oay. 

Pon Bemando waa highly diqrfeased 
that his grandfather had not ap- | 
pointed him for principal gov- 

The neglect of appointing him, miirfat 
be imputed to hie yo^ ' "«°^ 

It i. not fit for US to rejoice at a irood 
lack, or to grieve for an iU o^f^ 

/ Ojald qfue canleras / 
Beplic^ el pajarillo. 


Aunque renieguen de ml 
Los ciitioae de que trato, 
£n oira fUmla aqni 
Tengo de hacer sn retrata 

j:>i^io^Fabiila XXin. 

8i laa ordenanzas de la andante 
caballerfa se perdiewen (penfieraa) 
se haUarian en el pecho de vocs- 
tra merced. 

D. QuijoU, cap zriL 

Dfjole Don Quijote que coateae (con- 
tare) algun cuento ; y Sancho dijo 
que si haria, si le dejara el miedo 
de. lo que oia. 

Ditto, cap zzL 

Si yo pudiera hablar tanto oomo 
solia, quimd diera tales razonei 
que vuestra merced viera que se 
engadaba en lo que dice. 

Ditto, ditto. 

Don Fernando se hallaba deeabrido 

«ie que su abnelo no le dejooe 

nombrado por principal gobemador. 

Solio, lib. iii cap iil 

Ell no nombrarle pudiera ^paaoi par 
diafuvor hecho 6, su poca edad 

Ditto f dUto- 

If those men who iOiun adve«»#* 
could understand the ^""V*^* 
th^ contained, they not^^ 

JVb eonviene que nos aUgremoo con 
los buenos sucesos, 6 noa anguo- 
tiernao con los malos. 

Fr. Luis de Zteon, 

Si lo8 que eoqnivan la adveisidad 
^ntendieoen el bien que en ella ae 
enoierra, no aolo no la AmiHam, 



irould not fly from it, but they 
p«iliai« woald beg God to imi 
them with it. 

mas por Tentara hmiam plegutai 
i Dies pan que w la eiiofMt A 


240. " 
l^oa most have patience, thongh yon have no deaiie to have it ; for 
I mnst al80 wait till I receive my money. Should I (en caso que) 
receive it to^iay I will pay yon all that I owe yon. Do not believe^ 
that I have forgotten it; for I think of it every day. Or do yon 
believe, perhaps, that I have already received it ? — ^I do i ot believe that 
yoa have already received it ; bnt I fear that yonr other creditors may 
already have received it — ^Wonld to God (Qfald que) yon had what I 
wish yon, and that I had what I wish. — ^Thongh we have not had what 
we wish, yet we have abooost always been contented ; and Messienrs 
B. have almost always been discontented, though they have had every 
thing a reasonable man (tin hombre racional) can be contented with.— 
Do not believe, Madam, that I have had yonr ftn, (abanico,) — ^Who 
tells yon that I believe it 7 — ^My brother<4n-law wonld wish he had not 
had what he has had. — ^Wherefore? — ^He has always had many 
creditors, and no money. — I wish yon would always speak French to 
me ; and yon mnst obey, if yon wish to learn, and if yon do not wish 
to lose yonr time uselessly, (in&tUmenteJ) I would wish yon were 
more industrious and more attentive when I speak to you. K I were 
not your fiiend, and if you were not mine, I should not speak thus to 
you. — ^Do not trust (no sejle V,) Mr. N., for he flatters you. Do you 
think a flatterer (un advlador) can be a friend ? — You do not know 
him as well as I, though you see him every day. — Do not think that I 
am angry with him, because his fiither has offended me. — Oh ! here ho 
ia oxning, (Ae2e aqvi que vienef) you may tell him all yourself. 

What do you think of our king 7 — ^1 say he is a great man, but I 
add, that though kings be ever so powerful (poderoio) they die as well 
as the meanest of their subjects. — ^Have you been pleased with my 
sisters 7 — ^I have ; for however plain (fso) they may be, they are still 
very amiable ; and however learned (instruido) our neig^ibors' daughters 
may be, they are still sometimes mistaken.— Is not their fiither rich 7 
—However rich he may be, he may lose all in an instant — ^Whoever 
the enemy may be whose malice (malicia) you dread, (recelar,) you 
ought to rely (descansar) upon your innocence; bnt the laws (las 
kyes) condemn (candenar) all crixninals (cnminal) whatever they may 
be. — ^Whatever your intentions (tntoncion) may be, you should have 


aetod dBftrandy.— Whatever the reasons (rasum) be which job jb/j 
alkge, they will noi excuse yonr actloii, blameable in itaelfl— Whrt- 
aver msy happen to you in this world, never murmor (murmunr) 
agaxnat Divine Providence ; for whatever we nmy suffer we deser?e it 
—Whatever I may do» you are ncror aatisfied.^Whatever you may 
say, your aisteis shaU be punished, if they deserve it, and if ilifiy do 
HOC endeavor to amend, («fiiii«iifar.)— Who has taken my gold iwtch t 
—I do not know. Do not beUeve that I have had it, or that Mi« C. 
iMs had your silver snuff^xo, for I saw both in the hands o( yow 
aiater when we were playing at forfeits, (j't^os de jwwieiwO— To- 
norrow I shall set out for Dover; but in a fortnight I shall be IwJt 
again, (toiwr,*) and then I shall come and see you and your ftmily.- 
Where b your sister at present?— She is at Paris, anSi my broUieris 
at Berlin.— That UtUe woman is said («? dice) to be going to many 
Geneial (rf general) K., your friend ; is it true ?— I have not heani of 
it.— What news is there of our great army ?— It is said to be lyi^ 
(estar) between the Weser (d Viaer) and the Rhme, (rf ^^^^T^!! 
that the courier told me seeming (jwreccr) very probable, I went home 
immediately, wrote some letten, and departed for Ixmdon. 



Remarh—Thm tenae exprvflsos a posiUye future conditional acthm, ands 
govened by the sune veibs and conjnnctioiiB that govern the preaent of • 
aabjoDCtive mood, in oonoeqnence of which it is aometimea miatakeo for 
uaed imtead of that ; hot it k veiy difierent, and ezprevea the idea witb 
mora energy and praciaion. Therefore the rnlea laid down for the oee 
the praoent of the aabjanetiTe are applicable to thia tenae when the tenge w 
eoMfitMoal and futore. It Ireqaently aiwwen to the futare of the indica- 
tive, or pnaent of the potential mood in Engla£ ; hot meet frequently to the 
ansiUary veih aAoaJd, aa may be obaerved by the foUowmg exam/rf^.— 

I do not ten thee to lire, or to die : 
live, if thoa eanat; die, if thou 
eanat not do better. 

We have reaolved to do in hia behalf 
aU that ihaU lie in oar power. 

No te digo que mv9, ni qa« «a««r« .* 


Vive, n PUDiKRxa, 
ruDiaaaa maa. 

Tenemoa ya detenninado que « *^ 
en an obaeqnio todo io que alcaN- 
ZAaan nuMtraa fnena» 




Command what yon pUase, renew 
to our good friend my nncere at- 
tachment, and Bay from me all 
thatyoa please to ail those who 
9hdUrtmember me 

Jm§i a little, matr 90 UttU, 

WiD yon do me the favor of giying 
me a piece of bread ? 

Do yon w»h a great deal ? 
No, just a little. 

To turn to account. 
To make the beet of. 

nniat man doea not know how to 
make the moat of his talents. 

That man turns his money to ac- 
connt in trade. 

How do yon employ yoor money 7 

I employ it in the stocks. 

To hoaetf to hrag. 

I do not like that man, because he 
boasti too much. 

Manda lo que gttetafee, renneva 4 
nnestro baen amtgo mi fine afeoto, 
y d cuantos ee acordaren de mf» 
dirds de mi parte todo lo que 
quitieree, Ida — CarUu., 

Solo un poco. No mae que tin poco 
t Un poquiio. Un poquitito. 
Solo un poquito. 

^Qniere V. hacerme el fKwat de 
darme on pedazo (on pooo) de 

I Qaiere V. macho ? 

t Not solo un poquito, (on pedacito, 
nn cachita) 

t Hacer valer. t Hacer para ganar. 

Aprovecharee de. 

Sacar ventaja de. Sermree de, 

ESse hombre no sabe como aprore- 

charse de sns talentos. 
ESse hombre saca ventaja {eahe eacar 

ventaja) de su dinero en el comer- 

1 1 Como hace V.para ganar eon eu 

dinero ? 
Yo le pongo en los fondos publico^ 

Jactaree. Vanagloriaree, 
Freciaree. Alabaree, 
Fanfarronear. t Ser jacianeioeo. 
t No me gueta eoe homhre, porqne 

80 jacta muchoy {ee muyjaetan" 


Nottoithetanding that. 
For all that, although. 

That man is a little bit of a rogne, 

but notwithstanding he passes for 

an honest man. 
Ahhoogh that man is not very well, 

he notwithstanding works a great 

Although that woman is not very 

pretty, still she is very amiable. 

t No dejar de. 

No obstante. Sifi embargo. » 

Con toda Aunque. 

EIbo hombre no deja de ser an pica- 
rillo, con todo pasa por un homhre 
de bten. 

Aanqae aqael hcwnbre estd enfermOy 
no deja de trabajar mucho. 

Aanqae aquella major no sea may 
bonita, no deja de ser aiuable. 



AJlhoii^ that man has not tbeloMt 
talMit, yot for all that he boMtt a 
peat deal 

AWiengfa the taToni-keeper'e wife is 
rather swarthy, yet for all that 
■he tome the bawieai to good ac- 

t received your letter on the fifth. 
On theaxth. 

7^ gm hmck, to retunt. 
Tk€ Up. 

F^mm tap to bottom. 

The eideet brother. 
The eldest 
He is the eldest 


t Annqae aqnel homfaie no tenfad 
menor talento, no par mo dqa it 
jactarse mncho de ^L 

Annqne la taTomera es on poeoDO- 
rena, eUa no deja de near faoM 
pnnrecho de sns negodoBi 

I To ecifai la carta de V. el dnoo. 

Volver: Volveratro4. Retoher. 
liO alto. Elevada £1 zemats^ 
La cima, (cambre, pnnta.) 
liO bajo. Lo inferior. El melo. 
EI fondo. El pi^. 
t Hasta arrfba, encmia, (lo a]to» k 

t De arriba abaja 

El faermano mayor. 
La hermana mayor. 
£l es el mayor. 

* tV^^ 

Tomppeor, to 
« then 

JParecer. Tener apariencia de. 
Pareeiendo, Parecido, 
he ap- Yoparezoo. Tdparecet Elpawoa 

Tener: Mantener^ Omttner. 

J Ml manutencion, (manUndon) 
t Oaotoo. 
f Mi manutencion me cueaU nul J 
My keepiB|r costs me twelve bun- I doscientos pesoa al aiio. 

To koopt to wsiafsta. 
My keeping or maintenance. 

dred dottara a year. 

Mis gastos montan i mil y daacientoi 
pesos al aAa 

To drive tit, fe stiiJb. 

To converse with. 

A convenation. 

To spare. 
%wre your money 

To get tired. 
To be tired. 

I Clavar. Hundir. Enet^or. Mtter. 

JConveroar con. Hablttr con. 
TVsf or eoH. 

i Una eonveiBacion. 
I Abonar. Economizer. 
^ Gaardar. Conaerrar. 
I t Cuitle V.deou dinero. 
''Cansarae de. Fatiganede 
^ Fastidiane de. Enfadaiw de. 
Efrtar canaado, (fatigado, faiti^i^ 
enfodado de.) 



To handle. 
To loan against 



I Manonar. Mancjar. Tratar. 
( Apoyaiae. Dewanaar. 
{ RecUnane. Raooataiae. 

Reco^stese V. sobra ml 

RecUneae (ap^yeae) V. contra la 

To ahn at 
To atopdiort 

Virtae is amiable. 
Vice is odious. 

{ Apuntar Aae^tsr, Enearar. 
( Tirar al bianco. 

i Corta Brere. Bajo. 
\ Peqaefia Chico. 

Paraiae. DetenenOb 

Cortarse. Perderse. 


Ia Yirtud es amaUe. 
Cl Ticio es aborrecible. 

Oba. A, The definite article is used in Spanish before snbstantives taken 
iiT a general oense, and in the whole extent of their signification. In such 
iortances no article is made use of in English. Examples : — 

Los homhres son mortales. 

El oro es precioso. 

La harina se vende 4 seis pesos el 

La came cnesta d seis peniques la 

El horror del vicio, y el amor de la 

virtud, son las delicias del sabio. 

Men are mortaL 

Gold is precious. 

Floor is sold at six dollars a barrel. 

Beef costs aiz pence a pound. 

The horror of Tice, and the love of 
firtae, are the delights of the wise 

England is a fine country. | Inglaterra es nn pais hermoso. 

Obt. B. The definite article is used, of late, before the names of king- 
doms, proTinces, and countries ; not by tbo best writers, however, excepting 
when those names are accompanied by an adjective, or when the countries 
tdmit of a division. It is required to be placed before a few names by 
general usage. Examples;— 

Spnn, Spun ultramarine, of this 

aide or of that side of the sea. 
Atia, Asia major, or minor. 
Italy is the garden of Europe. 
The dog is the friend and companion 
of man. 

Espaiia, La Eipafia ultra mar 6 

citra mar. 
Asia. Asia mayor, or manor. 
La Habana. 
El Peru 

Italia es el jardin de Enropa. 
El peno es el amigo y el compaftsio 

del hombre. 


OU a IIk* aitielai u« npe^«d befen erery mbitaiitive wliw a par- 
tienlar emphaM ■ plaoad oa thorn ; otherwiM they may be omitted 

Tesalia produce yido, naraojafl, fi* 
rocNiee, oliTas, y toda eqiecie de 

Themaly produces wine, oranges, 
lemons, oUyos, and all kinds of 

He ate the broad, meat, apples, and 
cakes ; he diank the wine, beer, 
and eider. 

Beauty, pracefulness, and wit, are 
▼alnabie endowments when height- 
ened by modesty. 

£l se comi6 el pan, la came, laa 
manxanas, y los boUos ; y ae be- 
bi6 el vino, la cervesa, y la ndia. 

La hermosnra, las gracias, y el iage- 
nio, son prendas apreciaUes coande 
estan acmupailadas de la mo d es ti a 


Whither shall yon go next year 7 — I shall go to England, for it is a 
fine kingdom, where I intend spending the summer on my retom 
from France. — ^Whither shall you go in the winter ? — ^I shall go to 
Italy, and thence (de aUi) to the West Indies, (A las Aniillas ;) but 
before that I must go to Holland to take leave (despedirse) of my 
^ends. — ^What country do these people inhabit, {habitar?') — ^They 
inhabit the south (mediodkitsur or sud) of Europe ; their countries are 
called Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and they themselves are Italians, 
Spaniards, or Portuguese; but the people called Russians, Swedes, 
and Poles, inhabit the north (norte) of Europe ; and the names of their 
countries are Russia, Sweden, and Poland, (Po2onui.) France is 
separated (jseparar) from Italy by (por) the Alps, (los Alpes^) and from 
Spain by the Pyrenees, (los PirinSos,) — ^T^ugh the Mahometans 
(hs MahomeUsnos) are forbidden the use of wine, (estS pnhibido,) 
yet for all that some of them drink it. — ^Has your brother eaten 
any thing this morning? — ^He has eaten a great deal; thon^ he 
said he had no appetite, yet for all that he ate all the meat, bread, and 
vegetables, (l^gufkbres,) and drank all the wine, beer, and cider. — Are 
eggs (huevo) dear at present ?— They are sold at a dollar a hundred. — 
Do you like grapes, (uvas .»)— I do not only like grapes, but also 
plums, (ciruelasj) almonds, nuts, and all sorts of fruit. — ^Though 
modesty, candor, and an amiable disposition (condicion) are valuable 
endowments, yet for all that there are some ladies that are neither 
modest, nor candid, (cdndido,) nor amiable. — ^The fear of death and 
the love of life being natural to men, they ought to shun (huir) ^ce, 
(d vicia,) and adhere to (adherirse A) virtue. 



To give oeeasion. 

£IGHTY-S£CX)ND LESSON.— jLeccum Octogisima segunda. 

Dar motizo, (catMa, oeaHon de 
(n) para.) (With a verb in the 
io6nitiTe or rabjanctive.) 

t Dar pie para. (With a verb in 
the iDfiuitive or sabjaoctiye.) 

Referiree & •. Deferir^e • al die 

Dejar d, (the pen»n.) 

Dejar 4 la deciaion, (al dictimen.) 
L t Ponerlo en manos, {Al arhitrio de.) 
I t Lo dejo d lo que V. diga, {haga^ 

To Uave it to one 

I leave it to yon. 

A good bargain. 

To stick, or abide by a thing. 

" Been contrato, (pacta) 
Boena compra, (venta.) 
t Una ganga. Una huena euerte, 

^ Una chiripa. 

Ateneree a *. Manteneree en *. 

Paoar por. Eetar por •• 

« • . ^ . . «. . II. Yo me atenffo i la oferta one V. me 

I abide by the oner you have made ) u k Uq 

Paso por la oferta que V. me ha hecho. 

1 do not doubt but you are my friend. | Yo no dudp que V. sea mi amigo. 

C Sufrir. Aguantar. ExperimenUar. 
To tuffeTi to hear. 7 Soetener *. Padeeer *. 

{ Retietir. Arrostrar. 

trm. ji . .. « 1 « C ElloB estuvi^ron expnestos & todo el 

Tiiey were ezpoeed to the whole fire i , j i i 
«f #1* iJ 1 fucgo de la plaza. 

™ ( Sufri^ron todo el fuego de la plasa. 

{Ezaminar con mafia. 
t Haeer cantor & alguno. 
Sacarle vn seereto. 
Hacerle desembuchar. 

I examined him artfully, and by that 
means I have made myself ac- 
quainted with all his afiain. 

t Yo le he examiuado con mafia, y 
de este mode me he hecho duefio 
de todos BUS negocios. 

Pasar. Sohrellevar. Sufrir. 
To hear, or to put up with. ^ t Dejar que. Aguantar. 

t No haeer caao de. 

Ton will be obliged to put up with 
an hift wishes. 

v. se vera obllgado d pasar por 
cuanto a quiera. 





A tbick clond 
A thick beard. 
He ha9 a thick heard, 
A bunt 

A bunt of laughter. 
To bunt out laughing. 

To buiBt oat 
To bant oat a laoghing. 

Splendor, brigfatni 

To make a great ahow. 
To light 

To suffer one's self to be beaten. 

To let or to suffer one's self to falL 
To BxxSEer one's self to be insulted. 
To suffer one's self to die. 
To let one's self be struck. 

To send back, to send away. 

To extol, to praise up. 

To boast, to praise one's self. 

Go thither. 

Let nsga 
Go thou. 

Go (thou) thither. 
Go (thou) away. 

Let him go thither. 
Let them go thither. 






t Espeso. Espesa. Dense. lktm» 
Ghmeso. Gmesa. 

Una nube espesa. 

t Una barba poblada, (eepeio.) 

t El es barbieerrado. 

Un reventon, (estallido, eitampidis 

Una carcajada. Un flajo de zin. 
Reventar de risa. Caene de rinu 
Reyentar. Estallar. Brotar. 
Romper. Quebrar. Pzommpir. 
Dar de carcajadas. Haceiie trixtt 
Esplendor. Resplandor. Brilla 
Lustre. Brillantez. Claridad 
Pompa. Magnificencia. 
Hacer oetentacion. 
Hacer un gran papel. 
Alumbrar. Uuminar. 
Dar luz. ESncender. 

Dejaise apoirear, (golpear, matof 
tar, sacudir.) 

Dejanw caer. 

Dejarse insultar. 

Dejane morir. 

Dejarse apalear. 
r Devdver. t Volver a enciar, 
J Remitir (enviar) otia vet 
' Hacer yolver. 
( Engrandecer. Alabar. 
/M^nificar. Ensaliar. ApUndir 
^ Engrandecer. Exaltar. 
r Jactane. Vanagloriane. 
/Alabane. Exaltarse. Pwoiaise. 

^ t Eehar plarUat. 

r Vaya V. ah£, (allf or alli.) 

) Id vos (voeotros) ahi, (alll «r aW-) 

( Ve tH alU, (all& or ahi.) 



Ve all&, (aUi.) 

^ Vdyase €\ aUA. 
\ Que se yaya 6\ alli. 
k V&yanse ellos alli. 
( Que se vayan ellos aUt 



Go away, begme. 

Let na begone. 

]>t him go away, let him begone. 
Ghro me. 

Gire it to me. 
Giro it to him. 

Give him some. 

To get paid. 
Get paid. 

Let 110 set oat 

Let OS breakfast 
Let him give it to me. 

Let him he here at twelve o'clock. 

Let him send it me. 
He may believe it 

Make an end of it 
Let him 6nish. 
Let him take it 

Let her say so. 

Rather, (before an adjective.) 




{Vetei Maiehate. 
t Quitate de aqoL 
V&yaseV. Marchess V. ' 
t Quitese V. de aqat 
C Vdmonos. March^monos. 
\ t Qtttl^mofios de aqui. 
Que se vaya. Qne se marche. 
t Que deje el puesto. 
I Dome V. Denme VV. Dadme. 
IMmele (d^mela) V. 
D&dmele. Dddmela vos. 
D^sele (ddsela) V. 
D&dsele or la, (vos, vosotros.) 
^Dele V. algimo, (algonos, algona 

Dadle vos, vosotros alguno, (algonos, 
algona, alguuaa.) 
I Haceise pagar. 
{ Higase V. pagar. 
( t Haeeos pagar. 
(Salgamos. Marcbemos. 
( Partamos. Vdmonoa 

D^mele ^L Que 6\ me le de. 
i Que 6i eeA6 aqui i. las doce. 
( Que ^1 est^ aqui al medio dia. 
i Que 6\ me le (la) envie. 

iSl puede creerle, (la or la) 

Acabar. Fmalizar. 

Terminar. CoDcIoir. 

Que acabe, (^L) 

t Dejele V, aeabar, (jjue acahe.) 
^ T6mele, {61) Que le tome ^l 
( D€je]e V. que le tome. 
} Dfgalo ella. 
< D^je V. que ella lo diga. 
( t Dijeselo V. decir. 
I Alga 


The starling. 
If I were to question you ss I used 
to do at the beginning of our les- 
■ns, what would you answer 7 

We foond these qnestions at first 

El estomino* 

I Si yo lea hiciera A W. (os hiciera) 
preguntas como lo hacia al principio 
de nuestras lecciones, que me re- 
sponderian VY. (que responderfais)? 

Nosotros hallamoB al principio 



rather ridicnlooi ; but foil of oon- 
fideace in your method, we an- 
nrered as well as the small qaan- 
tity of words and rules we then 

We were not long in finding out that 
those questions were calculated to 
ground us in the rules, and to ex- 
ercise us in convenation, by the 
contradictory answen we were 
obliged to make. 

We can now almost keep up a oon- 
▼ersatbn in Spanish. 

This phrase does not seem to us logi- 
cally correct 

We should be ungrateful if we al- 
lowed such an opportunity to 
escape without expressing ' our 
Ureliest gratitude to you. 


at all events. 

The native. 
The insormountahie difficulty. 

pragnutas dgo ridfeolss; pen 
Uenos de confianza en el m^todo 
de v., (vueslro m^todoO lat tm- 
pondimoo tan bien como ooi lo 
penmti5 el ourto nOmero de pda- 
bras y reglas que entdnoee poiBis- 
mos, (sabiamos.) 

No taidamoe mucho en hilbr qne 
aquellas preguntas estaban csk»- 
ladas para inculcamos las re^iai, 
y ejeicitamos en la convenaoon, 
por (medio de) las reipaeatas am- 
tradictorias, que estAbamoB oMga- 
dos & hacer. 

Alpreaeute podemos mantener caa 
toda una converaacion en «•■ 

Esta f rase no nos parece WgicameDte 

NoBotroe scrfamos unos ingratoa ■ 
dejAramos eecapar una tal oporto- 
nidad de manifestar i V. (mam- 
fcstaroe) nuestro mas viro raconoo- 

TEn todo caso. 

1 En todo evento, (suceeo.) 

I En todas ocasioneSi 

Lt Sueeda lo que eueeda. 

5 El native El natural. 

\ f El miginario de. Slkijode. 

I La dificultad insuperable. 


Will you drink a cup of coffee?— I thank you, I do not Kke cofiee. 
—Then you will drink a glass of wine ?— -I have just drunk »°™f-"T 
Let U8 take a walk.— WiUingly, (con mucho gusto;) but where sWU 
we go to ? — Come with me into my aunt's garden ; we shall there find 
very agreeable society. — ^I believe it ; but the question is (el caso esj 
whether this agreeable society will admit me. — ^You are welconw 
everywhere.— What uls you, my friend ? How do you like that win^ 
—I like it very well, (muy bien;) but I have drunk enough of it-- 
Drink once more, (otra capita,) — ^No, too much is unwholesome ; 
know my constitution.— Do not fall. What is the matter with joa 7" 


I do not know ; but my head is giddy, (estoy aturdido ;) I tlunk I am 

ftmtiiig, (^pienso que me desmayo.y^l think so also, for yoa look 

aknoat like a dead perscm, (un cadaver,) — ^Wbat countryinan are yon ? 

— I am an American. — Yon speak Spanish (espaOoC) so well that I 

took yon for a Spaniard by birth. — ^You are jesting. — ^Pardon me ; I^o 

not jest at all. How long have you been in Spain, (Etpana ?) — ^A 

few days. — ^In earnest ? — You doubt it, perhaps, because I speak 

Spanish ; I knew it before I came to Spain. — ^Uow did yon learn it 

ao well ? — ^I did like the prudent starling. 

Tell me, why are yon always on bad terms (en discordia) with youi 
wife ? and why do you engage in unprofitable trades, (meierse en nego 
eios inutiles 7) It costs so much trouble (cuesta iarUo} to get (lener) 
a situation ; and you have a good one and neglect it. Bo you not 
think of the future 7 — Now allow me to speak also, (a mi tumo.) — 
All you have just said seems reasonable ; but it is not my fault, if I 
have lost my reputation ; it is that of my wife r^ she has sold my finest 
clothes, my rings, (aniUos,) and my gold watch. I am full of 
(cargado) debts, and I do not know what to do.— I will not excuse 
your wife ; but I know that you have also contributed to your ruin, 
(la ruinaJ) Women are generally good when they axe left so, 
(cuando se dgan $er tales.) 



The Master. — ^If I were now to ask (hacer) you such (algvnas pre' 
guntas) questions as I did in the beginning of our lessons, viz. (por 
gemplo :) Have you the hat which my brother has ? am I hungry ? 
has he the tree of my brother's garden 7 &c. What would you 

The Pupils, — We are obliged (estar chligado) to confess that we 
found these questions at first rather (algo) ridiculous ; but full of con- 
fidence in your method, we answered as well as the small quantity of 
words and rules we then possessed allowed us. We were, in fact, 
(pero^ not long (to be not long, no tardar mucho) in finding out that 
these qoestions were calculated to ground us in the rules, and to exer- 
cise us in conversation, by the contradictory answers we were obliged 
to make. But now that we can almost keep up a conversation in the 
beautiful language which you teach us, we should answer : It is im- 
possible that we should have the same hat which your brother has, for 
two persons cannot have one and the same thing. To the second 
question we should answer, that it is impossible for us to know 
whether yon are hungry or not As to the last, we should say : that 
there ia more than one tree in a garden ; and in asking us whether he 




has the tree of the garden, the phrase does not seem to us logka&y 
correct. At all events we shoiUd be ungrateful (uigrato) if we 
allowed such an opportunity to escape, without ezpiesaiiig (exfraar) 
our liveliest gratitude to you for the trouble you have taken. In u* 
ranging (par el arreglo) those wise combinationa, (pomifinaekm^ ]mi 
have succeeded in grounding us almost imperceptibly (tntperajifiNe- 
menu) in the rules, and exercising us in the conversatioD, of a lan- 
guage which, taught in any other way, presents to foragneis, and even 
to natives, almost insurmountable difficulties, (jmauperaJbks.) 

EIGHTY-THIRD LESSON.— Z«cdcm Odcgesima tenen. 
To lack, (to he wa$Uimg.) | Faltar. NeeegUaree. 

^ Le falta un cuarto, (on coartana.) 
( Le falta una cuarta parte. 
Le falta ana (la) mitad. 

It lacks a quarter. 

It lacks a half. 
How much does it want T 
It does not want much. 
It wants but a trifle. 

It lacka bat an inch of my being as 
tall as you. 

It lacked a great deal of my being 
as rich as you. 
The half. 

The thiid part. 

ITie fourth part. 
Yon think yoa have retomed me all ; 
a great deal is wanting. 

iCnanto le falta? 

No le falta mocha 

t Solo le itM^umfoqwtaf ( 

Solo me falta ana pnlgada, ptii ■» 

tan alto como V. 
f For uwM puigada nomyUMaltt 

como V. 
Faltaba macho para que yo **■• 

tan rico como V. 
La mitad. 
C La tercia (tercera) parte, (fem-) 
( El tereio, (mas.) 
La cuarta parte. Un aurto. 
V. piensa que me lo ha devuelto todo ; 
pero falta machirima 

{El m^nor no es con mBchotanboeno 
como el mayor. 
Macho le falta al manor, ptf» "r 
tan bueno como el mayor. 

In afoolUh manner, at random. \ ^ ^^*«~«^ . . 

( A ateetro y a nuteetre. 

f El habla a tontae f & l»eM ^>^ 
un hombre sin jaicio> 

He talks at random like a craxy 

To resort to violence. 

A fact 

Venir A las manoSi 
Un hecho. 



El9e, Or eUe. 


O. De otra tutrte, De otro modo^ 
De otra manera, 8i no. 

To make fan ot 

Borlane de. Chaneeaiae con. 
Reine de. Hacer borla. 
Hacer chaoota de. 
C Deementir *. 
To oontiadiety to give one the Itei < Decirle i nno qoe miente. 

( Dar nna desmentida. Contradectr * 

Should he say bo, I wonid give hbn 

the lie. 
HJi actkmB belie hia winds. 


Si ^1 dijera eeo, yo le deamentiria. 

Sna aeciones contradicen (deamien- 
ten) sua palabraa. 

Araiiar, Raogunar. 

To eoeape. 

I fell firom the top of the tree to the 
bottom, bat I did not hurt myself 

I eocaped with a aeratch. 

The thief has been taken, but he will 
eacapo with a few months* impris- 

JEscapar. Escapane. 
t Quedar libre. t Salir libre, 

Yo ca( de la cima del iibol hasta el 
pi^, pero no me lastim^ mucho. 

Escape con on arailo, (raagniia) 
El ladron fn^ tornado, pero saldri 

libre (escapari) con algonoa meses 

de priaion. 

By dint of. 
By dint of labor. 
By too mnch weeping. 

Afuerza de. 

t A faerza de trabajo. 

t A fuena de Ugrimaa, {de Uorar,) 

t A faerza de Uorar, perdeii V. loa 

Se le oeeardn & V. loa ojos. 
I obtained of him that favor by dint I t Consegof de ^1 eae favor d fuersa 
of entreaty. | de Bdpllcaa. 

Yon will cry year eyea oat 

. ^ t Exeepio (ealvOf minoe) eeo. 

That excepted. ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^j.^^^ ^^ ^ 

lliat &nlt excepted, he is a good I t Quitada eaa falta, ea nn bnen 


To vie with each other. 

Jt A competencia. A porfia. 

A eual fmw. A eual nujor. 

(t Esos hombres trabajan 4 compe« 
Estan procnrando excedene nno A 




7^6 Um 

I am tAe more disoontented with hii 

condaet, a« he k uiider many ob- 

ligatioiis to me. 
I am tk£ leM9 pleased with hie ccm- 

dQCt, mt I had more right to hie 



Ropa limpia, (Uanea.) 

Tanto mat euanta 

Tanto mat euanto mac. 

Tanto minot 
Tanto minot 


euanto mimot,mt 

Yo eetoy tanto mat descoatento da 

m condacta, euanto €1 me dcim 

mochas oUigacionesL 
Yo estoy tanto minot aatiofeebo da 

su conducta, euanto mat deracho 

tenia yo 4 sa ■*P!«f**^ 

/ totsA that 

I wUi that honse was mine. 

I Yo quiero (deteo) que, 

Yo querria (qutaera) que 

fuese mia. 
Yo deseara (desearia) que 

f aese mia. 

7*0 mntttt to think, 
I thooi^t a long time on that affiur. 

Meditar, reJUxionar, 

Yo reflexion^ laigo tiempo en 

To he naked. 

To have the head nncorered. 

To have the feet uncoveied. 

Ettar detnudo, {detnuda.) 
t Ettar {andar) en euerot. 

Toner la cabesa desnnda. 

t Ettar detcubierto, 

t Tener la eaheza al aire. 

fTener ios pies desnndoa. 
t Ettor deteaheo. 
t Ettar {andar) detealzo do fU y 

O&s. A. When the ▼eih haber is used, no prepontion is requi r ed ; bat 
with the verbs ettar and andar the prepositions de or coa must be employed 
when the substantives are ezpressed, as in the following examples : — 

To be baiefboted. 

''Tener Ios pies desnudos. 

t Ettar {andar) detealzo, 

Estar (andar) eon Ios pi^ demndoSp 

^ Estar (andar) desnndo' de pife 



To bo baroheaded. 

To rido barobacked. 

Tenor la caboza desnuda, (deteubier- 

Eotar (andar) con la cabeza al aiio. 
I t Montar (andar) i caballo en pelo. 

To have Uke^ or to think to have. 

I had like to bave loot my money. 
I thought to have lost my life. * 
We had like to have lost our fingexa. 
He was very near falling. 

He was within a 
being killed. 

He had liked to have died. 

At, on, or npon your heela 
The enemy is at our heels. 

To strike, (speaking of lightning.) 

Th9 lightning lias struck. 

The lightning fltruck the ship. 

While my brother was on the open 
sea, a violent storm rose unex- 
pectedly ; the lightning struck the 
ship, which it set on fire, and the 
whole crew jumped into the sea to 
save themselves by swimming. 

He was struck with fright, when he 
saw that the fire was gaining on 
all sides. 

He did not know what to do. 

He hesitated no longer. 
I have not heard of him yet. 
An angel. 

A masterpiece. 

hair's breadth of ^ 

Estar para. 

Estar a pique de, (d punto de.) 

Faltar poeo para, t For poeo, 

Estuye para perder mi dinero. 
Pensd haber perdido la vida. 
Per poeo perdimoe los dedos. 
Estuvo & pique de caer. 
For poeo le matan. 
t Estuvo en un tris que le mataran. 
Faltd eaei nada para etr muerto. 
Estuvo para morir, (or 4 pnnto de 

PensO morir. 

^ A los (sns) talones. 
< AI alcance, (or i los alcances.) 
( En seguimiento. 
I El enemigo nos signe los alcances. 


Caer (estallar, dar, romper) sobre, or 

Ha cai4o nn rayo. 

Un rayo cayO sobre (en) el banx>. 

Mi^ntras mi hermano estaba en alta 
mar, se leyantd de repente una 
tempestad, cayO un rayo sobre el 
barco, le puso fnego, y toda la 
tripnlacion se ech6 al mar, para 
salyarse i nado, (nadando.) 

£1 quedb amedrentado, cnando vio 
que el fuego se extendia por todas 

fll no sabia que hacer, (or qne par* 
tide tomar.) 

fll no yaeild mucho tiempo. 

Todayfa no he sabido de 61. 

Un iingel. 

Una obra maestra. 

Una obra de primera elase. 

Obras maesCias. 



Oh9. B. Words oomponnded of preporitions and noons, an guienDy 
translated by single words. Example : — 

Four-o'clocks, (flowers.) | Marayillas. 

His or her physiogncmiy. 
His or her shape. 

The expression. 

The look. 




Grace, charm. 


Thin, (slender.) 
Uncommonly well. 
His or her look inq>ires respect 


Su fisonomia de ^, or de eOa. 
So talle, figura (or fonna) do fl, « 

de ella. 
La expresion. 
El aapecto. £1 semfalanie. 
^El aire. £1 ademan. 
La cara. La mirada. La Tiita. 
Contenta ContentamieDto. 
Gusto. Placer. 
Respeto. Req>ecto. 
Miramieuta Acatamiento. 

Gracia. Gracias. Eneanta 
Atractivo. Donaire. 
Delgado. Flaca Descaniada. 
Extraordinariamente bien. 
Sa presencia inspira reflpeto j id- 



Will you be my gaest, (comer conmigo : jtomarla sopaconaago: 
hacer penUencia conmigo ?) — ^I thank you ; a friend of mine haa invited 
me to dinner: he has ordered (hacer preparar) my favorite diah, 
(un platofavoriio,)'-'Whsi is it ?— It is a dish of milk, (lactkinio.)- 
As for me, I do not like milk-meat : there is nothing like (no hay naSa 
como) a good piece of roast beef or veal. — ^Wbat has become of your 
younger brother ? — ^He has suflfered shipwreck (naufragar) in going to 
America. — You must give me an account of that, (dar una rdaci€n.y- 
Very willingly, (de muy buena gana.) — ^Being on the open sea, a great 
storm arose. The lightning struck the ship and set it on fire. The 
crew jumped into the sea to save themselves by swimming* Hy 
brother knew not what to do, haying never learned to swim. He 
reflected in vain ; he found no means to save his life. He was strack 
with fright when he saw that the fire was gaining on all sides. He 
hesitated no longer, and jumped into the sea. — ^Well, (pues hieni what 
has become of him ? — ^I do not know, having not heard of bim y^" 


Bat who told yon all that ? — ^My nef^ew, who was there, and who 
saved himself. — As yoa are talking of your nephew, (a proposito de — J 
where is he at present ? — ^He is in Italy. — ^Is it long since yon heard 
of him 7 — ^I have received a letter from him to-day. — ^What does he 
write to you ? — He writes to me that he is going to marry a young 
woman who brings him (que le trae) a hundred thousand dollars. — la 
she handsome 7 — ^Handsome as an angel ; she is a master-piece of 
nature. Her physiognomy is mild and full of expression ; her eyes 
are the finest in the (del) world, and her moutb is charming, (y su 
boea muy linda.) She is neither too tall nor too short ; her shape is 
Blender ; all her actions are full of grace, and her manners are en- 
gaging. Her look inspires respect and admiration. She has also a 
great deal of wit ; she speaks several languages, dances uncommonly 
well, and sings delightfully. My nephew finds in her (holla en eUd) 
but one defect, (un defecto.) — ^And what is that defect 7 — She is 
afiected, (afeciada.) — There is nothing perfect in the world. — ^How 
happy you are ! you are rich, yon have a good wife, pretty children, a 
fine house, and all you wish. — ^Not all, my friend. — ^What do you desire 
more 7 — Contentment ; for you know that he only is happy who is 

EIGHTY-FOURTii LESSON.— Zeccion OcUgSnma cuarta. 

To read again. I Volver i leer. 

To (v) again. \ Volver 6. 

Oht. A. When again rignifies that the action of the verb is to be repeated, 
the Spaniards use the verb volver d, in its difierent tenses ; and the verb, 
the action of which is to be repeated, in the infinitive. 

When will yon read this book again ? I i Cnando volveri V. i leer esto libro? 
I will read it again to-mozrow. | Yo le volver6 6, leer mafiana. 

#>• .^^, «• J. . , C Deeenredar, DeeenmaraiUir, 
To unriddle. To disentangle. \ v^^i- 

To find out. (Adiv^'. HaUar. 

To disentangle the hair. 
To unriddle difficalties. 

Deeenmarafiar el cabella 
Deeenredar (explicar, aclarar) las 

Yo no he podido hallar (eniender) el 

sentido de esa fiase. 
Una deeavenencia} (diferencia, rifia, 

A quaireL <^ ^n pleito. 

Una contienda, (dispnta, pendanela.) 

I have not been able to find out the 
sense of that phnue. 



To have di^ranoei (a quarrel) with 
KKDO one. 

To take good care. 
To shun. To beware. 

I will take good care not to do it 
Mind you not to lend that man 

He takes good care not to answer 

the qaestion which I asked him. 
To ask a question. 
If yon take into your head to do that, 

I will punish you. 

t Eetar de euemo, (jie hodeo 

Tener un pleito (una contienda) 

Cuidar de. Cuidaroe de, 
Tener cuidado de. 
Guardaree de. Preeavene de. 
Reeataree de. Evitar. 

Yo me gnaidar6 bien de no haceria 
Cuideee V. de no prastar dinero i. ese 

£1 tiene cuidado de no responder i 

la pregunta que yo le he hecfaou 
Haeer una pregunta. Preguniar. 

Si i V. se le pone en la cabexa hacer 
eso, yo le castigar^. 


_ , m y. » J Sentar bien. Estar bien, 

Tobtamu. TofitweU. i Caer bien. IrUen. Vnir Ue,u 

Obe. B. These verbs in this sense are used only in the third penonsngnJar 
or plural 

I I Me sienta eso bien 7 
i No le sienta 4 V. 
\ No le cae bien i. V. 
No le esti bien i. V. haoer 

Does that become me 7 

That does not become you. 

It does not become yon to do that 

That fits you wonderfully welL 

Her dress does not become her. 
It does not become you to reproach 
me with it 

Eso le va i V. (le sienta i V.) per- 

Su tocado no le sentaba, (iba bien.) 
EsUl bien en V. el afeArmelo! (crtf- 


To follow from iU 

It follows from it, that you should 

not do that 
How is it that you have come so 

late 7 
I do not know how it is. 
How k it that he had not hk gnn7 

I do not know how it happened. 

Seguirwe. Dedueirwe. Saearm, 

De eso se sigue que V. no debuia 

I Porqu^ es que V. viene tan tarda 7 

Yo no »6 poiqu^ 

I Como gueedid que el no tofiera m 

Yo no a6 como suoedid 


To be fasting. 
To give notice to. 
To tot anybody know. 



£2star en ayunas. 

Avisar. Noticiar. Ciibniiar. 

Hacar saber i alguno, (algima oon^ 

BOBrr-rouBTH lbssok. 


To warn eome one of somethinir. < a j _^- « 

® ( Adyertir de antemano. 

Giro notieo to that man of hk bro- 
ther's retnni. 

Informe (aviee) V. i. eie hombro da 
la Yuelta de su hermano, {qu§ mi 
hermano ha vuelio.) 

To clear. To elacidate. 
To clear up. 
The weather is clearing np^ 


Refieifa yonnelf, and return to me 

To whiten. To Ueach. 
To blacken. 

To torn pale. To grow pale. 

To glow old. 
To grow yonng. 

To blush. To redden. 

Aclarar. Despejar. Ponft en dan 


I Et tiempo se aclara. 
Refreecar. Refrescarse. 


Desoansar. Reposar., 

Repose V., (refr^squete,) j Tnelra 
aquf (i yerme) inmediatamente. 

Blanquear. ESmUanqoeoer. 

5 Poneme pdlida 
\ Perder (mudar) el color. 
C Envejecer. Eovejecene. 
\ Avejentarae. Ayiejarse. 
I Rejuvenecer. Remozar. 
C Abochomarse. Coireise. 
< Sonroseane. Sonrojarse. 
( t Tener vergHenza, {rubor.) 

To make merry. 

To make one's self merry. 
Ho makes merry at my expense. 

^ AJegrar &. AUgraree de. 

( Dwertir &, Divertkrae A, {eon) 

JAlegrane. Dtvertiise. 
Ponerse (estar) alegre. 
[ £l se diyierte 6, mi oosta. 

To feign. To duoemhU. K 
To pretend. \ 

I feigo, thoa feignest, he feigns. 
He knows the art of dissembling. 

To procruttiaate. 
To go alow about. 
I donot like to transact bosineas with 

that man, for he always goes very 

slow about it 


Fingir. Aparentar. 
Diaimuktr. Eneubrir. 

Yofiuja TUfinjes. £l(y.)finje. 
£l sabe {conoce) el arte de fingir, 

Difervr. Dilator. 
Dejar de un dia para otra 

t No me gusta tener negocios oon 
ese hombre, porqne siempre los 
despacha eon piia de plomo. 

A prooL 

Una pmeba. 
Esta es una pmeba. 
m-^ ^ -.1*^* 9 C Deaeaminarae. l>«^w.. 



' Por, De medio i tiudt*. 
De parte d parte, 
Tkrmtgk. ' De un lado a otro. De traua, 

I Al travet. For medio. 
L Par en nudio. Pot entre, 
Hm eulium ball went through the | La bala del canon pas6 de mi lado 
waQ. I i. otzo de la muialia, {tratfcto k) 

4 LeatraveadelcuerpoconmieBpadi 
I ran him thxaagh the body. ^ ^ YoUenvaoimieopadaeneleuerpo^ 

The Empeior Charles the Fifth (Carlos Qtxtnto) being one day out 
a-huntiiig lost his way in the forest, and having come to a hoiue 
entered it to refresh himself. There were in it four men, who pre- 
tended to sleep. One of them rose, and approaching the Emperor, 
told him he had dreamed he should take his wntch, and took it Then 
another rose and said he had dreamed that his surtout (sobretodo) fitted 
hun wonderfully, and took it. The third took his purse. At last the 
fourth came up, and said he hoped he would not take it ill if he 
searched him, and in doing it perceived around the emperor's neck a 
small gold chain to which a whistle was attached, which he wished to 
pob him of, Bnt the emperor said : " My good friend, before depriving 
me (privar d tmo) of this trinket, (tOu^a,) I must teach yon its yi^ 
tue." Saying this, he whistled. His attendants, who were seeking 
him, hastened to the house, and were thunderstruck (queddron pasma- 
dos) to behold his majesty in such a state. Bnt the emperor seeing 
himself out of danger, (fuera de pdigro,) said : " These men (aqm 
tends unos hombres que) have dreamed all that they liked. I wish in 
my turn also to dream." And after having mused a few seconds, he 
said : " I have dreamed that you all four deserve to be hanged : 
which was no sooner spoken than executed before the house. 

A certain king making one day his entrance into a town si two 
o'clock in the afternoon, (de la tarde,) the senate sent some deputies 
(un dipuiado) to compliment him. The one who was to speak (fcwi* 
de hablar) began thus : " Alexander the Great, the great Alexander, 
and stopped short, (se corto.) — ^The king, who was very hungry> (i^ 
hrnibre,) said : « Ah ! my friend, Alexander the Great hail <^®4fJ 
I am 8^ &sting, (estar en ayunos.") Having said this, he proceeded 
to (siguiS 8u caimxno) the City Hall, or State House, (a la cau eon^' 
sistcrialj) where a magnificent dinner had been prepared for hun. 


A good old mim, being very ill, sent for his wife, who waa still veiy 
young, and said to her : ^ My dear, yon see that my hist hour is ap* 
proacbing, and that I am compelled to leave you. If, therefore, you 
wish me to die in peace yoa must do me a favor. You are still young, 
and wiU, without doubt, marry again, (se volverd a casar :) knowing this, 
I request of you not to wed (no se case con) M. Louis ; for I confess 
that I have always been very jealous of him, and am so still. I should, 
therefore, die in despair (desesperado) if you did not promise me that." 
The wife answejed : ^ My dear husband, (cUma mia,) I entreat you, 
let not this hinder you from dying peaceably ; for I assure you that, 
if even I wished to wed him I could not do so, being already promised 
to another." 

It was customary with Frederick the Great, whenever a new soldier 
appeared in his guards, to ask him three questions ; viz. : *' How old 
are you ? How long have you been in my service ? Are you satis- 
fied with your pay and treatment ?" It happened that a young soldier, 
bom in France, who had served in his own country, desired to enlist 
in the Prussian service. His figure caused him to be immediately 
accepted ; but he was tot^ly ignorant of the German dialect ; and his 
captain giving him notice that the king would question him in that 
tongue the first time he should see him, cautioned him at the same 
time to learn by heart the three answers that he was to make to the 
king. Accordingly he learned them by the next day ; and as soon as 
he appeared in the ranks Frederick came up to interrogate him : but 
he happened to begin upon him by the secoxid question, and asked him, 
" How long have you been in my service ?" " Twenty-one years," 
answered the soldier. The king, struck with his youth, which plainly 
indicated that he had not borne a musket so long as that, said to him, 
much astonished, " How old are you ?" " One year, an't please your 
majesty, {can permiso de Vuestra Mt^estad") Frederick, more as- 
tonished still, cried, " You or I must certainly be bereft of our senses." 
The soldier, who took this for the third question, replied firmly, (con 
denuedo,) ** Both, an't please your majesty." 

EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON.— Xeoeion Odogisima quinta. 

iDoblar, Pedir dobU, (el dobl^ 

To douhU, J Duplies. 

!E1 duplo. El doble. 
Dos veoes maa. Otxo tanto mta. 

nat mini liiBt Min twice m mvcii 

Too mwt bufain with him; he 

win give it yon lor the hell 

Tea beve twice your riiaie. 
Tea have three timee your diare. 

Em comerciante pide doo Tec« 

de io qae debe< 
IEm moneetor que V. se ajoBte coa 

61 ; poique 61 ee lo dari 4 V. par 

la mitad. 
V. tiene doblo parte qne le toca. 
V. tiene tree vecee mas de Io que lo 



WBd, giddy. 

Open, frank, renl. 

I told him yea. 
I told him Da 
To squeeze. 

Te Uy up, teput by. 

Fat your money by. 

IRenorar *. 
Ataidir. Atolondrar., Atontar. 
J Atronado. Alocado. 
( Deeatinado. Atoloodrado. 

J Franco. Ingenuo. Sinceio 
Verdadero. ReaL 
Yo le dije «, (que «.) 
Yo le dije no, (que na) 
Apreiar •. 

J Junior. Cerrar. 
Apretar. Ouardar. 
Goaide V. au dinero. 

Aaaooa m I have xead mybook,! ! Luego que yo hube leido mi UKo, 

^ M .^ fa— a IVB 

pat it by. 

I do not care modi about going to 
the play to-night 

le guaid^, (le ceir^, le powi ^ m 

lada) __^ 

No me da cuidado ir, 6 no, i la com©- 

dia esta noche. 

To ooHtfy oue^e eelf with a thing, \ 

I have been eating an boor, and I 
cannot Batisfy my hunger. 
To he eatiefied. 

To quench one's thirel. < 

I hare been drinking this half hour, I 
but I cannot quench my thint | 

To have one*8 thint quenched. \ 

To thirst for, to he thirsty, or dry, \ 

That ia a bloodtbinty fellow. | 

On both sides, on every side. \ 

Saciar. Hartar. 

LUnar. Satisfacer. 

Yo he eetado comiendo una bora, y 

no puedo saciar mi hambre. 
Estar satisfeeho, {harto, Mcisds, 
\ Refrescarse. Refrigerarse. 

Apagar la sed. 

Hace media bora que estoy bebiendo^ 

y no poedo apagar mi sed. 
Haber apagado la sed. 
Habexee refrescado. 
Tener sed. Estar sedtsnto* 
Ansiar. Anhelar. 
Ese es un hombie sedienfo da sangn* 

De imbas partes. 
For imbos ladosu For todos Udoa 
I For todoo huks. For todai partea 


AOaw moy my lady, to introduce to 

yoo Bfr. G.» an old friend of our 

I am delighted to become acqaainted 

with you. 
I ahall do all in my power to deienre 

your good opinioii. 
Ladiea, allow me to introduce to yon 

Bfr. B., whose brother has rendered 

rach eminent eervicei to yoor 

We are very nappy to lee yon at our 

Sefiora ,permftame V. que le pramite 

el Sefior G., antiguo amigo da 

nneetra familia. 
Tengo macho gusto en haoer el 

conocimiento de V. 
Yo har^ caanto est^ de mi parte 

para merecer la baena opinion de V. 
Sefiorai, permftanme VV. qae lee 

presente el Sefior B., cayo her- 

mano ha hecho tan importantee 

servicioB al priino de W. 
Noe consideramoe may felicee en Ter 

& V. en nuestra casa. 

It is the pt e iogative of great men to 
eonqner enyy ; merit giyee it birth, 
and merit deetroya it 

£■ prorogatiTO de loe grandee hom- 
bres conqniitar la envidia; el 
m^rito la hace naoer, y el 
la destruye. 

A man (cierto) had two aona, one of whom liked to sleep yeiy late 
in the morning, (d piema sueltOj) and the other was very indoa^oiiay 
(apHcado y iribajaior^ and always rose very early. The latter having 
one day gone out very early, found a purse well filled with money. 
He ran to his brother to inform him (jk contarle) of his good luck, (la 
hunafortuTiia,) and said to him : <* See, Louis, what is got (ganarui) 
hy rising early ?"— *« Faith, (cierto /") answered his brother, '' if the 
person to whom it belongs had not risen earlier than I, (he) would not 
have lost it." 

A lazy young fellow being asked, {preguntadot) what made him lie 
(jpcrqui se estaba) in bed so long 7 — ** I am busied, (estar ocupadOf^ says 
be, ** in bearing counsel every morning. Industry (el trabcffo) advises 
me to get up ; sloth (la perexa) to lie still ; and so they give me twen^ 
lessons pro and con, (en pro y en conira^ It is my part (tener Migt^ 
don de) to hear what is said on both sides ; and by the time the cause 
is over (aeaharse) dinner is ready." 

It was a beautiful turn given by a great lady, who, being (te cuenta 
tm Kermoso rasgo^ asked where her husband was, when he lay con- 
cealed (esiar escondUo) for having been deeply concerned in a con- 
spiracy, (d causa de haber tornado gran parte en una conspiracion^ 
resolutely (resueJiamente) answered, she had hid him. This confession 
(esta coftfesion) drew her before the king, who told her, nothing bat 



her discovering where her lord was concealed could save her from lbs 
torture, (que si no descubria donde se hailaba su senor marido^ nadm 
podria lihrarla de la tortura,) *^ And will that do, (bastar ?") said the 
lady. "Yes," says the king, "I will give you my word for it." 
** Then," says she, " I have hid him in my heart, where you will find 
him." Which surprising answer (esia admirable repuesta) channed 
her enemies. 


Cornelia, the illustrious (Uustre) mother of the Gracchi, (de ioM 
Qracos^) after the death of her husband, who left her with twelve 
children, applied herself to (dedicarse d) the care of her family, with a 
wisdom (una discrecion) and prudence that acquired for (adquirir*^ 
her universal esteem, (estimacion universal.) Only three out of the 
twelve lived to years of maturity, (edad madura ;) one daughter, Sem- 
pronia, whom she married to the second Scipio Africanus ; and two 
sons, Tiberius and Caius, whom she brought up (crio) with so mach 
care, that, though they were generally acknowledged {cortfesesr 
generalmente) to have been bom with the most happy dispositioiis, 
(la disposicionj) it was judged that they were still more indebted 
(dd>er) to education than nature. The answer she gave (dor*} a 
Campanian lady (una dama de Campania) concerning them (can 
respecto d eUos) is very famous, (famoso — sa,) and includes in it 
(contener*) great instruction for ladies and mothers. 

That lady, who was very rich, and fond of pomp and show, 
(nqnisionado d la pompa y &la hsienlacion,) having displayed (mostretr) 
her diamonds, (el diamante^) pearls, (la perla,) and richest jewels, 
earnestly desired (suplicar con ahinco) Cornelia to let her see her 
jewels also. Cornelia dexterously (diestramenle) turned the conversa- 
tion to another subject to wait the return of her sons, who were gone 
to the public schools. When they returned, and entered their mother's 
apartment, she said to the Campanian lady, pointing to them, (mostrar :) 
«* These are my jewels, and the only ornaments (adomos) I prize, 
(apreciar.**) And such ornaments, (wios omamentos,) which are the 
strength (lafuerxa) and support (d sasten) of society, add a brighter 
lustre (mayor lustre) to the fair (la hermosura) than all the jewels of 
the East, (del Oriente,) 



EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Leccton Odogitma texta. 

To do every thing gracefully. 
To deep soundly. 

To sleep void of all cans. 
To be on the brink of rnin. 

To cast a mist before one's eyes. 

To fret and fume. 

To meet with one's match. 

To go to bed betimes. 

To catch at a fly. 

To stop at a trifle ; or to be afflicted 

with a light cause. 
To dismay one's spint in the peiforai- 

ancoy or pursuit of any thing. 
To inure, or accustom one's self to 

execute or perform any thing. 
To be shot as a criminal. 

_ • 

To bury, or silence an a£&ir. 

To giTe ap one's command. 

To command imperiously. 

To treat a person contemptaooriy. 

To be "wei to the skin. 

To defend the ground inch by inch. 

To obtain a thing without pain or 

To sustain one's opinion steadfastly. 
To be one's principal support and aid. 
To bribe. 

To dire into other pec^e's affaiis. 
To meddle with things in which one 

has no concern. 
To be loaded with honorable titles. 
Hie principal town of a district 
To get into favor, (toyleate.) 
To hit upon a thuig, (to find it out,) 
To have an unexpected change for 

the better. 
To go on better and better. 
To torn one out of doois. 



Tenm graeia para tod& 
Dormir profundamente. 
Dormir eamo una piedra- 
Doraiir A piema tueltu, 
Estar para perderMf (or 
Echar tierra en los ojos. 
Echar rayos y centellaa. 
Echar peatta, • 

HaJlar la horma de tu aapata, 
Aco9tar§e can laa gaUinaa, 
Agamuse (asirte) de un pelok 
Ahogarae en poca agua* 

Quebrar (cor^or) las ala$» 

Haceree & las armaa, 

Paanr par laa armae. 
Echar tierra & alguna eoea. 
Arrimar el baatan, (or el mando,) 
Mandar d baqueta, (or d la baputa) 
Tratar & ba^ueta, (at Ala ba^uata,) 
Estar mojado hasta loa kueaoa. 
Defender el teireno palmo d palmo. 
Conseguir una cosa d pU fuado, (or 

Sostener su opinion dpUJirme. 
8er sua pica y aua manoa, 
Untar laa manoa, 
Meterae en vidaa aganaa. 
Meterae en lo que (d una) noUvm 

fit le viene, 
Tener muehaa eampanUlaa* 
Cabeza de Partido, 
Caer en graeia. 
Caer en eUo. 

Cairaele (d una) la aopa an la mUL 

Poner d una en Im (at aehoHa 4 fa) 




To loM one's lirellhood. 

To be onit-faUen or dispirited. 

To defend a thing with nil one's 

might or foroe. 
Efery one is master to diipose of his 

own property. 
To go alvoad without a cloak or 

To waste one's tune in fniitlesB por- 

To go stark naked. 
To be roving and wandering about 
To be lit crosi puiposes : to deal 

if» and ands. 
To quarroiy to scuffle, to box. 
To fight 

To go gn^ng along, or in the dark. 
To walk on all-foon. 
To conform to the timeSi 
To go a begging. 
To be at hide and seek. 
To go skulking. 

To be carried finom poet to pillar. 
To go with a design to deceive some- 
To lead an abandoned life. 
To five very economically. 
By her gait one would say it is 

To pall down the cooraga of any 

To humble any one. 
To bow down the head: to obey 

without objection or reply. 
To be ashamed. 
To stop one's mouth. 
To shut one's mouth. 
To offer a thing for mere ceremony's 

Quedar en la ealle* 

Andar (or ar) de eapa emd^ 

Defender una coaa a 

To keep a profound silence. 
To be the talk of the town. 
Not to dare to say na 

To talk well or ill of others. 
To UiMh deeply with duune. 


cajM yespa^ 

Coda mo puede kaeer de «v e^e 

ttii eayo. 
Andar en cverpe. 

Andar a eaza de gangaa, 

Andar en camee, (or en auroa.) 
Andar de Ceea en Meea. 
Andar en dimes y diretea. 
Andar en daree y toawrea. 

Andar a ir6mpis, (or d paloa.) 

Andar d degas, (or a Itentoa.) 
Andar a gatas. 

Andar eon el iiempo, (or oi nee.) 
Andar a la sopa, 

Andar a somhra de tejado. 

Andar de Herddes a PUaioa, 
Andar eon segundas, (or eon wutlmw 

Andar en malos paooo, 
Andar piS eon bola. 
En el andar se pareee a Luisa, 

Bajar los hrios 6, alguna 

Bajar los humos i. algnno. 
Bajar la eabeaa, (or loo orefmoJ) 

Bajar los ojos, 

Cerrar (or tapar) d tmo la boetu 

Coserse la boea. 

Ofreeer algo con la boea 

No decir esta boea es mia. 

Andar de boea en boea. 

No tenor boea para deekr iio» (i 

Tener buena (or mala) boea, 
CaSrsele d tmo la emrm do 




To diide or repiove ooo ■eroroly. 

M QiDy nnmit not a woid. 

To obtain one's eadi by ciafty ■- 

To aet oat of reaaon. 

In one's way» going along. 

To oome off vietorioiie in an engage- 
ment or dbpnte. 

To be in high office : to be in an ex- 
alted station. 

That is another knid of speech. 

To be stranger to fear. 

Not to know one's dnty or borinesa 

Employment of mneh profit, and lit- 
tle trooUe. 

Not to be able to bring one to reason. 

At an erents. 

To be, or not to be, to the point 

There is nothing more than what 

Without examination. 

To core one exeeoB with another. 

To hit the maik. 

To ebatter or prattle a good deal 

To make a penon blush. 

To fidl into an enor. 

To gire oanie for langhing. 

To make one cry. 

To clothe one^ To feed one. 

To giro tronble : to giieye. 


To enooorage an mdertaking. 

To pnblkdi, to print, to bring to 

To gire a canse to— 
To famish materials. 
To shat the door upon one. 
To giro gratis or for nothing. 
To pat off with words and excossa 
To stretch. To consent 

To toach one to the qnick. 

To riiare with : a2so, to inform. 
Te gife oecnxity : to find bail 


Punto en boea. 
Mffilfl/sf gsftotirfs. 

Irfueru de eamino, 

De eammo. 

Qttcdsr el eomjio por 

Eeiear en el eandelero 

Bee ee otro cantor. 

No eonoeer la eara al mieda. 

No eaher en donde ae tieae la eara. 

Came ein hueeo. 

No poder haeer earrera con algtmo 

En todo can, 

Ser (or no eer) del cam. 

No hay mat eera que la fue arde* 

A ojoe cerradoe. 

Sacar un elavo eon otro clavo. 

Dor en el elavo. 

HtAlar por loe eodoe. 

Saearle loe eoloree al roetro, (i 

ana penona.) 
Dor de ojoe. 
Dor que reir. 
Dor que Uorar. 

Dor de veetir. Dor de comer. 
Dar que oentir. 
Dor alfiado, (or a eridito^ 
Dar color (datmo or alsia) • mna 

Dar & la eetampa. Dor d lua. 

Dar aeunto para-^ 

Dar barro d la mono. 

Dar eon la puerta en loe ojoe. 

Dar dado, (or de balde.) 

Dar con la entretenida, 

Dar de eL Dar el et 

Dar en lo vivo. 

Dar en loe matadurae. 

Dar parte* 

Darfidnsa. Darfiadar. 



To w«f» war : to torment, to vex. 
To with a good day. 
To eougratidato on one's biitliday. 
To give eanieat ; that m, money in 

token of a baigain or contract 
To nod, calling or informing. 

To MiireBder. I give it vp. 

To diake handk 

To manage one'o affidia in an able 

To set Bail. 

It gives me no oonoem. 
To leave a word, or orden. 

To leave in writing. 

To excel, to aarpaaa 

To fmatrate, to baffle. 

To delay, to procrastinate. 

To omit something neoeasary to the 

To get the start of any person. 
To take the lead. 


Bfake yooiself easy. 

I understand what yon toll me. 

To he secority ; to answer for N. 

To be ready to set out 

To be on the alert 

To be in good hmnor : to be in bad 

To stand a sentry. 
To be in hasto, in a hurry. 
To interpose, to mediate. 
To be merry. 

To have a sound understanding. 

To be idle. 

To be very stubborn. 

To be in difficulties. 

To be careful of every thing. 

To be at hand. 

To be kept in constraint 

To be ready to f alL 

To be at the point of death. 


Dar fve kaar. Dmrgmmr^ 
Dar lot buetrnt im9, 
DarU d nno U9 ima, 
Ikar 9€naL 

Dtar aeiial, (or 2a sdial.) 
Dar9e al dimUre. 
DarMe par veneido. 
Me day per vendda. 
Daree la» auraesL 
Daree maiiia. 

Darted la vela. 

No ae me da nada, 

Dejar dieko, (mandadaf or ama &r* 

Dejar eeerUo, 
Dejar atrae. 
Dejar freeeo A atgtma. 
Dejar para tnanana. 
Dejaree alguna eoea am el Italsni 

Cojer la delantera, 

Tomar 2a (or tr en la) d elmm tar a, 

Deeeuide V, 

No le de d V. euidada. 

Bstoy en lo que V. me dice. 

E$tar par Fnlana 

Betar para (or par) miir, 

Estar aleria. 

Eaiar de huen humors (or da wul 

Eetar de faeeion, (or da eentinela.) 
Estar de prieoa. 
Eetar de par medio, 
Estar de gorja, (alegrSf or da cAa- 

Estar en sujuicio. 
Estar mano sobre mono, 
Estarse en sus trees. 
Estar apurado. 
Estar en todo, 
Estar d la mono. 
Estar d raya. 
Estarse eayendo. 
Estarss muriendo. 



To be in want of money. 

In behalf of hii Meter. 

To be meiry : to be in good homor. 

To earan, to wheedle. 

To do, or aerre an ill torn. 

To glory, oc boast in one's wicked- 

To be giddy-brained. 

To indicate one's sentiments by the 

To talk without nflection. 
To talk OD an endless subject 
To oblige to come, to eanse, or ask 

to be sent 

It is cdd. It was very cold. 

To act as a notary. 

To coonterfeit an idiot 

To endeayor to aniye. 

To make any one lose his temper. 

To pay attention ta 

To plnck np a heart 

To raise soldleis. 

To make one's fortme. 

To be well matched. 

To reckon without the host 

Todo wonden. 

To act a part To cut or make a 

To take a family dinner with one. 
To carye, (a dkh for a penon.) 
To affoet doing some borinesi. 
To inure one's self to labor. 
To intend, to mean. 
To be disposed to do eveiy thing. 
To kill two birds with one stone. 

To keep one's bed, to be QL 

To play one's irolic& 

To procure to one the means of be- 
coming rich. 

To feign not to see. 

To alOfect to be dea£ 

To endeayor to walk after a long ill- 
nesi^ (or when fiist learning to 


Faliarle d uno el dmtro, 

A favor de «v hermana. 

Etkur de fietta. EHarpanJintM* 


Haeer unfiaco Meroieio, 

Haeer delMmbetdto gala. 

Tenet lot eoseot d la giimta, 
Hahlar con loo qjoo» 

Hablar de momoria. 
Hahlar de la mar. 
Haeer venir. 

Haee frio. 

Hacia (hixo) muekofiia. 

Haeer de eeeribano. 

Haeeree el hobot (el tonto.) 

Haeer par llegar. 

Haeer d uno perder U§ eairHaa. 

Haeer eaao de. 

Haeer de tripaa eoraaon. 

Haeer gente. 

Haeer hombre d alguno. 

Haeer juego. 

Haeer la enewta am la ktUopeda. 

Haeer milagroa. 

Haeer papel. 

Haeer peniteneia eon alguno 

Haeer plato. 

Haeer que kaeemoo. 

Haeeree al irabajo. 

Haeer inteneion. 

Haeer d phima y d pela. 

Haeer de un eamino (una vU) doo 

Haeer eama. 
Haeer de la§ tuyae. 
Haeerle d uno la oUa gorda. 

Haeer la vista eorta. 
Haeer orejae de mereader. 
Haeer pimioa. 



Tb take cuo «f a tliiiif . 

T» 6^ to be Ignamii, imioeeBt 

To be too eaay end indnlgent to 

Topnin eoe eii'wwlingly^ 
TV> fro dovn flat, to daab to pieces 
I lay a bmdred doUeis that it is a& 
To bave w» eoneem in a thinf . 
To go OB aollly. Walk carafoUy. 
To go qI^ to go oat, to ofaporatey to 

To beoome moderator to netiam 

one's adf: 
Go to, (fioqaeatly aa 

Tb reprimaBd eeveiely. 


any oDo's 

Hmeer raya. 

Haeene cargo de alguna 
Hmetne dkif utto, (inocento.) 
Haeerte de mieL 

Haeerm Unguat de dlgumB, 
Haeeree tortilla, (enieoe.) 
Van ciea peeos qoe ee cieito 
No vr nada ea nna oosa. 
Ir eon tiento. Yaya Y. con 
/ree. El goa se ba ido. 


I Qoien va 7 ^ 
Vaya V, (veU, idoe) d 

00 aUd? 

Veiy Ikr, at a greal dktanoe. 

To got over a thing well, or QL 

To be OA good or bad tenm. 
To rain hard, to rainboeketo iiilL 
To go in enmity. 
To be one's chief eappoit, or 

Dor un jahon. 
Jaqut y mate. 
Conocer eljuego. 
A legua. A la legna. 
De mnchaa leguas. De den U _ 
' lol^joa. Del^joa. D«de l^jon. 

iUhraree hient (maL) 
Salir hien Salir moL 
Llewiroe hun, (outi.) 
lAover a eantaroo. 
Andar d {de) maiae. 
Ser eut fiee y oom man&o. 


To be femiliar alooe, or in company. 
To wirii to enjoy the frmt of anoth- 

01^ labor, without haTing eon- 

tribnted toit 
To be bom to wretdiedaoB. 
To be bom to good lock. 
To albet buinem. 
To be a man of atrict integrity and 

To hoTO n large famUy to sqipoft. 
To hafo an afaoolnte power orer any 

To aet withoat caiae or motivo, 

witboot rhyme or 
To pot to tiie owoid. 

Fentr con oho 

Nacer de cabeaa. 
Nacer de fiie. 

Ser kombre de obUgaeiomoa* 

Betar eargado de ohUgt 
Tener el palo y el 

Obrar ein que m pan pia> 

Paoar d caekaU. 
Quedar par algumo» 



To tako way thinj; in the wont 

To moko f ntae, or ailly allegationfl. 
To ondeoTor to rain, or destroy a 

ponon or thing. 
To be lichy (coUoqaial.) 
To name, or cite Qnnece«ariiy any 

person or thing, (coUoqoial.) 
Not to know what one »n about 
To happen, or occor 'wn^f it may. 
For ever and oyer. 
He is a worthless fellow. 
To haye equal numbers. 
To make essays or -triab ; to grope 

or to fool where one cannot see. 
To understand thoroughly. 
To bdbe with money. 

To be hand and ^oye. 

Better late than neyer. 

To boast of any thing. 

To find one in a fayoiable disposi- 

Et cetera, (colloquial) nsed after 
seyeral opithets. Mr. N. N., et 

To bear up under the frowns of for* 

Not to oome up to or near one in any 

To be hau^ty with good fortune. 

TosMT par donde quema. 

Dor razones de pie de banco,, , 
Tirar eomo d real de enetmga, 

Tener euhierto el riXon. 
Saear d bailar. 

No eaber lo que ee peeea. 
Saiga lo que ealiere. 
Par loe eigloe de lee eighe. 
El ee un tal par euaL 
Eetar ianloe & tantoe. 
Andar teniando. 

Eetar d lo lUtimo. 

Untar lae manoe eon ungiiento da 

Ser una y came, 
Mae vaU tarde que nuuea. 
Haeer vanidad. 
Cojer {haUar) A alguno de vena. 

Don Fulano de Tal y otrae yerhae. 

Eetar al yunque 

No Uegar d loe ganeajoe. 

Subtree en taneoe. 

Ohe, It may also be remarked, that there are in Spanish a great 
many proyeibs, and proyerbial forms of expression, of which the following 
are some of those most in use. 

Death rather than dishonor. 
Provide in good time for a bad one. 
A thing well begun is half finished. 
Anns and literature render families 

There is a time for eyery thing. 

He who has faults of his own, should 
not reflect upon another for having 
the samo. 

F^sianta romoye difficulties. 

Comer arena dntee que haeer vUeza. 
Agosto, y vendimia, no ee eada dia. 
Barba bien remojada, medio rapada. 
Almete y bonete kacen coeae de eo* 

Cada eoea en eu tiempo, y naboe en 

CdUate y eallemoet que eendae nee 


Dddrvae quebrantan penae. 




Ten m» what compaoy yon keep, 

and I will tell yoa who yoa ar». 
Be eaatio» before you pay, or le- 

oeive payment 
Tniit in God, for your own merit 

araile bat little. 
He who nndeitakeo many thinge at 

once, seldom noeeede in jmy. 
A flatterar'o talk ii alwajn vain and 

Yen moft not adrifn one to go to 

war, or to many. 
Rode pUy ie and only by kvw-bnd 

He labon, although uoeleHly, who 

works without attention. 
To afieet great diligence, and neglect 

one*B duty. 
God heipe him whcf helpe himedt 
FooIb and obstinate people make 

lawyers rich. 
Neither kwk uto anothei^s letter, nor 

put your hand into another man's 

A good paymaster needs no pawn. 

We most catdi the manneis of the 

EtiI communication conupCs man- 

Coise on accounts with relations. 

Biake your affiun public, and every 
one will judge of them according 
to his own fancy. 

Ton are worth as much as you 

A wolf in a lamb's dun. 

Wind and good lock are sekbm last- 

An old uninstracted penon will not 
loam anything. 

Diwu eon fusen ondos, dbretequun 

JBoeribe inieo ^ub des, y rsetfe iates 

ipie tBeribas. 
JPW-duM U d6 Dioo, tifOf pu d 

saber poee ie haata. 
CMgo fae muehat UeWee isosnte, 

mnguna mmtA. 
Hahla de Ueonjen mempre cs easts 

y stii prveecAo. 
It Ala gtterrm, m* cassr, no m km 

4e aeontefm-. 
Juego de numoa es de mJ i m m e, 

Labrar, y kmeer Mmrdae tado ee 

Laa Usees en Is etsis, y el gmU em 

la eoeina, 
A ipiien madruga Diee le myuda. 
Neeiee, y peijladee kaeen rieee d lee 

Ni eje en la carta, m Msns en si 


Al huenpagader no le daelem 

Cual el f teiiipe, tal el tiemta. 

Quien con loboe anda d amOmr m 

Refdega de eueniaa con deadee y 

Saea lo tuyo al mereade, y naet 

<f trdn gus ee negro f y atree fue ee 

Tanto valee, cuanto Uenee. 

URae de goto, y hdbito de 6esfs. 
Viento y ventara poco dmra, 

Ya eetd dure el aleaeer para gam- 






















As it is supposed that the Student is conversant with the 
English Grammar, the technical words belonging to it are 
made use of in the following Appendix, without explaining 
them; because they are the same in Spanish. Should the 
Learner be unacquunted with the Grammar of his mother 
tongue, he is advised to make himself first acquainted with it, 
•u order the better to profit by this Appendix. 

New York, Fehnuuj, 184a 




Tbx letten made qm 

of in the Spanish language are twenty-eeyen in 


aa f<dloin: — ' 

A a 


like a in 


B b 


b in 


C c 


ih lisped, as in 


Ch ch 


ck in 


B d 


d in 

dedicate, fed. 

£ e 

a or ay. 

e in 


P f 


/ in 


G g 


h (breathing forcibly 

the^) in 

hay, he, ham. 

H h 


h silent, as in 

heir, honor. 

I i 


• • 

« m 


J J 


h (more strongly aspi- 

rated than g) in 


L 1 


I in 

element, labiaL 

u n 


n in 


M m 


m in 


N n 


n in 

energy, no. 

» n 


n (somewnat nasal) in 

poniard, onion. 




P P 


p in 

paper, plan. 

<i q 


9 in 

piquet, qnmt 

R r 


r soft, in 


a r 


r or rr (very harsh) in 

rack, horror. 

8 s 


3$ in 


T t 


< in 


U n 


u in 


' For the respective eoandi of the letten in the EngUah words, ezplana* 
tory of the eoandi they are intended to repiesent, the etndent mort ooneolt 
Waiker^s Engluh Frowmncing Dictionary, fipom which they are 







n^, like v 





ai'-kiss, x (cs) 




C ee Towel, or i 
\eegriega, \ ^ 





tt conaooant, softer than g OTJ 


gently, jet 



thai'-Mi, th lisped, 



The Ti»web are «, e, t, 0, «« and y when it atandB by itwlf, or at the end 
flf a «etd« or of a syilable immediately followed by a oonaonant. Then 
lettan miMi be aoonded as they are in the following Englirii wocdi, wlikli 
mnit be rBgaided aa a Standard .* — 

AMEHITY. — oh! — ^FULL. 
19 3 3 4 5 

a e i y o u 




06, oi, oy. 

41 43 43 



eo^ en, ey. 

M 15 13 

na, ne, oi, no, 
51 98 53 54 






10, in. 

34 35 

iai, iei, nai, nei, 

313 333 513 513 



Dahaii, pava, hay ; Hnea, Teis, TiigineOy deoda, ley ; gracia, cielo, predo* 
cindad; h^roe, eois. Toy; fragua, daefio, mido, iidoo, may; aproQaia» 
Tacaeia, nntignait, averigAeis, biiey. 

In the following eombinations the Toweb are pronoimoed asparatdy, 
fBtminf two diitinet aoonda 

aa, ae, ao, ee, u, oa, 00. 

11 11 14 H 33 41 44 

CoBtraamoFa, caemos, aorta, paaeen, fiiUmo, coaxtar, loor. 


•» e, 1, o, n, y. a, e, 1, o, a. 

Praoooiioed o^ oy, ep, o^ 00, ee. ak,ay,ee,6h, 00, 

PkaMNmoe them quickly. Pronounce them dowly. 


Ola. A» Vnammob the vowek of the following table, aa directed abota ; 
H be pnctiealar to aoond thevaaooineaa, oraiin /mil Ewy kttar 































S az 




















06*. J3. To make it eaiier for a young scholar to learn at 
Bonciation of erery letter, the aonnd of it ia repreeented in 
table "by an English syllable, in italics, under it. H, under j 
gtiongly aspirated ; th, under cot z, lisped aa in thin, truth ; 


sight the pro- 
the following 
or g, must be 
and r harshly 















































• •• 

je ji 

hay hee 

bo bu 

hoh boo 

00 en 

koh koo 












hoh hn 

oA 00 

jo ju 
hoh hoo 














lye-^y lyee 



ma me mi 

maA may mee 

na ne ni 

nah nay nee 

fia lie fii 

nyoA nye-aynyte 

pa pe pi 

jpaA pay pee 

qua qiie qfli 

AioaA Atoay Aioee 

ra re ri 

raA ray ree 

sa se si 

ssaA »$ay esee 

ta te ti 

tah toy tee 

va ive vi 

t>aA vay vee 

za ze zi 

csaA ctay ceee 

ya ye yi 

jah jay jee 

za ze zi 

thah thay thee 



tAay' <Aef 










































7A lisped ao m polA, truth, tkefU tkin. 

404 APPnrDiz. 

Olc C. The Toweli aze iwreraleoty except « in the Byflabki gy^gu, 
fiM, fan, the ■oand of which.cocreqMiidB to that heard in the EoglMhirardi 
geif gttte^ etiqmttU, qmimL When the u in these ByUables is to be founded 
it ii maiked with a diaraaifi ; thoBy arguir, aquedueto. Bat, in coafoimity 
with the pnaent nae, the wetda in which the « is pronounced after f an 
written with c; thoBy eumiro, meu edue t o . 

OhM, D. Ttie eraaoiiaiilt that aie pnmomiced difbxently ftom the Eo{- 
lieh are the following »— 

C before a, a, ai, Z, r, and when it ia at the end of a syDaUe, aoondi Gke 
k in Engiieh ; aa carnal, e6lieo, curat clamor, eridiio, pacta, C befon e, 
or t, aonnda lisped, like fi in the EngUrii words ikcft, thin. 

Ck aonnda like the same letten in the English words chap, ckett, ekot 
ekop, cAooM, wntek. 

When ek is foUowed by a vowel marked with a circnmflez accent, it 
most be pronounced aa i ; as, Ckaribdia. But all the words derived from 
the Greek having ek, are at present written in Spanish with c before a, o, 
ai, r, and with qu before e or i ; as, arcdngel, eristiana, eeo, monttrqwia. 

D most be pronoonced aa the aame letter in English. In some parts ef 
Spain it is pvimoaneed aa M in fatker ; and in others, where it ocean at 
the end of words, aa tA, or aa t, or is even rilent ; thus, etWad, dodath, 
ciodat, cind^ Hua pronunciation is considered provincial, and not Cartilian. 
O before a, o, u, I, r, aounds aa in Engliah ; aa, gaUn, gchiemo, gulo, 
gloria, grada. Before e or i, it aonnds like the Engliah k aspinted; as, 
genio, (hen'-e-o,) gitano, (he-tan-oh.) 

H ia alwajra mnte, or alent, except at the beginning of words foOowed bf 
fu, in which caae it haa a very aoft and slightly naaal sound, as in iae», 
(bone.) Tlie vulgar pronounce anch words as if written with g. 

J haa n guttural aound, harsher, however, than the aspirated k io Esg- 
liah. Before e oc t it aounds aa the g does in Spamish before the same 
letters. • 

LL is sounded by placing the tip of the tongue against the lower teeth, 
and turning the thick part of it towards the roof of the mooth while emit- 
ting the breath with rapidity. It may be heard in the English word «t2- 
lion ; but the U must be psonounced more quickly and strongly than in 
that LL ia consadered in Spanirii a aingle letter with a doable chancier, 
consequently it cannot be divided ; thua, ca4lar. 

N haa a strong naaal aound, aomewhat like n in pomard. The gn in 
French givea the exact sound. 

<2 is always followed by u, and ia pronounced like ib. In confomity with 
the modem orthography, the syUaUea in which u ia Bounded before a* ei •» 
are written with c instead of 9 ; thus, cuando, cuottion. 

R, at the beginning of a word, aiter n, I, 9, and in compound woro^ 
the primitive of which begin with r, haa a hanh and rough sound ; as, r^Uy 
anrifuaeert mabrotar, cariredondo. When ah amd ob are not prepoaitioo^ 
aa in abrogar, obrepcion, the r beoomea liquid ; aa in abrajo, chrera. 


R» in the middle ef a word, or between two vowels* hu a yeiy mooCh 
toond ; aa in morotidad, merito. 

The hanh and roogh eoond of r between two yowela, in the middle of 
wnple words, is always expressed by doable rri thus, barraea, correetOt 

Common people frequently clip the r ; sayiug paa instead of para. 

N. B. Some Spaniards make m manuscript the letter r thus, » ; as, 

e a e zd as paza amaxcMzUt (cnerdas para amarrarle,) cords to tie it* The 

scholar will do well to take notice of, bat not to follow this old fashion. If 
the English r be not well formed, it will be mistaken for i or », 

8 has always a hanh, hissing sound, like 99 in £n|^idi ; as in dewapose" 
sisiiar, (to dispoflBees.) There is not a word in Spanish beginning with « 
followed by a conaonant. iS is not written double, except when the pro- 
noon «e comes alter the first person plural of a verb ; as, dtinecs«ie, (we 
fave it to him.) 

T mnst be pronounced as in the words iart, ten, tin, tone. It never on* 
lergoes the variations it does in English, in creature, nation, Slc ; conse- 
^oently ertatura, patio, tia, Slc, must be pronounced eray'ah-toor''ah, 
pak''tee-oh, tee-ah, dec T is never written double. 

N. B. As the English capital ^l in manuscript, has in Spaniih a diAnent 

name and power, the learner is advised always to use this ^T Observe, 

iiso, that this C^is called by the Spaniards T, not F. 

U always soonds as it does in English in the words /iiii, ptdL 

V most be pronounced as in Elnglish. It is fipeqnently used in mann* 

■cript instead of the capital U; thus, ^^ eUa, for Vn dia, 

X sounds like ee or ko in English ; as, experieneia. When It is the last 
letter of a word it has a guttural sound, like that of the Spanish j, as in 
eareax, (quiver ;) but such words are no longer written with x, but with j ; 
thuB, rtloj, (watch'^ formerly relox. 

Y, when alono, or after a vowel, and followed by a consonant, or at the 
end of a word, is a vowel, and sounds like ee in English ;aa, ely eUa, (he 
and she,) convoy. Y, before a vowel in the same syllable, or between two 
vowels, is a consonant, and sounds like the English j, though somewhat 
■ofter. Some penous write i in estoy, toy, voy, y, may, instead of y. 

Thus — eotoi, mn, voi, i, mui. 

In Spanisfa manuscript capital Vis to be used instead of capital /; thos— 

Sfim ^^^^ ^i^ ^i^ioma fits e/ cowu/ Qion f^MM^ 

^fmsu/c sa/io ayg^ d^ ^mth con un Aua/lon de/ ee^inUanio 

nese nooDB, in printing, woidd be Udro, Isia, Ignaoio, Isqaisido, Inuiy 


Z muft be proDOunced m (A in the EuglUi words ikank, ihtft, Hn, 
ihom, path, tenth, truth. 

N. B. Particular care muat be talcen to pronounce fully and diitiiicllj 
the letters e, d, r, and «, at the end of the words. 


Every well-edacated peraon in old Spain, as well as in its fonner and ac- 
tual ^osseasions in America, speaks and writes correctly the Spaaioh or 
Casttlian language ; but as the Spanish Peninsola consists of seven! pror- 
inoes, that once were states and kingdoms independent from each other, 
and (Biscay excepted) were settled and governed by various nations, thero 
aze to be observed, in the mass of the people of each of its present diriaioos, 
certain peculiarities, propensities, and even animosities, that make the in- 
habitants of each division appear almost a different people. Some of them 
have had a peculiar idiom ; hence it is that the JLengua Ctutellana is not 
spoken in all its purity by every person, except in both Castiles, and par- 
ticolarly in the districts of Burg09, Smlamanca, Toledo, ^tc. 

The most frequent faults to be observed, and which the scholar is warned 
to avoid, are the following : — 

B mstead of V ; 


el bibe. 

in lieu of 

el vive. 

be Km 

V " 



el vevid, 


el bebi6, 

he drank. 














the brain. 

8 «• 




















a hone. 

LL « 






a bench. 








H is used in words that have it not, and is omitted in others that have it ; 
as, handan instead of andan, (they walk ;) el ioo for e^hiso, (he made ;) 
eUo for koyo, (a hole.) J is sometimes used instead of A ; as, el eejvH for 
il ae hvy6, (he ran away.) In the terminations ado and ido they generally 
suppress the d, both in writing and pronouncfaig, and say, un bestio eolorao 
for un veatido Colorado, (a red dress.) The first e, in the veriis of the fii^ 
conjugation, that double that letter, as paetar, (to walk,) is sounded, and 
even written t ; thus, yo me patii t6a la tarde instead of ^ m« paeee toda 
la tarde, (I walked all the afternoon ;) diendo for yendo, (going,) &c 

VaiUejo, Palomaree, and other Spanish authors, may be connilted on the 


In simple words, e, i, e, r, are the only lettexs that may be written dooU^ 

E m doable in the verbs of the fint conjugation, when it is the lait of 

tfaoir radical letters, and the termination begins with e; 9M, paaear, {t» 


walk.) The rafdical lettan are paae. The termiaation of the fint peiwii 
singalaT of the preterit Sb e — ^asee, (I did walk.) 

/ is doable in the soperiatiye degree of the moooeyllables ending in io ; 
as, frio, (cold ;) friinmo, (jery cold.) 

C m doable only before e or t, and 'w pronounced with both ayllablee ; aa, 
aeceder, (to accede ;) aeeidente, (accident) 

Remark, — ^Almoat all words ending in English in ction, and their deriva- 
tives, change the 1 into c, and become Spanish ; as, dictum, (diccion 
dictionary, (diccionario.) 

R is written double in the middle of words, between two vowels, to 
point out its harsh sound ; as, earro, (a cart ;) corro, (i run,) &«., to distin- 
guish them firom caro, (dear ;) coro, (choir,) Slc, (See R.) 

In compound words all the vowels, and also n and s, are written double, 
whenever any of them are the last of the component and the first of the 
word to be compounded ; as, contraaberiura, (a counter-opening ;) preemi» 
nente, (pre-eminent ;) amandoot, (ye loving each other ;) dannMf (they 
give us ;) damostelos, (we give them to him.) 


Vowels forming a diphthong or triphthong must not be separated ; as, 
gra-ciO'9o, pre-ciatM, and not grO'Ci-oS'O, pre'd'Ois. 

A single consonant between two vowels must be joined to the Vbwei 
after it ; except x, that must be left with the preceding ; as, tnie^no, fio-res, 
me-Uh^O'to-ne-rOt ex-d-men. LL, being considered a single letter, follows 
the same rule, which is also the case with eh ; as, ea-ba-lle-ro, mU'Cka-'eho. 

Two ooQflonants between two voweb are divided by placing one to each 
syllable; as, ear-ga-men'to, eti'ttr-ne-'ei'fMen'to. Except if the first of 
them be an /, or any of the mute letters, followed by / or r, for then both 
are joined to the second syllable ; as, a-ftie-cion, ha-blart'ckin, eo»bre. 

When three consonants come between two vowels, the first two of them 
belong to the first syllable, if the second of said consonants be s, and the 
third .to the second syllaUe ; as, eonS'ti-tu-eion, inS'pi'rar. But if the 
second letter be/, or any of the mute letters, followed by / or r, one belongs 
to the first, and the other two to the second syllable ; as, eon'Jlic-tOf an-ela. 

Four consonants between two vowels are equally divided ; as, aht'trae' 

Compound words are to be divided into their component parts ; as, de^^ 
sr-iie-nar. But should the simple word in its Latin raigin begin with «, 
followed by a consonant, the « is to be placed with the preeedmg syllable ; 
as, int'tru^ir. 


The notes nsed in Spanish for punctuation are the same as in 
A diflfannoe, however, is to be observed in the points of exelamaUon and 



imiemgrmtwn, which in long sentencM are plac«d upndo down atthsto* 
ginnixi^ of them, in oider that the reader may calcohUe, and apply tht 
]mper emphaaa and tone of yoice ; aa — 

i*Como no! reipondi6 Sancho. ;Por Tentara el que 
; Cok-mok nok ! rea-pon-deeol^ San-iekok. i Fw vea-toor-roi eU Isjr 

iayer manteixon era otro qne el hijo de nu padre 1 
9,k'jeT man-iay-ar-cn er-ak ok-trok hay eU ee-kok day iw poA-drajf ? 
( 17 las alfoijas qne hoy me faltan son de otro que de fl 
( / ee Uut al'/or-kau kay oA-ee mayfal-tan ton day ok-trok km/ day tU 
5 miemo? Que! ^Te faltan kui alfoijas. Sanchot 
I wu89-mok ? Kay ! i Tay faltan lass al-for-kass, San-tchok ? 

Don Quuotk, Cap. xriil, part 1 
TVonsIotion.— How now ! answered Sancha Mayhap, then, they whoa 
they toaMd up in the Manket yesterday was not the son of my father? and 
did the saddle-bags that are lost to^iay belong to some other penoa? 
How ! Hast thou lost the saddle-bags, Sancho 1 

N. B. No apostropke is used in Spanidi. It is foand, however, inTeiy 
old books, and particniarly in poetry ; at prarant it is entirely e^na^ 
Formerly it was also customary to suppress the e of words beginniiif: with 
that letter, when they came after the preposition de, jofining both words in 
ene ;. thus, del, detie, dellot, &c., instead of de el, de este, &c 


The Spanish yowels hare always the same miyaried sound, whether 0»y 

be at the beginning, m the midst, or at the end of a word. They, in lil 

sHnatbns, most be fully and dtftmctly pronounced. The only ^Sbnaee ts 

be obsenred in them, is the time requisite in their pronunciation. ThiitiDo 

is called accent 

An accrni is that peculiar straas of the voice laid on a vowel <^ '"^ 
bla, in oonequenoe of which it is more distinctly and forcibly proooonoBd 
^an the other vowels of the same word. Hence the vowels are caM 


A Mwcl is termed 2sn^ when it requirea a peculiar stress of the voice to bo 

laid upon it ; dweiUng, consequently, on U a kmger tune than on aBfolhtt 
vowel of the same word ; as e in the first syllable of reterenee, which n 
dMngaished ftem the other two s's by the time spent in pitmoBneiivi^ 
The latter are therefore called ekart, because the stress of tfaa voiee " '^ 
laid on them, they being pronoonced rapidly. 
The frilowing English words will elucidate this exi^anation. 
No. 1. An abstract, an accent, the torment, the oondnet 
No. 9. To abstract, to accent, to torment, to conduct 

The words in line No. 1 have the accent on the jirst syllaUoi aw< th«» 
•fNaSmthelMt Consequently it is said of the Ibnner, that they have 



fbmjbvi syllable iong, and the Moond short ; and of the latteri that their 
fixBt syllable is short, and the second long. 

The little line, or mark set over a vowel, to point out that it most be pro- 
nonnced longry ie also called an oceenL In the Spanish language the only 
accent naed at present is that styled the acute ('). In old books there is 
fi>and also the eireumflex, to indicate that the eh preceding the vowel 
marked with it most be pronounced as 6 (k) before a, o, or u, and as qu 
belbce e er t ; and that x is to be sounded as cs; as, arehingel, AehUeo, 
frdjnmOf which at present are written aredngel, (ar-ean'-hell,) AptUeo, 
(ah-key-Ieaa,) prdximo, (prok-see-nM>h.) 

The -vov^els d, e, 6, u, when used as prepositions or conjunctions, are al- 
ways accented ; as, ama a tu prdjimo, salnoo 6 ignoranteo, grandeo 6 pe^ 
piewM. The accent is never placed over y. But in printing (dictionaiiea 
excepted) the capitals are seldom accented ; and in manuscript are almost 
always unsu^cented. 

Monosyllables of more than one sigrnification are accented on that sylla- 
ble in which the vowel is pronounced longer ; as — 

7\&, thou. 7*11, thy. Si, himself, Sus. 8i, it 

£2, he. £2, the. Z>^, give you. De, o£ 

JIB, me. Mi, my. Ti, tea. 7>, thee. 

Si, I know. Se, himself. Sue dec dtc. 


Nonnfl ending in a vowel have, for the most part, the peimltimate, or last 
syQable hut one, long, and consequently they do not require the mark or 
accent to point it out ; as, publico, hahito ; but if the stress of the voice 
is to be laid on any other syllable, it must be indicated by placing the accent 
upon Boch syllable ; thus, jrihlieo, public ; jm6itco, I publish ; publicd, he 
pabUahed ; hdbito, a habit ; hahito, I inhabit ; habitd, he inhabited. 


Animo, calculo, intimo, participe, nmnero. 

Capitulo, domestico, limits, practico, titnlo. 

Ceiebre, ejercito, cantara, termino, vario. 

But if to a person of a veib ending in an accented vowel the case of a 
pronoun be added, the accent must be retained, although it fall on the jw- 
umltimate ; as, pag6, he paid ; pagdle, he paid him. 

Words ending in a consonant have, generally, the last syllable kmg, and 
do not require the mark of the accent ; as, earidad, animal, eapitan, faoor, 
hUereo, lohreguex. But should the accent be On any other syUabie it must 
tie marked ; as, &rden, frit, mirHr, earitctcr, earaetereo, (pi.) 

Exception 1^-The plurals of nouns and adjectives, which, though they 
terminate in s, retain the accent they have in the singular ; as, padree, 
tmorooQBf eapitaneo, ftom padre, amorooo, dbc 

Exception 2. — Famfly names m ex mix that genenlly hafe their pe« 
mdtimate syllable iong ; as, Fernandez, Armendarix, 



^^ ^ of the ▼«*• endmir in • or « in whidi tht 

pni^?*'*^** ■ ptODoaiiced long ; m, mirara»^ enirarm. When the^ 
eftfaeToice ■ to be laid npon any other eyllaUe, it ie accented; ai,awr«rt*, 


Cr The learner ■ leminded to proooonce the VOTreb in the foflprog 
lewNwaaaet forth In page 409, to wit: a ah,e ay, t ee,o oh,«oo: tDaomid 
the ayflablea ol and ad aa they are aonnded in the Engiidi wwdi «!««•, 
MiMl. ImI; and to Iiq> the t&, as in tkefU tkiih P^tk, ^^^^» ^^ 

The EttglUi woida in the thiid line are intended rather as a wabnhiy 

than aa a tranalatlon. 
N.B. A nnderawwdindicateethatitmiwtnotbetranalated. 





Idbertmd ta 
Lee-ber-tad ess oon-oli 
Liberty ia one 

lot eieloB dihon 

thee-ay-to«8 dee>air-on 
heaven gave 

igudlaT9e lo» 

ee^gwal-ar-say Iom 

be equalled the 

m el 
nee ell 
or — 




de loa 
day lost 
of the 






( fueden 
} poo-ai-den 
( can 




por ia honra, 

eoh-moh pora lah on-rah, 

aa for — honor, 

la foida: y por el 

lah Tee-dah: ee pore ell 
life: and on the 

eZ mayor mal que ptude 
en mah-jor mal kay poo-ai-day 
the gieateat eyil that may 

4 lot hambres : 
ah Ion om-breaa : 
to men: 



eneuhre : por 
en-coo-bray : pore 
hidea : for 


M puede y 
say poo-ai-day ee 
one may and 

coatrorto el 

con-trar«e-oh ell 

contrary — 

eon elU oo 
cone el-lysh no 
with it not 

que la <»»»» 
kay lah tea^-nk 

which Mrth 

la libertad, ed 
lab lee-ber-tad, Vhtee 
— liberty, aswol 
dehe anentwror 
day-bay ah-Ten-toor-sr 
oogfat to Tentiiie 

cmUiveHo ^ 

cah-oo-tee-ver'-ee-oh •• 


oentr a loe homhree. 
Tai-nir ah loss om-bress. 
fall on — ~ men. 
Don Quuotb, Cap. iTiii. Pt 2. 




do U 

aen-dah day lah 
path of — 

mo del vieio 
dell Tith-e-o 
load of Tiee 








eotrecha: ^ 
ev-trai-tehah cQ 

atnigbt; ^ 

eopadooo ; «•» •"* 

hpatb-e-oa-soh ; ■»•■■ •'?' 
spacioiM ; bat their 


* IVonounea the ayflahle ^w^iX eoonda in the EngliA word atnJw*- 



jlwst y paraderoB §on difareniet: porque el del vieio 

fln-MB ee par-ah^rHMS son dif*fer-eii-ten : pore-kay ell dell vith-e-o 

end and isBue are different: because that of yice 

dUeiado y fdcU aeaha en mtwrfe; y el de la 

dee-lah-tali-doh ee fath-ill ah-cab-ah en moo-er-tay; ee ell day lali 

wide and easy cloeea in death; and that of — 

virind angoeto y trahajoeo aeaha en vida; y 

Ttr-tood axi-goai-toh ee trah-bah-hoe-aoh ah-eah-ba en Tee-dah; ee 
Tirtoe nanow and toilfol leada to life f and 

no en wda perecedera, eino en la que no • tendrd 
no en Tee-dah per-eth-ai-der-ah, lee-no en lah kay no ten-drah 
not in life periahaUey but in that which not shall haye 

end. DoM Quuotc» Cap. yi., Pt 3. 


N. B. The following piece has been written with a yiew to exerciee the 
leiuner in the pronnnciation of the letten that preeent some difficulty ; for 
which purpose it has been made to consist of words that contain them. 
Therefore it mnst not be considered as a pattern of the Spanish style of 



£11 en-car-go day lah re-ai-beth-ee-tah. 
The commission of the little old woman. 

HijOf dijo la viejeeita gaxmona al poge, no 

Ee-bob, dee-bob lab ve-ai-betb-ee-tab gath-mo>nyab all pab-bay, no 

Son» said the little*old-woman prude to the page, not 

agikea el haile eon tu» alharaeaa* Bien eonoxeo 
ah-gweas ell bab-ee-lay cone toos al-ar*ao*aBS. fie-en cob-notb-cob 
distuib the ball with your yociferations. Well I know 

f que ee juetieimo ee te paguen tuo gojee 

} kay ess boos-tee-se-mob say tay pab-gain toos gab-bess 
( that it is yery jost that you should be paid your perquisites 

enando ha devenguee; pen aguarda eon tin poco 

kwan-dob loss day-ven-gess ; per-ob ab-gwar-dab cone oon pob-oob 

when them you haye earned ; but wait with a little 

f de pacieneia, y ver&e que no tienee motivo 

} day patb-ee-enth-ee-ah, ee rer-ass kay nob tee-en-eis mob-tee-yob 
( — patience, and you will see that no you haye reason 

de quejarte. Ve ahora al almaeen del Oigante, y 
day kai*bar-tay. Vay ab-or-ab al al-matb-en dell He-gan-tay, ee 
to complain. Go now to the stoso of the Giants' sign, and 
C dile al Jorohado que ruegue encarsetdistma- 

} dee-lay al Hor-ob-bab-dob kay roo-ai-gay en-car-etb-eeMlee>see-niaIii 
( teU the Hunchbacked to beg yery earnestly 



41% jkjnvsDVL, 

MMlf «l gwiUmrUta fw venga «« /«»« •{ «^ 
BMn-Uy •! gee4»r-ri»-tah kay ven-g«h «in Dil-Uli al ««« 
the giiitar-pUyer to come without fail ahoul Qwki 
ehecer, « gvc trailfa 4 Juanito, al eontrcb^, 

cheth^, ee k»y t«hHje-g«h ah Hoo-an-ee-toh, al coiirtraW«h-hom 
and to bring along — Jack, tho baas-viol player, 

y tot o<ro« wdtieoM, , 91M le tnearguS. Al vU 
tB lo« oh-troai moo-seo-coM, kay lay en-car-gay. Al u-t«y 
and^io other muaiciana, which him I requertwL By the way 
puedet haeer otrot eneargo9: reeoge rff cMa ife 
poo-ai-desa ather oh-tnw en-car-gosa: raircoh-hay day caa^ aay 
you may do other ccMoamwriona: aak at the home of 

Don Herm6gene9 el ajanjoU, el gengibre jp«l- 

Don Er-moh-hen-ew eU ah-hon-hoh-lee. eU hen-he-btay po«. 
Don Hennogenea for the oUy grain, the ginger poi- 

verixodo, el unguento anodino, y ^ ^'^J^ 

Ter-ith-ah-doh, ell oon-goo-en-toh ah-no-dec-noh, ee ell em-j^^srvm 
▼eriied, the unguent anodyne, and the pla«« 

cUatrixativo, que Arngoniaga U ^^ ^ 

thic-ah-treeth-ah-tee-roh, kay Ar-ree-gor-rec-ah-gah lay day-noli »n 

cicalriaive, that Arrigotriaga him left with w 

guardar: ; ewdado eon no haeer de todo vn **/*^" 
gwar-dar: iooo-ee-dah-doh cone no ath-er day toh-doh oon to-toor- 
keep: take care not to make with all a 

riUo! De eamino paoa a ver d Don ^^"'^^^jfff^ 

ree-lyoh! Day cah-mee-noh pas-sah ah rer ah Don Br-may-nay-M^ 

maah ! By the way atop to see — Don HermenegiWo 

OlaMUverretegnieta, y pideU la ^*^^l^ 

O-Uth-ah-ver-rai-tai-gee-aitah. ee pce-dai-lay lah dis-er-Utb-ee^HBu 
OlaiavcneteguieU, and aakhimfor the ahort daquiation 

Ua pie Ibarguengoitia eoerihid «*'»'* 

lyah kay B-bar-gain-go-ee-tec-ah eansiee-bee-oh eoh-bray 

that Ibarguengoitia wrote on « 

ogiotage, Di ol horcegmnero, ^e vhe «« 

ab-heK>>tah-hay. Dee al borth-ai-gee-ner-ob, kay Tee-vay «» **° 
stock-jobbing. Tell — buakin-maker, who Uvea w 

calle de Barrionuevo que venga & verme. ^ 

eal-lyay day Bar-ree-oh-noo-ai-voh kay ren-gah ah rer-may. ^^ 

■treet — Bairionueyo to come to aeeawJ- i^"" 

olvideo trMT de easa de dona Otrinimo 

ol-Toe-dess trah-er" day cai-sah day doh-nyah Her-ob-nee-ma 

forget to bring from the houae of donna Gerome 

Juarez el manguito, y la cajita, eon loe "'^^Lg 

Hoo-ar-eth eU man-gee-tob, ee lah cah-he-tah» cone Ion thartb-ee/'i/of 

Juarez the muff, and the UtUe box, with the ear-nngi 

y dijee de Oertruditae. Mira^ no juegvM f^ ^ 

ee dee-heis day Her-troo-dee*taH. Mir-ah, no hoo-ai-ga» «b f" 

and trinket! of Gertmditaa. Mind, not to play in ^* 






die made 

and low 

hmfa f di 
beh-jah ee dee 
go down and tell 

p&rm el hijo 
par-ah ell ee-hoh 
for the aon 


toh-doh lo kay trah-esa. 
all that yoa bring. 

d CaU^itm > quM tl 
ah Cah-too-hee-tah kay 




goto: que 
gah-toh: kay 
eat: that die mnat make 

AnU9 d€ 

An-ten day 
Before going 

gigote qu€ 
he-go-tay kay 
haah that 

eamid el 

eo>me-oh ell 

eat the 


tm poco 

soup — 




in order 






ee lah 
and it 


-toh day 
dying with 

que no haga 
kay so ah-gah 
that not may make 

ilgu lae jauiae de 
coo^'ga laai bah-oo-lass day 
hangnp the cages of 

le, perque me moleetan 
tay, pore-kay may mole-eas-tan 

beea n ae me they disturb with 

Im poUitoe «l gaUinero, 

kMS pcd-lyee-tois al gal-lyee-ner-oh. 
the chicken to the hencoop. 

tttte quieio, eetudia bien 

tah-tay kee-al-toh, eas-too^ee-ah bee-en 

be atiDy study well 

dies veeee diex haeen eiento; 
dee-eth Teth-eiB dee-eth ath-en tbe-en-to 

— dear Kate that 

del eejo 

dell coh-hoh 
of the lame man — 

in-may-de-ah-tah-men-tay oon poh-coh day 
immediately some 

enfoie d mi ahijadito, que 

en-ree-ay ah me ah-ee-hah-dee-toh, kay 

send to my little godson, wlio 

Bneierra el perre 
Enth-ee-er^rah ell pair>roh 
Lock up the dog 

el eorredareUlo : 
ell oor-ray-dor-thil-lyoh: 




loe JUgueroe 
loss hU-gay-ross 
the linnets 



en el gabine' 
en eU gah-bee-nal- 
in the cabinet, 

eue gorgeoe. 

soos gore-hay-OSS. Lye-ai-Yah 

their chiiping. Cairy 

Cuando eveJiMW, et- 

Kwan-doh Too^l-vass, es»- 
When yon return, 

la tabla, haeta 

lah tah4>lah, ass-tah 

the numeration-table, as &r at 




times ten make hundred; exercise yoarself 


pronuneiaeion elara 

pro-noonth-eeHdith-ee-on clar^ah 
pronunciation dear 


without any proportion whatever, 

kaUarda en CasteUano, 
al-lye-ar-ass en Cas-tel-lye-an-oh. 
yoa may find in Spanish. 


y veloa 
ee TelH)th 
and qnick 

la mae 

lah man 
the more 

de la paiakra 
day lah pah-lah-brah 
of the word 

larga que tal tea 

lar-gah kay tal veth 

long that pezfaape 




A. A. 

A. V.E. 


App." App.** 





B. Xj. SC 

B. L.P. 

B.- P.* 

C. A.R. 

C Af . B. 

C. P. B. 












C* C.** 

D, or D.* or D. 


!>.' or D.- 

A&o Criatiazio, 
Anoba, or anofaas, 
A. v.- Es.-*, 






Apostolico, ca, 







Beso 6 besa las manoa, 

Beso 6 beaa los plea, 

Beatisimo Padre, 

Cat.* Ap.- Rom." 

Cuyas manos beso, 

Cuyos {ues beso, 












Cnanto, ta, 




tn the year of Chritt, 

twenty-Jhe poundt. 



to Y. E. (Your Egcd- 

I kiss, or he ktsset tie 

Ikies, or he kisses the 

most blessed father. 

Cath. Apost. Bom. 

whose hands I kiss. 

whose feet I kiss. 












how much. 

mister, mistress. 








Picho, dicba, 

saidf ditto. 



right or duty. 

Die" 10.- 









Ecc." Ecc.» 

Eclesiasdco, ca. 


£nm.^y t416. 


amended^ valid. 





Escelentisuno, nia« 

most excellent. 

Es.- p- 

Eaciibano pdUieo, 

Not.' Public. 

Fho. fha. 

Fecho, fecba, 










brother of certain reli' 
gioue order*. 



A title of the knighte of 
certain orders. 







Gue. or gdo. 


savct preserve. 




Gen.* or (aiQ.) gnl 

. General, 


Id. Yd. 










Ilnstrisimo, ma« 

most illustrious. 











Jesna, Mazia y JoB6y 

JesuSf Afory, and Joseph* 













lib.- lb. 









Lngar del sello, 

place of the seal. 

^J&. P. S. 

May poderoso Se&or, 

most powerful Lord, 





elder, major. 



many years. 















N. C. M. 

s. a* 

Nro. nia. 

Nov.' 9." 


Oct" 8." 

On. (MIS. 

Ord.- Old.' 

P. D. 















P.- p.* 

















Nro. Cat* Monarca, 

Nueatro Seiior, 

Naestra Se&oia, 

Nneatro, nnestxa, 




Onza, onzaa, 

Orden, oidenea, 






Pfea, peaoa, 












Pr6ximo paaado, 


favor^ worship 

such a one. 
our Cath. Mon. 
our Lord, 
our Lady, 


ounce, doubloons, 
order, orders, 
for, in order th^. 
for, per, by. 
feet, dollars, 
siher or plate. 



trowel, page* 





last past. 




Q. S. M. B. 
R.» R.»- v.- 

P. M. Pr. 



s. a- s.** 

S/ or S - S.~ 
S. 8/ 
SS. S.~ 
S* S. 9« 

Sep." or 7.*^ 
S.'** Secret.* 
S.* Secret* 
Ser."" or'^ 

SS.- P.* 


8. 8. P. P. 

8. Y. O. 










Que BUB manos besa, 

Real, realea vellon, 


Reverendo, reverenda, 

Padre maestro fray, 




San 6 Santo, Santa, 


Seitor, Sefioia, 

Sn Santidad, 


Sa Beguro servidor, 





Serenisimo, ma, 






realf realeSf silver cotn. 

most reverend, 


reverend father and mas* 

I received, 
saintf holy, 
his majesty. 
8irj Madam, 
his Holiness, 
gentlemen^ Messrs, 
your faithful servant. 
secretaries office, 
most serene* 

most holy. 
Santi8imo(el 8acTamento)tA« host^ the holy sacra' 

most holy father, 
notary i scrivener* 
holy fathers, 
entreaty^ request, 
errors or omissions mn 


your Majesty. 

Santisimo padre, 


Santos padres, 




Salvo yerro u omision, 







Vnestra Magestad, 



Vnestra Real, 
Vaeetra Alteza, 
Vnestra Beatitud, 
Vnestra D."", 
Vert>i gracia, 

Vm. Vmd. V. Vd.' Vnestia, vnesa merced, 

or nsted, 

V. P. Vnestra Patemidad, 

V. R.* Vnestia Rererencia, 

V. S.% Usia, V.' Scaoria, 

V. S. L Vuesefioria Ilnstrisima, 







V. E. or V. Ex. 


V. 8/ 



V. 8. G. 

Vpo. via. 





Vnestra Santidad, 
Real vellon, 
Vnelta si gusta, 
Vnestro, vnestra, 

In the Old Books,— 

d stands for an or am. 
i '* en or em. 
I ** in or inu 



your highneee. 
your beatitude, 
your grace, 
your excellency, 
for example, 
you^ your tfforship, yew 

your paternity, 
your reverence, 
your lordship, honor, 
your most Uhutrunu 

your holiness, 
real ofhuUion^ com. 

please turn over, 

tenth and tithe. 

6 stands for on or om* 
fi *« vnor 
q " ^e. 

a thousand. 

OTHER AisasyiATiom. 
$ is read Pdrrafo, a paragraph. 


J. M. J., at the beginning of writings of religions pexsons, means JesnSt 
Maria, Joei, 

The Jesnlts always begia and finirii their letters and other writingB with 
Jhs, which means and m read Jeeue, 

B " !*«• 

* An e m added to these abbreviations when more than one person is *^ 
dresMd ; and then they stand for vuietraa mereidee, vuiws merciies tr 
uetidee, in the plural. At present the word ueted and its plnral sre ex* 
pressed by a V. or W. 



Tens an in SpaniBh nine ■orts of woidsy or, as they aie commonly 
called, ParU of Speech; namely, the AnTicLB, the Notnr, the FmoHomi, 
the VsRB, the FAMTvnnjt, the Adye&b, the Pebpootiom, the Cojcimfcnoif, 
and die Imtexjcction. 

The meaning of a word most he fint ascertained, in order to claanfy it 
Example : — Clara, clear. Eee elan (a substantiye) et muy pequeHo, that 
dLyligfat is yeiy small. Un dia elaro, (an adjective,) a clear day. El no 
habla elaro, (an adverb,) he does not speak plain. 

Take notice, that henceforth the numbers placed thns (1) after a word 
or at the end of a sentence or a paragraph, refer to the page which the 
learner moat consult in the preceding Method. 

There are two articles: the Indefinite and the Definite. 


Maoeuline Sing. A or an. Un, (38.) - Plur. Some. Uno» or aigunot. 
Femmme « " <* C/na, (163.) '• " Vha9 w algunoB, 

nsFnrm aeticlb. 

Maoeuline Sing. The. El, (9.) Pltnr. The. Loo, (26.) 

Feminine " " La, (159.) « *< Lao, (159.) 

When the masculine definite article el comes after the preposition d (to) 
or de, (of, from,) the e is suppresaed, and the two words are written as one ; 
thus, alf del, instead of a el, de el The pronoun 61 (he, it) is distinguiriied 
by the accent, and it is always written separately from the said prepositions ; 
thus a el, de 61 

Oho. El, loo, (34,) la, loo, are articles when they are before a noon, to 
point ont how far its signification extends ; but they are pronouns when H 
is the subject of a verb, or comes after a preposition ; and la, (her* it,) 2m, 
loo, (them,) are governed by a verb ; as — 

The bed of Don Quixote was fore- El lecho de Don QtUjoto eotaha 
most, and next to it Sancho made primero, y luego junto 4 €i Aiso 
his. Sancho el stcyo. 

Don Quuotx, cap. xvi pt i. 


Nomm an either substamtivb or awbotivi. 

NowM Suhotaniivo have Persoat , Numbero^ OondorOt and Caooo, 


Th&n are three penone: namely, the tpeaker, who ie ealled the fint 
permm; the peraon tpoken to, who m etyled the teeond permm; and tiie 
permn or tkmg spoken of, which m said to be the third penon : at— 

Make haite» Jon Saneko, (second 
penon,) and tdl (second peiaon) 
that Lady of the hawk, (third 
pemon,) that /, the knight of Jhe 
Iknifl, (fint peiBon,) send nay re- 
elects to her exceeding beauty. 

The speaker seldom refen to himself by name. 

When bmtes, or inanimate objects, stand as qieakeni or peraoos wgAxn 
to, they are said to be personified ; 

Corre, hijo Saneko, y di a ofiwUt 
oenora del axor, que yo,tl eoie- 
llero de loo leaneo, bem Ue smsm 
& eu gran fermooura. 
Don Quuote, cap. zzz. pt d. 

Oh Jan of Toboso, which haTO re- 
called to my nund the dear ob- 
ject of my greatest sonow ! 

; O toho&eaeao Tine^ao, que me ha- 
heie traido & la memaria la duke 
prenda de nU mayor amargun! 
Don Quuote, cap. xriii. pt il 


There are two numben, the Singular and the PltaraL (Jjem, IX. p. 26.) 

RoLB 1. Noons ending in a ehort vowel, thai ia to say, a vowel havisg 
■o accent over it, form their plural by adding t to the singular ; as, head, 
cabexa, heads, eabexae ; eye, ojo, eyes, ojoe. 

RuUE 2. Nouns terminating in a long wnoel, that is to say, a vowel 
having an accent over it ; or in any eonoonant, or in y, add et to the ato- 
gnlar ; as, ruby, rubi, rubies, mMet ; lion, leon, lions, leoitee ; law, Uy, 
laws, leyee. Except papd, mamd, pii, dtc Haraoedi, the imaUMt 
Bpaniih brass coin, has three plurals, maraoediee, maravedie, maraveduee. 
Noons terminating in x change it into e, or retain it and add ee to fonn the 
plural ; as, crass, crux, erosMs, erueee, or cruxeo. 

Rule 3. Nouns of two syllahles ending in e, being accented on the pe- 
nultimate, ^mit of no change for the plural, and distinguish it by means 
of the article ; thus, Monday, lAnee, Mondays, loe bmeo .-— 

El tenia lentefae los nimte, y ^ 
gun paUnmno de anaausura i» 

He had lentils on FMdays, and an 
additkm of a pigeon on Sundays. 

Don Quuote, eap^ i. pt !• 
The same is to be observed with nouns compound of a verb, and a noon 

plural ; as, the penknife, el cortaplumae, the penknives, loe eortaplamaO' 
Hiere are some noons with a plural termination without referanoe io any 

singular; as. 

Alfiiereo, ladies' pinmoney. 
Eepooao, handeufls. 
OriOo; fetters. 

AUnieiao, a present for good new» 
Alicatee, pincen. 
Preeee, prayers, dee. 

Xela, (teal,) has no pinni ; Xeloe, (jeakasy,) has no smgolar. 


ihm md ZMUh m Spu&rii titles for a fgeadkamn or Indj, an not wed in 
tiiepianl ; and in oonformity with the present eoitom they are placed only 
before prenonienB, or bepttmal names ; as, Mesne. Nicholas and Leandro 
F. Moritin, Hon Nicolat y Dan Leandro Fernandez de Moratin, Mr. 
Capmaayt el Senor Capmany, and not Don Capmany. 


There are two genden, the nuucuUne and the feminine. 

Eyery he, or male animal, is of the masculine gender ; as, boy, muek^ 
eke; Hon, lean* Every sJU, nitfemaU animal, is of the feminine gender; 
as, gill, muekacha; lioness, Uona, 

The toUeeiiot noons ganU^ people ; /iiria, torfo^ crowd ; mulHtud^ 
mnltitnde ; pUhe^ oommon people ; ^'ttvenfad, youth , vejex^ old age ; «so«i- 
Ues, asnmbly ; ooe, bird ; heatiat beast, dec., require the articles, the ad- 
jectives, and the pronouns that agree with or refer to them, to be of the 
feminuie gender ; 

The coach must belong to some 
travelling people. 

El eoeU debe de eer da alguna 
gente paeagera, 

Don Quuotk, cap. viii. pt L 

Noons signifying dignities, offices, trades, professions, dec., proper to men, 
are mntcttitfis ; and those proper to women, feminine. 

Rbjukk. There are some nouns of animals which custom' has made to 
express both gendere, under either the maoculine or feminine termination, 
preceded by the correepouding article. Nouns of this description are called 
in the grammatical language epieenoe, epicene. Such are the following :^- 


El ateatrux, the ostrich. 

El buitref the vulture. 

El eiene, the swan. 

El euervo, the crow. 

El gilguero, the goldfinch. 

El raieffior, the nightingale. 


La ardilla, the squureL 

La beeada, the woodcock. 

Xio caiandrta, the lark. 

La grulUif the crane. 

La perdix, the partridge. 

La tortuga, the turtle. 

The rest of these nouns will be found in the dictionary. 

The word macho, male, or hembra, female, with the corresponding ar- 
ticle, is prefixed to any noan of this kind when it is necessary to distingniih 
the sex ; as, the partridge, la perdix — ^the male, or he partridge, el maeko 
de la perdix ; the sparrow, el gorrioa — ^the female, or she sparrow, la Asm- 
ara del gorrion. 

Oba, A. The pronouns he or the, and the noons male and female, are 
not translated into Spanish when the gender may be distingjaished by 
changing the termination of the nonn maeetUine; as, 

A wolf, un hho. 

A male servant, un criado. 

A she wolf, una loba. 

A female servant, una criada. 

* 8i volet nsMS, quern penea arUtrium est, etjuo, et norma loquendir^ 




Rdlb f . Common sabstantiTes ending in e, and fho tuoit put oC tet 
In €9 chango tho o or e into a to form the feminine ; as, 

Danghtor, hiju. 


A female relatiye, parieuia. 

Son, hijo. 

Brother, hermano, 

A male relatiye, pariente. 

Except tutigo, (witness,) that admits of no diange, and distingnidiai the 
gender by the article ; thus, el, or la teatigo. 

Ob9. B. The feminine noons formed out of the substantires af^ni^ring 
dignity, trade, &c., mean not only the female who enjoys the dignity, « 
follows the same trade or profession, but most fireqnently the wife, and efen 
the daughter of the penon that has the dignity, or follows the trade, && ; ai, 

Superiora, a female superior. 
Capitana, a_ captain's wife. 

dmJUero, confectioaer. 


Confitera, may signify a female confectioner, or a oonfecthmer's wife or 

RuLc 3. Most of the common nouns ending in an and on, add an sftr 
the feminine ; as, 

Capitan, captain. 
Patron, patron. 
Pastor, shepherd. 

CapiUauh ^ female commander. 
Patrona, a patronesa. 

Pattora, a sfaepheidssa 

RtTLB 3. National nouns, that is, nouns that ezpiesB the nation or ooon- 
try of persons, or where the thing is produced, or comes firom, whether tfa^ 
be substantive or adjeetiye, if they torminato in o, change it into a ; and if 
they end in a consonant, add an a to form the feminine ; as, 
Amerieano, Americana, American. | Espanol, Eepanola, Spaniard. 

Rule 4. Common substantiyes ending in a, and most of those termina- 
ting in en or tr, admit of no change, and distinguish the gender by the ar- 
ticIeiH-(Obs.D, 162;) as, 

Un penoumiata, a pensioner. 
Una penaioniata, " 

El martir, the martyr. 

La miartir, the female martyr. 

RuiA 5. Almost all words compound of the substantiyes man or toMSSS, 
and an adjeetiye, distinguish their gender, in Spanish, by prefixing to them 
the corresponding article and omitting said substantiyes ; as. 

Unjdven, a young man. 

I7na jdvenj a young woman. 

L08 Ingleoea, the Englishmen. Laa Ingleaaa, the EngliA women. 

Man and woman are translated when a particulu^ emphaais is placed on 

06t. C, Many of the nouns compound of said substantiyes, or of an ad- 
jeetiye, are translated in Spanish by a single word, to be^fonnd in the dic- 
tionary, in the masculine gender, out of which the feminine may be formed 
in conformity with the foregoing rules ; as, 

El Uehero, the milkman. 

Un naraif^aro, an orange-man. 

La Ueherti, the milk-womao. 

Una naranjera, an oiiBg«-w<nM* 



Rout 6L Sonie nmme expnm their gendw by diflareat temmiataoiML 
<8ee JjBmaa. LVL, page 34fi.) 

RcnLB 7. Some nouns 
LVI., pag« 347.) 

thoir gonder by diftrent 



The nouiiB that are neuter in Englirii aie nuueuliHe at feminine in 
Spanjeh, aocording to their aigmfieation or their termination, 


Arte^ eanalf eapitalf eorte, dote, /rente, guardia, Arden, mar, Ate., are 
maacoline or feminine according to their meaning, to wit: 

Arte, (art,) in the angular, may be used in either gender ; in the ploral, 
only in the feminine. Should arte be qnalified by an adjecttref the latter 
agrees with it in the feminine termination ; as, 

El deUeado gutio de V. en el arte 

Your fine taste in the ihymie art. 
MoRATDf, Comedia Ntteva. 

Mar, (sea,) when it is alone, may be used in either gender. When it is 
accompanied by the adjectives Mediterranean, White, Red, &c, it is mascu- 
line ; as, el or la mar; el mar Rojo. With other adjectiyes it is generally 
feminine : la mar eetaba algo mae eosegada, (CBRVAirria.) Howeyer, the 
use is not fixed. 

Or den (order) is masculine when it signifies arrangement, or' refeiB to 
architecture ; as. 

AD was in good order. 

The edifice^ is of the Ionic order. 

Todo estaha en huen 6rden. 
El edifieio ee del drden Jdnieo, 

Orden, mgnifying command, or a religious or military institution, is femi- 
nine; as, 

I receiyed your order. 
Two triaiB of the order of St Bene- 

Yo reeibi la &rd€n de F. 
Doefrailee de la drden de San Be* 
nito. CBnyAHTBS. 

Duenot (master, owner, lord, mistress, lady,) in a figurative sense, is 
Qsed only in the masculine termination for both sexes ; as, 

From that instant I made her mis- 
tress of my heart 


Canal, Erie canal, el canal Erie, 

Capital, a stock of funds.' 

Carte, the sharp edge of a tod, a 

pattern for a drees, means, &c. 
Dote, a gift of nature, endowment 
^Vsalf, the front 

Desde aquel inetante la kice dneiio 
(sefiora) de mi eoraaon. 

Doif QuuoTX, cap. xliv. pt. i. 


Canal, the gutter, or leader of water 

from the roof of a house. 
Capital, the chief city of a country. 
Corte, the court, the persons that 

compose it, courtship, atte n dan c e 
Dote, dowry, dower. 
Frente, the ibrehead. 



Ouardia, a soldier of the king^a 

Mdrgen, the nuagiu of a book, &e. 
Ptarte, a report, infbnnation. 

&€., Sec 

Otuardia^ a gnaid, a bodyof «ttn 

Mar gen, the bank of a nree. 
Porte, the part of a iriiole. 

AlbM, a permit, or certificate of a coBtom-hoooe, (litUe owd eastoM, 
anathema; oiniear, migar ; ctima, schism ; cii/is, the fino skin ; cnUnu, 
embi^ ; paeate, bridge ; tribu, tribe, Ac., may be used as stsMs&eor 


Oh9, D. The praper names of kingdoms, jmnrinoes, cities, &c^ when 
toey stand alone, are generally of the gender of their terminjition ; u^ 
Eep^nti e«l4 ea$i aislada delretto I Spam is ahnoat insulated fion tl» 

del amttnente. | ^ ^f ^j,^ continent 

But when they are quaUfied by common nouns of difierent teiminstioBi. 
they agree with them accordingly ; as. 

Toledo es una antigua eiudad, 
SevUlafui un reino poderoeo. 

Toledo is an ancient city. 
Seville was a powerful kingdom. 

The foUowing general rules are subject to many exceptions, of which 
only the most usual are pointed out ' 

Ruui l^Nouns ending in a an feminine, (162.) 
Except most of those derived from the Greek ; oa. 

Antipoda, antipode. 
And also the foUowing : — 

i>w» day. 

JHopa,^ map. 

Jdioma, idiom. 

Poema, poem. 

I Clima, 

climate, Ac 

Ouarda-eoetaf cnstom-honw cottar. 
Paragua, nmbreUa. 

Vita, huxza. 

Ac &C. 

RoL«a^Nouns ending inii or odf ate /emtwae. Except^ 






lated mto Spanish by changing it into dad; as^ 

AcUvity ocJi^Aui. IVerw^ity, teraddad. 

RuLi3.-Nom» ending in ., i, 0, or «, ate «««rfn.e. i?,cg,*- 










flMh, meat 
































Ruui 5y — NoniM 

ending in ion are j 





r, t, or «, 

are fiMMttUfie. 1 










old age. 







■ • • 







Hiere are three cases : the Siibjeet, or nominative case ; the Object, or 
the direct objective case; and the Complement, or the indirect objective 
ease, (69.) The object is the aecuaative in Latin ; and the complement 
answers to the dative, or any of the oblique cases, except the voeaHve, 
which in Spanish is a oubjeet abeolute. 

When two proiionns,o^ecf and eompUmeni, come together in a sentence, 
the complement is always set before the object When they are governed 
by a verb in the infinitive, or in the imperative mood, they are placed after 
it, and written so as to form obe word with it ; as — 

He promiaed to send them to me, | El prometi6 enoiarmeloa. 

In cases where the stress of the voice is on the last syllable of the verb, 
it is preserved on the same syllable ; which, on account of changing its 
place, requires the mark of the accent ; thus, dan, danme, ddnmeloe, thoy 
give them to me. 

Rkmamit- — ^When the object of a transitive verb is the noun of a rational 
being, or a proper noun, oi a thing peroonified, it must be preceded by the 
prepoeitioii A, (which in that case being an idiom,* is not translated mto 
English ;) but the preposition is not required in other cases. 

The surgeon cured the wounded 

Hie surgeon dressed the woman's 

There is a God in heaven, who takes 

care to chastise the wicked, and 

to reward the righteous. 

BBs impatience killed Chrysostom. 

El cirujano cur6 k la mujer herida. 

El cirujano vendd la herida do la 

JHoo hay en el cielo que no so deo^ 
euida de caetigar al malo, y do 
prenuar al buefto. 

Don Qouotk, cap. zxii. pt L 
8u impacienda maid d Criodotomo, 
Ditto, capu ziv. pi L 

' Idiom m the peculiar construction of a language which 
lltogether from otheisr— Oro^i. 




It WM known there that Signor Don 
JuMMk had taken Tnnez. 

We mnat» in ataying gianta, kill 

Se 9»fo en tUa fue el S«Mr Hn 
Jwan habia tornado a TVmes. 
Don QuuoTB, o^ xzxix. pt L 
JVMolroa hemoo de mator enUtgi' 
gomteo a la ooberbia. 

JHtto, ditto. 


haTe jier«0fie, eaoeo, numbero, and genders: they 
■dee. aeveral degrees of oigmfieatunu 

Tlie peroon and eaoe of the adjectivea are the aame as thoae of thenomi 
or prenoana which they qoalify ; aa. 

Aft then oome to rejoice at the crael 
oxpkMti of thy character, and be- 
hold, like another mercilesB Nero, 
the flamea of hii burning Rome ? 

I Vienee 6. ufanarU en lai eraelei 
hazafiaa de tu eondieion, 6 vcr, 
come otro deeapiadado Nero, el ta- 
cendio de ou abraaada Romaf 
DoM QuuoTB, capi xir. pt I 

Tlie plonl nmnber of the adjectirea ia fanned by the aame rakf bud 
down ftr the aobatantiTea, (36,) aa. 






Blanco, blancoa ; blanea, Uanci 
Carmeoif .earmeafea: 
Natural, natnraleaL 
Prudente, pnidentea. 
FeUa, felicea, or feUxeo, (78.) 


Ruui 1. Adjeetirea ending in o are of the maacnline gender, and 
change the o into a to form the feminine ; aa,' fine, fino, fine, (161.) 

Rdub 2. Meet of the adjectiTea ending in an, on, or^ add an a for the 
feminine; aa, 

Haragan^ karagana, idle. | Ortton, gritana^ clamoroat. 

Roui 3. AdjectiTea ending in any other letter are oonunon to both gv* 
deia; aa. 

A pmdent man. 
A pmdent woman. 
A Pernan atory. 
A Pernan anecdote. 

Un Juimbre pnulente. 
Una mujer prudente* 
Un euento perea. 
Una aniedota peroa^ (161.) 

RmLB 4. National adjectivea ending in a conaonant, add an a to loBB 
the feminine ; aa, 

A Spaniaid* Un EepanoL 

A Spaniih lady. Una aeiioni eopaiSoia. 

^aniriigQld. OneopanoL 

Spanirii ailTer. 

A uUtwv^ vvQWHWvVa 



BBGEsn OF naicincATioir o% coMTAumm. 

Tlie oomparatfre of tuperUnity is fonned by tranBlating more, iub, thant 
auB; as» 

Honor m mare pmaom than lichMi El honor e$ mw preewoo que ia$ 

riquexao. (108-9.) 

When the oompentive in Engikh is fonned by the addition of the termi- 
netion er, om fairer ^ it mnat be tranilated as if written more fair; thai. 
He is richer (more rich) than his 


El ee mas rtco que su kermano. 

The eempantiTe of iaferunihf m fonned by translating literally the adp 
Teibs less, Mteoe, thaih wsm ; as, 
Sihrer is leas neefial than iron. | La pUUa ee m^noo liiU qoe el hierro. 

It may abo be ezprasnd negatiTely ; as. 
Silver is not so Qsefol as iron. | Laplaia no ee tan «Ui/ eomo el hierro. 

More than, Uee than, before a noun signifying quantity or 

nomber, are ^ndered by mae de, minoe de ; as, 

They spent more than five hmidred 

He gains leas th^what he says. 

EUoe gaetdron mas de piinientoe 

El gana m6w» de lo qoe dice. 

More than, Uee than, preceded by no, may be translated mae que ; as. 

El no gana mas que dace realee ai 

He earns no more than twelve shil- 

Ungs a day. 

The comparative of equality it fonned by translating the adveibs ae or 
so, TAif, before the adjective, and the second adverb ae, como ; as. 

She is as tall as a spear, and as fresh 
as an April morning. 

EUa ee tan grande como una lanxa, 
y tan freeca como nna maliana de 

Don Qvuotb, cap. xiiL pt iL 

It may also be exp r essed by not Uee than ; as. 

He was from the coast of St Lacar, 
not less of a thief than Cacns, and 
iMit less mbchievons than a stu- 
dent or a page. 

El era de U playa de San Ldear, 
no mdnos ladron qoe Caeo, ni mtf- 
nos maUante qne eetudianie, 6 
page. Ditto, cap. it pt I. 


As much, C with reference to a ^ tanto, (masculine,) ) 
So much, \ substantive sing. ( tanta, (feminine,) ) *** 

5 ^^ reference to a j 
^™^y'( sobsuntive plur. } 

Not so much, 
Not so many, 


tantoe, (masculine,) ) 
tantae, (feminine,) ) ' 

no tanto, (mas.) no tanta, (fem.) as, coma, 
no tantoe, (mas.) no tantae, (fern.) as, soMsi. 


He has ma mmtik ktm&rt and ct wmek 
MffmcCira M his competitor ; but 
he has neither m many yean of 
wrriee, nor has giren m many 
frocfa of his practical knoidedge. 

£1 tioM tanto honor, y tantaiflilzwi 
cion, come au competidor; fen 
H no tient tantoe anoa ie mtimt 
td ha dado tantaa praebaa ie am 
amocimienioa praetieo$. 

Soaaia rendered by de modo que, de aueria^fue, de matura jut ; a»— 
Do (yoQ) it, BO aa to pleaae him. t B&galo V. de modo qoe & fvedc 

\ emttenio. 

Am mmek —^a»t aa mamy a«, with reference to a noon, are traae* 

Bated by tamta or tamia eomo, cvmito, or cuaniat acoording to ffae 

gander and nomber of the noon they refer to ; ae— 

He apenda aa much money aa he re- 

Ai for ddla, Anaataaa haa aa many 

aaihe wanta. 
Ton have here aa mnch aa yon want 

El gaata tatito dman ema, « 

euanto reeibe- 
En euanta a munacaB, Aaaitana 

tiane taataa euantaa f userc. 
Ueted tiena aqui euante (or tanto 

cnanto) ha menaater. 
Aa mmeht or Jo anceA, with reference to a verbal adjectiye, is traiMlated 

Ttiey are aa mnch intereated aa yon. | £Uof eaten tan iw^uadoi cam F. 

When the aecond aa, in thia kmd of phraaea ia foUowed by a Torb ia the 
pnaent of the infinitive mood, it mnat be tranalated qua, and the veib intbe 
indicative mood ; aa, 

She ia aa charitable aa to deprive 
henelf even of the moat neoeaeary 
thinga to give them to the poor. 

EUa ea tan earitaiioa qae m prn» 
aun de laa aoaaa VMa neceeariai 
para darlaa d loa pobrea. 

Tha maat—iha laaai, (109,) with reference to verba, mnat be tnitflatfld 
only by taaa or m^naa, omitting the article the; aa. 

He ia the man they pniaa the moat 

Snch ie the peiaon they oppoae the 

Eleaelhambre qua eSae maeeU' 

Tal ee la pertona d quian meaot h 


Oba. When the adjective in the comparative degree, in Eng^ 
(whether it be foimed through the adverba more or leaa, or through the 
affizea r or er,) ia preceded by the definite article the, and the same aztjeto 
(the) m repeated in the aeoond part of the aentence, before an uijedin in 
the comparative degree ; the article the ia omitted in both porta, aiod cuaaU 
m need faiatead of it in the fint, and tanto in the aecond part of it; as, 

The ihorter (more ahoit) time ie, the more preciom it i>> 
CuAHTO maa breve el {tempo ea, TAirro maa predate H ^ 

The mare, or the leaa, (1 10,) repeated in the aame asntenoe with refenoM 
to a verb, moat alao be tranalated euanto maa or minaa, tanta nia$ tf 


Now thorn k no doal Uiai this exer- 
ciM ezoeedi all othen, and that it 
ODgfat to be the more esteemed, 
beeaon it is the more exposed to 

Ahora up hay que dudar mno fus 
€9te ejercicw eseede d todat lo§ 
oiroSf y tanto ma» se ka de tener 
en estima, cuanto & mat peligroa 
ettd expu€»to. 

Don Quuotk, cap. xxxrii. pt i. 
Tke mart, the fest, may be also rendered by nUenlrae mat or menos ; as, 
he plays, the less he 

Itie more he plays, the less he Miiniraemas juegaftnhtoe aprende, 
leaina. or tanto menoe aprende^ 

When the more and the leaet relate to a noon, cuanto and tanto change , 
their nomber and gender so as to agree with it ; as, 

The more pride he shows, the more I Cuanta mae eoherlna mueetra 41$ 
enemies be makes. | tantoe mae enemigoe ae Aoce. 

Tanto may be omitted in the second part of the sentence ; as. 

The more be has, the more he wants. Cuanto mae tiene, mae quieref or 

tanto mae quiere, 

Se or each ■ ae, followed by a verb in the infinitiTe mood, is rendered 
by tan que, placing the verb in the same tense as the one that pre- 
cedes it in the same sentence ; as, 

His friend's failure was so noexpect- 
ed, as to oblige him to stop his 

La quiehra de eu amigo fuk tan 
ineeperada, que le obligd d stu- 
pender eue negoeioe. 


The Superlative m aheolute or relative. 

The BoperlatiTo abeolute (1 10) is formed by prefixing the adveib mtcy 
(Twy) to the adjectiTe ; 

Very faur, fairest. 

HermoeOf hermoea. 

Muy hermoeot muy hermoea. 

It ii also formed by adding the termination ieimo to the adjeetire, which 
drops the last letter, if it be o or e; as — 

HermoeieimOt hermoeieima. 


Alegrieimo, alegrimma. 


Utilieimo, utilieima. 

m, amable, amahilieimo, 
qu; " Hco, riguistmo. 
gu; " yargOi larguieimo. 
e; '* felizt felieieimo. 

Very fair, most fair, fairest 

Very meny, most merry, meiriest 

Very useful, most nsefuL 

Adi tiv r^^ change hU into bit; 




CO ** CO 

go " go 
X " a 
The most part of the dissylla^iJes in io, doubl ■> the t; 
Pto, pious. I PiieiHiOt 

Adjectives in iente, drop the t ; as— 

ValionU, valiant | Valentieimo, 

most pious. 

most valiant 


Hie adjeetiTB in the snperlatiTe degree, in "EofjiiA, whether famad faf 
the tenninationi •< or ewt, or by the adrerhs mo9t or Ua»t, being preceded 
by the article the, (which constitutes it a saperiatrre relattTe,) mnt be 
translated by the definite article, and the adyerfas mn* or mewu, acoordiDf 
to the gender and number of the substantiTO it refera to ; as — 

He has the finest broadcloth, but I El tiene el pane ma» Jino, fero tOtt 
they want the least expensive. | quieren el menoe coetom. 

N. B. — ^ThehidTerbB mat or m^nos must always be placed immediately 
before the adjectiye ; thus — 

The most innocent pleasures are al- 
ways the most pura 

Lm plaeeres nuu inoeentet 9H 
eiempre los mas pttrott or k» maa 
inocentes placeres, &«^ bat not 
loe mas placeres inocenUe. 
An adjective in the superlative degree, in English, preceded by the defi- 
nite article the, taken substantively, must be translated by the sopexiatiTe 
formed by the termination istmo ; as, 

The Highest (or the Most High) or- 
dered it so. 

El AlHsimo lo dispmso asL 

An adjective in the superlative degree, preceded by the article, betn; 
used with a reference to a verb, or a sentence, most be translated by oBBg 
the pronoun lo instead of the article, and placing the adjective in the com- 
parative degree ; as. 

The best that he can do, is to pay 

Lo mejor que puede Aoeer, et foger 

For the iiregular comparatives and superlatives, consult page 111. 




Uno, m. Una, f. 






























Diexy seis. 
Diex y siete. 
Diet y oche. 
Diez y mune. 

* From dos, (two,) up to ciento, (hundred,) inclusively, the numbea 
plural, and common to both genders ^ as — 
Tluee men, tree homhres, \ Four women, cuatro nu^eres* 















Twenty'^even. Veiniisieie, 

Twenty-eight. VeirUioeho. 

Twenty-nine. Vemtmueve, 

nUrfy. Trsovta. 

Thirty-one. IVeinta y tcno. 

Thiity-two, &c Treinta y doa. 

Forty. CuAmsNTA. 

Fifty, CiNCUKMTA. 

Sixty, SmNTA. 

Seventy, Sbtknta. 

Eighty, . OoBMxrtiu 

Ninetfr Novbnta. 

A or one hundred, Gibmto. 

Two hondred 

Three hundred. 

Foor hundred. 

Fire hundred. 

Six hundred. 

Seven hundred. 

Eight hundred. 

Nine hundred. 

A or one thotuand. Mil.' 









One thouBund and one. 

One thousand and eleven. 

One thousand one hundred and one. 

One thousand five hundred. 

Two thousand. 

Five hundred thousand. 

A Million, 

Mil y uno. 
Mil y once, 
MU; eiento y uno. 
Mil y quinientoo. 
Quinienioo miL 
MizxoN, (euento,) 

Two nnmben coming together in an inverted order in Engliahi are trans- 
lated hy placing the highest in the fint place ; thus» 

Three and thirty. | Treinta y tree. 

Eleven hundred, fifteen hundred, and the like expressions, are alwa3rs 
translated one thousand one hundred, one thousand five hundred, &«. ; thns, 
mil y eiento, mil y quinientoe, and not once eientoe, &c 

The cardinal numbers are used instead of the ordinal in speaking of the 
days of the month, excepting the fint ; as. 

The fourth of July. 
The first of May. 

El euatro de Julio. 
El primero de Mayo, 

(See Obe. A, p. 46.) 

The words e^eloek (65, Obs. B,) are omitted in reference to the hours of 
the day, which are expreosed by the cardinal numbers, preceded by the 
utide ^ or 2a with reference to una, one ; as. 

' From doocientoa to noveeientos, inclusively, the terminatian oo is 
changed into aa for the feminine ; as — 

Three hundred miles. | Treaeientaa mUlaa, 

* MU has neither gender nor number ; but it may be used in the plural, 
■peaking, as in finglish, in a vague sense ; 

la that railroad many thousands 
have been spent 

En eae Ferro-earril aa kan gaatado 
muehoa mUea, 


It u ooe o'clock. 
It w two o'clock. 

I Que hon et f 

Ea la iciuu 
Son la* do$. 


Fint, primero, \ Second, aegundo, &c. (46.) 

Ordinal nnmbeis change o into a for the feminine, and admit the mm 
Tariation of nomben aa the adjectives. 

Oba. The adjectiree una, one, primero, fint, (46,) alguw, some, m- 
gunOf none, hutno, good, ssia/o, had, pMirnro, (little need,) last, drop the • 
when they ue immediately followed hy a substantive alone, or pncededby 
an adjective in the smgnlajr. Cienio, hundred, loses the last eyUaUe befon 
nouns of either gender, (Ohs. A, pi 139.) Grande, great, generally ksM 
the last syllable when it is not applied to size ; as, el Oran CafUw, 
(Oba. C, p. 97.) Santo, samt, also drops the last syllable before nooDs maf- 
cnline in the singular, except Homtn^, Tomas, dtc 

The ordinal numbers are used in speaking of the chronological order of 
kings, dec., but the article is suppressed ; as, 

Isabel the Firet, queen of Castile. | loabel primera, reina de duUUa. 


RsMAax. Many of the nouns signifying relationship, as aster, kermeae, 
as well as the baptismal, and even family names, aocfa as Laie, Cstsltiis, 
ilteero, Oonxalez, are nsed, in colloquial and familiar style, with the tenni- 
nataons Uo or iia ; but for the most part they are not diminutive noaoi, for 
they have no reference to the size, beauty, age, or moral qualities of the 
pemons. They are, properly, endearing wotrds, that express aflfeetioQi 
friendship, or regard. Therefore, kermanita, Luiaito, Cataiinita, Riteritet 
or Riverita, Oonxalitoe, do not signify precisely little sister, but rather a 
beloved sister, eateemed Luis, dear CaXalinei, friend Gonzalez. 

These names are not always regularly formed by the addition of t(o or 
ita; they frequently have other terminations, and are even changed into 
other odd words. 

EzAMTLEs. From Maeia, (Mary or Maria,) are derived MariqvUe, 
Mariquilla, Maruca, Maruja. From Maiia ds la Concbfcion, Conetp- 
eion, Concha, Conehita, Chona, Coia, Cotiia. From Maru dz J0O^ 
Jeeuea, Jemeita, Chucha, Chuchita. From Feanoibco, (Francis,) Fren' 
eiequito, Frazeo, Frazquito, Paeo, Paquito, Paeorro, Pancha, PanekiiOt 
Ourro, Currito, dec Feanoisoa (Frances) changes the o of the abors 
names into a 



Vtoaoaim an diTidod into permmalf po$9e9n»e, relative, interrogative, 
dewieneiriUive, and indefinite. 

The penonal pronouns are, aingnlar — I, yo, thon, td, yon, (yonr honor or 
wonhip,) u»ted, he, il, afae, ella, it, il, eUa, eUo, or 2o. Plural— we, tioM- 
lyiM or iMMOfy««, yon, voeotroe, voaotrae, or «o«, yon, (yonr honon or wor- 
riiipi,) uetedet, they, eUov, eUa«. (See taUe of perMnal pronouns, p. 70.) 

Vee is used in addressing a single permn, and vosofros, when qieaking of 
or to more persons than one. The ofajeotive case of voe after a preposition, 
iiabosos; as. 

And what riiare of it falls to yon, 

I Pues que parte os alcanta & rm, 
Don Quuotb, cap. xzzi. pt L 

The use of iicfs^ is explained in Observation A, pages 9 and 10, which 
the learner is desired to consult What is said there abont ntted, is like* 
wiie applicable to iwia, (V. S.,) your lordship, or ladyship ; nueeeleneia, 
(V. E.,) yonr ezeeUency, &«. 

Me, te, se, nos, oe, le, loe, la, lae, Us, are goremed by Teibs ; and (in 
coofoimity with the present use) never placed after prepositions. 

When ml, H, ei, noeotroe, noeotroM, voeotroe, voeotraa, il, eUoe, eUm, 
eUae, are used as objects, they are to be preceded hy prepositions. 

When vd, ti, H, come after the preposition con, (with,) they are con- 
Torted into eonmigo, contigo, conoigo, and admit no diange in gender or 

Miemo (self) is sometimes added to the personal pronouns to give them a 
paitienlar energy. It changes its number and gender in confoimity with 
the rules laid down for adjectives. 

We must love our neighbor as our- 

Debemoe amor d nueetro prdfimo 
eomo d noeotroe nUtmoe, 

The objective cases of the pronouns are generally placed before the veib 
when it is either in the indicative or in the euhfunetive mood ; and alter 
the veib, and joined to it, so as to form one single word, when the veib is 
m the infinitive, or in the imperative mood ; except when the verb in the 
imperative mood is preceded by an adverb of negation ; as, 
Let him who terms me a fierce basi- El que me llama fiera y ha nLi aeo, 

liik, shun me as an evil being ; ddjeme cowo eooa perjudieial y 

let him who calls me ungrateful, mala; y el que me llama ingrata^ 

refuse me his services. no me sirva. 

Don Quuots, capw xiv. pt L 

When two pronouns, eH^ect (the direct objective case) and eompUmmet, 
f idireet objective case,) come together, the complement must he pfaMCd 
before the olject, (Obi. A, p^ 69 ;) as, 

Hepwdittome. \ElmoUpag6, 


Shoold both p wa ouD i, object and oomploment, be of the third pcaoOitbB 
Mfiewunti or that which in EngJiwh is goremed by to, ezpnaed or m- 
damtood, mnit be rendered by m ; ai^ 
He will carry him to him. £i le le Uevard, 

Bm wiU carry her to him. 
Ha will cany them to him. 
Ha will not cany it to him. 
Win he cany her to him? 
WiU he not cany them to them 7 

ElaelA tteraii. 

Elm Urn (las) Uetar^ 

El note It tiewwd, 

iSti UiUevarail? 

i No mUm (}9b) lUvwrd at 

1m onler to avoid the ambigaity arinn; aranetimeo from ■neb phnns, the 
adier pronoon of the oamepMwm is frequently repeated after the veib; thai, 


YMh when it ie tranahUed utied, most be rendered by te; as, 
He pnoented him to yon* | £2 se le presentd 6 V. 


pronoons are coi|^'itiie<tee or abtoluU, 
The pomestive pranoons eonjunctwe are ao called because they etnnot 
be Qsed akme, but most be accompanied by a noun. They have nmnben, 
but admit no Tariation of gender. (160.) 

aiNGUL4B. PtClAL. 

tuordeiU wsardeeOot. 
J jtuatdeella, suswdeella. 
^"'} tttordeelloM, wadeeUet. 

tuordeeWu, mumieellct. 

mmmhuu plobal. 

My, fltt, fate. 

Thy, tv, fM. 

Hisb 9UW de Ht stts or de eUaa. 
Her, f» or d« eUa, stis or de elU$. 
llieae pranoons agree in number with the noun that comes after them ; as, 

He paid his ej^Mnaes. 
Tliey fttlfiDed their promise. 

El p^g6 nu gattM^ 

EUc9 eumpUiron tu prvmeM^ 

Whan yon is tnisdatad mated or nsf «<iM, Toua » to be,^ered by w« 
sua. de utttd or ueiedee : aa. 
Ha thinks that the letter is yonra. \ El pienea ^e U carta ee de V. 

RniAix. Hie use of sv and ««• (your) without the addition ^"^' 
in addreaabsr respectable persons, is considered vulgar and impolite. I4o 
peiBon accustomed to good society will ever say, Sefior N. £ cemo ette <* 
Acrmaaaf Mr. N. how is your sister? Amigo, idigam 9^ htr*^' 
fHend, tell me wfaato*cloefc it is? bistead of, Seiior N. icomeM » (« 
U) kenaana de V,7 or la Senora hervmna de V. Amige, idig^^ ^' 
pu kera ee? or etrvaee V, deekme que hora es. 

Olie following quotations from the celebrated modem dramatiat, U(tt^ 
who wrote in Madrid, andfrequented the best society of that court* ^ 
Mooborata tins nnnaifc. 

I do not knoiw your mother. I Yo no eemxeo d an fliadrc ^^'^ 

El SI Di LAS NocAa, aet&« ^' 



How do yoa do, good man ? — ^I woold 
■peak more politely, answered Don 
Quixote, were I you ; is that the 
language used in this country to 
knights eirant T — ^you blockhead. 

Tour unela wishes to know what all Qmere mber el iio 4e u§Ud Is ftic 
this means. hay en tato. 

Ditto, act ill so. 10. 
I Como va, buen hombre ? — Hablara 
yo mas hien eriado, reepandid Don 
Quijotef eifuera que voe. 4, Ueaoe 
en eeta iierra hablar de eea euerto 
d he caballeroe andantes /-—ma- 

D. QuuoTB, cap. zril pt I 

Tlie possessive pronouns absolute (344) may- be used with or instead of 
the noun to which they refer ; when used with a noun, they are placed 
after it, (31 as, 

Your hat cost five dollan, mine three 
doOais, and John's only twenty 
■hillings; but his is better than 
yours, and as good as mine. 

Come here, my Anaata^a. 

El sombrero de usted eostd dneo 
pesos, el mio tree, (pesos,) y el de 
Juan solamente veinte reaUs; 
pero el suyo (de ^1) es mejor que 
el de usted, y tan busno eomo el 

Ven acA, Anastasia mio. 

Minet mio, mios, mia, nUas, 

Thine, tuyo, tuyos, tuya, tuyas. 

fsuyo, suyos, suya, suyas. 
el suyo, los suyos, la suya, las suyas. 
eldeiklosde il; el de ella, loe de eUa. 
los or las de 61, &c • 

Oor, ouB, nuestro, nuestros, nuestra, nuesiras. 

fvuestro, vuestros, vuestra, vuestras 
de Usted or de Ustedes. 
el, loe, la, las de V. or de W. 
suyo, suyos, suya, suyas ; as — 

I am your servant, sir. | Yo soy eeroidor de V. eabaUero. 

When mine, thine, &C., stand instead of the noun they refer to, they 
must be preceded by the corresponding article ; as, 

Has the postman brought the letters T 
Tes, he bnnight thine, but not 


Hiese pronouns agree in gender and number with the substantives ex- 
presring the thing possessed ; as, 

/ Ha traido el eartero las cartas? 
Si, el trajo las tnyas pero no las 

Hiese houses are his. 
The giB-dens were hers, but now 
they are tlietm. 

Estas cases son suytui, {de SI.) 
Los jardmes eran suyos, (de ella;) 

pero ellos son ahora suyos^ (jU 

elloe or eUas.) 

486 apphidix. 

The em^mueiwe pranmiiiB are UMd in epeaking of, and the sMsleh 
addnanng to ; as, 

My fiiemfa, theae are my childno. | Amigot mioB, ettotmnvm hijot. 
When the noon k accompanied by an adjective, either of them may be 
wed; as, 

My dear brother, HueweU ! I Mi quarido kermano, (querida her- 

I maao mw,) pdtalo bien I 

VueHro m not oMd in coHoqoial, polite atyle, therefore your and yrar< 
moit be tranalated de UBted or deuMUdes, or suyo, tuya, acooiding to tbe 
sense of the phrase ; as. 

He bought Ats nmhrella in Peaii- 
street, and you brought youxa from 

El eomprd sapanguaenlacalkie 
la PerU, y F. Irajo el soyo (d de 
v.) de Ldndres. 


The relatire prononns simple, are f uien, qtu, eual, and euyo ; and tbe 
oompoond, quienqtiiera and cwtletquiera. 

Quien, in the plural quientt or quUn, (who, ^ich, that,) admits of do 
change for the gender, and is used only with reference to penons, or ob- 
jects personified. (73.) 

Que (who, which, what, that) has no yariation of gender or nomber, and 
is used with reference both to persons and things. 

Caol, in the plural cualf, (who, which, what, that,) refers to peisoMor 
thmgs, without any change of gender ; but it requires the correqwodiDg 
article whenever it is necessary to distinguish it ; thus, el ctia2> loe eueiet, 
la eual, lot eualee, 

Cuyo (whose, which) forms its number and gender like the adjectirei io 
o, and agrees with the noun that comes after it 

Cwdquitra, in the plural ettaleequiera, (whoever, whichever, whatever,) 
has no change for the gender, and is common to persons and tbiDgs. It 
generally drops the last letter when the noun foUowing begins witb a vowelt 
or an A. 

Quienquiera (whoever, whichever) is applied to persons, or penooified 
nouns of either gender. The Academy sets it down as invariable in number ; 
but quieneequiera is found in daasic authors. 


The relative pronouns are caUed interrogative when they are used in 
asking a question ; as. 

Who wrote the letter? 
To whom did yon write? 
Which of the two does he want ? 
Of what does she complain ? 
Whose unage and inscription is this? 

I I Quien eaeribid la carta t 
i A quien eeeribid V. t 
i Cual de loe doe quiere iU 
I De que se queja ella ? 
i Cuya (de quien) ee etta imagtn 
ineeripcion 7 Del Omt* 



BmoRvnuTiTB raonoutm, (31, 98, 161.) 
mro. PLvi. t iMo. PLVB. Bnto. plvb 

Tlui. These. That Thoee. That Thoae. 

Bfawnliiie. Este. EMios. Ete. Etot, Apul AqueUot. 
Feminiiie. JBsta. Ewtas. Emu E»a». ApteUa, AJqueUat, 
Bst€ denotes prozunity ; e«e, some distance ; and aquel, remotene« of 
place or time. (24.) 

Etto, (this,) eso or aquello, (that,) and ello or lo, (it,) aie used only in 
the aingalar, with reference to whole sentences, or to the actions expressed 
by the verbe, and frequently to avoid the repetition of a verb or a nonn ; as, 

Be that as h may. 

He was one of those, who beinf^ no 
princes by birth, know not how to 
direct those who are princes to act 

Brother, if yoa aie boffiwn, keep 
your jokes for a place where they 
may torn to account 

Sea lo que tefuere. 

El era uno de eato9 qw eoms no 
nacen pHncipes, no aeiertan d en- 
eenar eomo lo ban de ser, lo9 que 

D. QUUOTS, C^k 2X30. pt il 

Hennano, ei eoU jugXar^ guardad 
▼uestras gracias para donde lo 
parezean. Ditto, ditto. 

nfDBFucrrE paoNomnk 

The most oommonly used are the following: — 




lUuA one. 

Every one. 





one, or Mr. such a one. 
one and such a one. 


' Everybody. 

Something. Somewhat 

One says, or it is said. 
They assure. 
It is believed. 


Lo, ella (See table, p. 70 ; Obs. E, 
Esto. [97 ; Obs. A, Idfi.) 

Eso. Aquella 

JCada uno, or una, (183.) 
Todos, todas. 

Cada, (m. Sl f., sing.) Todo, toda. 
Todos los, todas las, (81, 186.) 
Uoo, una. Alguno, alguna, (143.) 
Unos, Unas. Algunos, algunas. 
Tal (m. &. f.) nn, una tal. 
Fulano, or Undon fnlano de tal, (269.) 
Fulano y mengana Zntano y men- 

Ambos, imbas. Ambos (imbas) i 

dos, (48.) 
Todos. Todo el mnndo, (182.) 
AJgaien, (m. dt f.) Alguno, alguna. 
Nadie, (m. & f.) Ninguno, ninguna 
Algunos. Varies, (51.) 
Alga Alguna cosa, (13.) 

Dicen, or se dice, (143.) 
Seasegnra, aseguran. 
Se cree, ereen. 



He commaiids. 

Tbey are oomniaodBd. 

Yo vivo. 


EUos sou mtmdadoo* 

Veifai aw dmded into active tmnnHve, active intravstUve, F"^^!^ 
nouier. l^^J m^y be nioo rronominal f^ rejlective. f^c,,^^ 
«|,anda«xairy. Thm. y^ being ihe ^e oa mIin^.rM^ 
be made^tyof «ch a. «q«re paiticular explanation m reg«d to th. 

^[^rvmminMlinreJUeti^verUm) i. that which— b.|«-« 

or thinff ai aabieet and object ; aa, _..,^* 

He ilattera hin-eW: \ El oe Ummgea a oi mumo. 

Ahnoet an actire reibi may be made jwwiommal. ♦fc.fhjrfiwwB 

Imperial verbs (191) are thoee which are need onlr™ the thinl ?«" 

ringnlar, without a sabject or nominatiTo ; aa, 

It mowe. 
It hai^ned 

Se dice. 

^^.^ywrftt are those through the help of which the confound team 
of all other Torlv, and their paanve voice, are formed ; each are. 
To hare. I Haber. 

To be. I ^^> ^^ estOTf Ac. 

To TOiba belong Ntmbers, Persons, Moods, Tenses, and Cof^^»^ 

HumBBa AMD psaaoin. 

Veibo haTe angular and plural numben; and in each ^'^"^^fjj*^ 
three penona, which are dielmguiahed by the diffiirent termmatwof c««- 
qmnding to each peraon. 

ICr The jirW person singular terminates in a, e, a, i, u ^^ ^ 

Except to have, to be, to give, to gO| and to know, the Bzst peiw" 
which is, reqieotively, he, soy, estoy, day, voy, si. 

Tlie aeooii^ person singular terminates in as, es. , ^, 

Escspt the preterit indefinite of the indicative and the imp«ative muo* 

The third person singular terminates in a, e, o, 6, or t6. 

^nuejirst person plural terminates in fiios. 

The second person plural terminates in ais, eis, or is. 

Except the 2d of the imperative that ends in ad, ed, or id, 

llie thM peraon plural terminates in on, en, or on. 

OU. it When iiaa (us) is placed after the firat pexeon plural of a WH 
the TSfb generally drops the a ; aa, 

€kad i mon o9 . (CuidteoaMa.) | Let us take care of onnelfc*' 


The second penon plural of the hnpentiTe dropi alw the if when 9» if 
pbwed after it ; ast 
Amao9 (anuuks) ameeramente, | Lofe each other linoevely. 

Ofo. B, The vowel hy which the termination of die lecond peiaon ain- 
golar of each tenae beginaf ii alao the fint of the termination of every 
peraon of the aame tense ; as, estndia^, estadio^y Mtndiii^afnMy estodi- 
abait, esfcudinBofi. Except tho imperative in all the oQnjngationa» and the 
pteteiii indefinito of the fint conjugation. 


There are four moodi: the Ii^nitite, the IndieaHve, the /mjieraltoa, 
and the Subjunctive, 

0&#. C The Engliah potential mood is generally rendered hy the mth' 
jmnetive in Spanish. 


Tenge m that variation of a verb that distingnishes its time. 

Tenses are oimpU or eompound." The former consist of one word, the 
latter of two ; the fint of which is the auxiliary verb» and the second the 
participle past of the verb that is conjugated. 

O&f . jD. The verb to write, (eoerUwr,) will be made uae of» the better to 
elucidate the following explanations ; and the numbers, 1, 3, &«., to avoid 
the repetition of the whole name of the tense in the rules. 

Thib h^nitwe Mood has three simple, and two compound tenses. 


Pamirr. To write. Eoerihir, 
Gnimn. Writing. Eoeribiondo, 
^AKOcaut- Written. Eoerito, 

To have written. JEtaber eoerito. 

written. Habiondo eoeriio 

The Indieatwe Mood has four i 

ample, and four compound tenses. 


I write.' 


N. 2. iMPBxncT. 

I wrote 

To eeeribitu 

N. 3. Prxtbut iNDsrairn. 

I wrote. 


N. 4. FuToaa Izcdbvootk. 

IshaU writer 



I have written. 

1 Yo k$ ooerito. 

N.2, p. FuiJrKBFBCT. 

I had written. 

\ To hdbia eoerito. 

N. 3, p. FaBTBUT AifTEaioa. 

As soon as I had written 

I 1 Luego 9«s hibe ooerUa^ 

N.4, p. FuTUEB DBiDfrrn. 

I shall have written. 

1 Yo habri ooerU^ 







ylm vardmd^ — ^Eaeribe 

m laataUMdetm 



N. 7. Innracr, Fim Ti 

N. 8> iMncBnccTt Sccmm Z^ 

K. 9. IiDnncr. TUrd Ti 

Mt dBil.«vmif Idmldl El 



que 70 


K. la FVtcu 


lo huiftf MB com^ 9* 

lo iiiigfiiiaii6 i V. 








.^ Ti 

had he I A hahrim 


Id bnbisnM- 

N. 9» PL PkxnEBncr» TIM Te 

he Mt have | Ittftanfo Y. de eDo^por ■ no ^ 


■ tiM TC(ifar eonhiutkn and anuseioeiik 

ud fimed m ^a Spaniib langiiar''^ 
•/ a« m/bntwc MMtf of uiy veih, which niYtfidbly tenn^ 

•ylUfalea are caUed its TBrnwHATioii ; w 

praaeDt of the infinitiYe, after lepftn^ 

they may be, are called ila B^Mrr, «A> 

• ML to 

of the 

• »♦ 



i-or/ to aBkad, ofend-er; to pennit, pemut'ir; in which TSiht or, tr, 
ir are the TKBJfiNATiom ; and ewtim, of end, permit, the radical Lrmu 
of each xeapectiveljj to which the other combinationa mnat be added to farm 
the Taiioos penons and tenses of a verb. 

An the Spanish ▼ezfas are, therefore, daaeed into f Ares eonjugatimu, 
Veibs ending in or belong to the fret ; those in er to the teeond ; and those 
in ir to the third. 

Ofta. E. It is not necessary to express the pronoons tubjeet or nomiiia- 
Isee, in the oolloqaial style, (tMled and tutedee excepted ;) bat they must be 
osed wfaenerer elegance or clearness requires it 

Ofta. F. The nnmbers before the terminations point oat the difierent per- 
sona. N. 2, before luted and uatedee, denotes that they are of the second 
perHuiy bnt that the verb agrees with them in the third, (by Ensilage.) 


06a. G. The grave accent ( ^ ) npon a vowel in the following tennina- 
tions, pointa oat the syllable on which the stress of the voice is laid, bnt 
over which the mark of it most not be set. The acute accent ( ' ) marks 
the syllable on which the stress of the voice lays, and over which the ac- 
cent is to be written. When there is no mark of an accent in the termina- 
tion, the syllable that precedes it is long: 


xo aim, amor. 

Termination, or. 
Radical letten, arm. 

Aiming, ando. 

Paetioitli past.* 
Annetfy ado. 

First Coiyiigation. | Second CoiUngatloiu | Third Coi^ugation. 


To offend, ofender. 
Termination, er. 
Radical letten, of end. 

O^ndtn^, iendo. 

Paeticiplb pact. 
OfiendscI, ido. 

To unite, tim'r. 

Termination, tr. 
Radical letters, wn. 

Unit»f^, iendo 


UnitsJ, ido.. 

* Tlie Gferundio (gerund) never changes its termination for gender or 

* The participle past coming immediately after any of the tenses of the 
verb haber, (to have,) does not admit of any change of gender or nnmbes 
After other verbs, it changes its termination to agree with that of the person 
er thing it refera to. 












3 g J -s •« -a § •§ 

♦i a 

.5 :» § ^ 
e q r g 

^c< cod ^c«eoG< ^«eoc«-^<H«« 






»-4 S 

Q 2 

4* * .• "• J J 5 "^ 




- s 







s,--^lirg g 


I ^ 



2 lis 


G< eo c< 1-4 G« CO ei 


^-, H 03 >« ^ {H H ^ 
•-4 c< ci» oi •-< c« oS 





^|:^:ji j:sll 


J fit? 




• 8 is 


nS ^ ^ ."^ J 

•h •}» ••• >b 4t 
e I 

I 'a 


1 1 1 




I I 

9 -r '9 1 "5 

^"S 3 "S 3 "s e 









fM ei oS el 

1 1 1| 

• • • _i 
vH (N m Ct 







i 1 I 

"S •TS-C'sl 





1 1 ! 8 J 8 5 8 






i - a* f # I i 





s . 


2 S||ls1*"6i 

•S P P JI ^ tS ^ P tS P 
^ ei ei CO ei -^ oi ei c« 01 



3 « tf '6 *« « 




•^ oi eo et ^ 


« « « ^ S « o 

1 ' 







!: IS 

4 ^ 



f - 

E S. 

•4 ei ei CO et *^ ci ei c« et 



- - --J*! 

£ _ 

- E I E ^ 



® E 

EJocSj* SJ55 




fir t J ^a 



^ 8 E a 



*^ ci ci CO ci U ci et CO Gt 

BJg • s^ %1 i 





6 I 




jr «« .?: 

ti 'a M * ** 

fc *a 9 ^ fl 

a a 

3 « 



•S *M •«• 'S '8 *3 •& 

•> O 

•2 1 'lD-i"'&l^'S ^ 




4; '^ ^ ^ -t 


»- ^ 

•s a 

w7 "O 

s ^ 

« o 


a s 


a «) 


^ 1 Bttttf 

^ i -f -fe '& 'fe ^ ^ -^ '^ 

55 ••• 


« fc*: 


i-« P W >< ^ JH H >^ 


•J ts •§>«.•& -I'll 





s I i I 





» S 

r U 

« " i? *§ •'§ 






§ 2 


^_ ^^^ ^^^ ^^0 "W^ 




lis gj gig 

. 1 -^ E ^ 

^ 6 «» •» « 

5i ••• -S -^ •"• 

^ et CO 


eS ^ 8 

I 8 




O&f. lliaae teaaw bein|^ ibnnad by pladn^ after the Terb hther^ (to 
liaTe,) the paitieiple paet of the pnncipal Terb, or the reib that ■ conjn* 
gated, only one participle for eaeh eonjogation ii here giveni in aD the 

N. ly p. PxanoT, or PRBnarr DsniiiTB. 
It ii componnded of the preaent of the indicative of the veib kaher, (to 
have,) and the perfect, or participU paat of the veib which is oonjogated. 
For brevity'e aake, the English is prefixed only to the fint perKm of all th< 

/AflM ttrmtd. 

Yo he armada 

Ihtnt QJfemML 

Yo he ofendida 

I have united. - 

Yo he nnido. 

I. He 
a Has 
3. Ha 

3. Y.ha 



Hemes *) , 
Habeis ' armada 


* ofendida 


VV.han J 

\ ofendida 
1 nnida 

N. 3,p. Pi47mrBOT. 

J had armed. 

Yo habia armada 

I had offended. 

Yo habia ofendida 

I had united. 

Yo habia nnido. 

1. Habia 
3. Habias 
3. Habia 
9. V. habia 

' ofendida 

Habfamos "j 

Hahian ' «^*^ 
W.habian J ^'^**' 

N. 3, p. Peitikit Ills 

^nviNiTK, OE AirmioR. 

I had armed. 

Yo hubs armada 

I had offended. 

Yo hube ofendida 

I had united. 

Yo hnbe nnida 

1. Hobe 
3. Hnbiale 
3. Hobo 
3. y. hnbo 

1 armado. 
\ ofendida 
j nnida 

Hublmos \ . 
Hnbisteis 1 ^^ 
Hnbieron ofiradida 

W.hubieron J ""**• 

N. 4, p. Fun 

nA DBvncrrB. 

/ ehdU have armed. 

Yo habrtf armado. 

I ehdll have offended. 

Yo habr^ ofendida 

. / ehaU have united. 

Yo habr6 nnida 

1. Habr6 
3. Habrds 
3. Hahri 
& y.hahri 


' ofendido 


> ofendida 


N« 69 p. 

I may ktme armed. 
I may have ojf ended, 
I may JUme uniUd, 

1. Htya 
3. Hayw 
3. Haya 
3. y. haya 

Pbmiect, oa FaBTBarr DEmoR. 




To haya armadoi 
To haya ofendidfr 
To haya imido. 

W. hayan 

N. 7, p. FmnauFiCT — Termination isba. 

/ might have armed. 
I might Aoee offended, 
I might hmoe united, 

1. Habiera 



3. Hubiena 
3. Hubiera 
3. V. hubieia 

To habiera annado. 

To hobiera ofendida. 

To habiera onido. 
W. hubieran 

* ofendidiK 

N. 8, p. PLUFEmFBCT — Temiinatum bia. 

/ might (would) hate armed, 
I might (teottiJ) have offended, 
I might {would) hate united. 

1. Habria 
3. Habriai 
3. Habria 

3. V. habria 




I To habria annado. 

I To habria ofendido. 

To habria nnida. 


Habrfaia. I ""^j^ 

W.habrian J ^^ 

I annado. 

N. 9, p. PLUFSaFBor — Termination ibsb. 

/ might have armed, 
I might have offended. 
I might have united. 

1. Httbieee 




3. HobieM 
3. Habieae 
3. V. hobieee 

To hobieee annada 
To hobieee ofendido. 

To hobieee onido. 

W. hobieeen. 

N. 10, p. FoTCBB Dbiinitb. 

Should I have armed. Si yo hobiere annado. 

Should I have trended. Si yo hobiere ofendido. 

Should I have united. Si yo hobiere onido. 

1. Hobiere "1 , Hobi^remoe 1 , 

9.Rabi«rM [^!^ HabMrei. If^ 

S.Haoi«« t"^*^ Hnhfareii f *S?^ 

• y.hubte. I ""^ W.hohMWii J »"*• 

















N. 1. pmsmrr. 

1. He. 

S. V.ha. 

1. HOUMM. 

3. Habek. 
3. Han. 
3. W.han. 

1. Habia. 
3. Hainan 
3. HaUa. 
9. V. habia. 
1. Habiamoa. 
3. Habfaia. 
3. Habian. 

I have. 

V. tiene. 
yy. tienen. 

V. tenia. 









W. eon. 







3. W. babian. W. teniaa. 

I wot. 


Eraa. « 
V. era. 

V. eataba. 
W. eatabaa. 

N. 3. PKiTinrr. 

1. Hobo. 
S. Hnbirta. 
3. Hoba 
3. V. hnbo. 
1. HabtmoB. 
3 Habiite» 
3 HnbienMi. 


V. tnva 


Sl W. hnbi^nn. W. 

i tPM. 



W. fodron. 



V. eatuYO. 




W. aa ttt fiiwfc 



■;4> WfJTOMM. 

1. Habi^ TendM. 

S. HnbHm. 
3. Habri. 
9. V. habri. 
1. Habr6moa. 
3. Habr6k. 
3. Habrta. 
S. y V. habrin. 



y. tendri. 




yy. tendriiji. 



V. 0erA. 

y. atari. 


yy. eatazin. 

Let AM Aave. 
1. Lat me haye. Tonga yiK 
S. Have thou. Ten tiL 
3. Have not No tengaa. 
3. Let him have. Tengm 6U 
3. Have. Tonga V. 

1. Let na have. Tongamoa. 
3. Have ye. Toned. 

3. Have not No tengaia. 
3. Let them have. Tengan. 
3. Have yon. Tengan yy. 




8e«. Bat^ 

So. E-ti. 

No aea& ^o «•'** 

Sea. Bat^ 

SeaV. Eat^V. 

Seamoa. Batomoa. 

Sed. B"'*^ 

No aeaia. I^® «^«* 

Sean. Baten. 

Sean yV. Baten VV. 


K. 6. 

Immjf June. 

1. Haya. 
8. Hayaa. 
3. Haya. 
3. y. haya. 
I. H&yamoa. 
3. H&yaia. 
3. Hayan. 
3. yy. hayan. 

y. tenga. 
yy. tengan. 









I may he. 





yy. eaten. 


/ wmdd hate. 

I. Habiera. 
9. HttbieraB. 
3. Habiera. 
3. y. habiera. 
1. Hnbitframoo. 
3. Habiiraia. 
8. Hobieran. 




y. taviera. 




8. yy. bnbieraB. yy. tavieran. 



V. faera. 
yy. ftieran. 


y. oituweie. 






Iwmddhave, | 

1. Habria Tendria. 


3 Habria* 
3. y.hafaria. 
1. Habriamoa. 
S. Habiiais. 
3. Habrian. 
S. yy. hahrian. 



V. tendria. 




W. tendrian. 

V. aeria. 

y. eetaria^ 

yy. aerian. 

yy. eatarian. 


/ »hould have. 

1. Hnbieae. 

2. Habieaea. 

3. Hnbieae. 
S. y. hubieae. 

1. Hubi^aemoa. 

2. Hobi^k. 

3. Habiesen. 

2. yy. hubieaen. 

When I 
1. Hnbiere. 
2 HQbien& 

3. Hnbiere. 
2 y. hnbiere. 
1. Hnbi^remoa. 
2 Hnbi^reia. 
3. Hnbieren. 

2 yy. hnbieren. 

y. tnrieae. 
yy. tnyieaen. 

/ thould he. 

y. fneee. 
yy. fiieaen. 

y. estnTieae. 
yy. eatnyieeen 

N. 10. VUTURB. 

ehdll have. 
y . tnriere. 
yy. tnrieren. 

When I shall be. 

y. fnere. 
yy. fneren. 

Estnriere. ' 
y. efitnrier& 
yy. eaturi^ien. 

N. R — ^The (i) etande for the preaent of the infinitive niood» and the (p) 

for the paat participle. 

I am to (i.) 

Thou art to (i,) &c. 

I waa to (i,) Slo. 

1 ihal] be obliged to (i,) Slc. 

I have juat (p,) Slc 

I had jnat, &o. 

I am going to (i,) Slc, 
going to (i,) dec 

He de (i,) (139, 153.) 

Hoe de (i,) dus. 

Hahia de (t,) dec. 

Habre de (i,) dec. 

Aeaho de (i,) aeabae de (i,) dbc. (311.) 

Aeahaba de (i,) aeabahae de (I,) d^ 
iVoyd {{,) vaa d (i,) va A (L) 
\ Vamoe & (i,) vaU & (i,) vm d (L) 
I Iha a (i,) ihaa d (i,) tAa d (^0 ^^ 

452 • 

{VoU>er i Ci-) 
Voh>emo9 a (i,) c©l»«» 4 (0 t^d- 
vem a (i.) 
I liked il haye (p.) \ E9tuve ^^a (u) 

i JB«<«r li piqw de (i.) 

?™™ (iWntpwticiple. ]Estardpuniode(l) 
To come near, f '^ '^ ( EsUw para (u) 

To be about (p. or L) i Eatar para. 

To be to (i.) | Ser de. Haber de. Deher. 

KEede notar. Se ka de neter. 
It l«to be obMnred. j ^^^^ ^^^. 


£l me le (loe, la, las, lo) da. 

£l no te le (loe, la, las, lo) envia. 

I Ngs le (loe, la, las, lo) ofrece €i 7 

^ No OB le (loB, la, las, lo) tree €17 

V. no m le (Iob» la, las, lo) piomete. 


I recompense, or do recompense. | Reeompeneo. 

S Yo no reeompeneOf or 
I do not recompense. ^ j^^ reeompeneo. 

Do I rocompense? | i Reeompenso ? ot iBeeempeitmf 

_ , - S 1^0 reeompeneo 7 or 

Do I not i<>comp«»eT \ iNoreampemioyoT 

1 have ooneoponded. I He correepondido. 

I haTe not corresponded. | No he eorreepondido. 

__ _ - ,. S I He eorreepondido ? n 

Have I conre^nded? } i He eorreepondido yo f 

Have I not corresponded t \ iNo he eorreepondido yo ? 


Paeeioe verbe are formed from acthre-transitive yeibs oy addiogf Hhtixpef 
tieipie poet, or posstve, to the auxiliary verb ser, (to be,) thnwgh "B* 
changes, as in English ; thus, from the active verb amar, (to love,) is fonneo 
the passive verb oer amado, (to be loved.) ' 

Ofrs. A. The participle must agree in gender and number witb the 
nominative it refers to ; consequently it changes the o into a when the 9Uh 
)ect is feminine, and adds e for the plural ; thus, 


He is loved. 
She is loved. 
Ton are loved 

El ee amado. 

Ella ee amada. 

V, ee amado, (amada^ 

APPSMDIZ. • 408 


Ellos ton €anado9. 
EUat son amadoM. 
W, 9on amado9, (amada».) 

Obs. B. In the compoand teiuM the participle of the principal verb m 
the only one that admits the change ; the participle of the auxiliary Terb 
to be (been, ndo) m unchangeable ; as, 

They are loved. 
They are loved. 
You are loved. 

He has been rewarded. 
They have been rewarded. 
She had been admired. 
They had been admired. 
Yon could have been employed. 

YoQ could have been assisted. 

El ha tido premiado. 

Eliot han ndo premiadot, 

EUa habia 9ido admirada. 

Ellas habian ndo admiradas, 

V. hahria ndo empleado, {empU' 

W, habrian rido anstidoo, (aoiotu 


Obo. C, Passive impersonal verbs, and those referring to inanimate ob- 
jects or things, are translated by placing the verb which is in the participle 
past in English, in the same pexson and number in which the verb to be is 
in the English sentence, placing the pronoun se before it ; thus, This ship 
was built in less than three months — Esta fragata se eonstruyd en m^nos 
de tree meses, instead otfui construida. It is said — 8e dice, instead of Es 


A pronominal^ or refieetvee verb, is that which has the same peifloa or 
thing as subject and object ; as. 

He arms himself. | El se arma & si mismo. 

These verbs terminate their present of the infinitive mood by the pronoun se, 
which must be suppressed in order to find out the conjugation ; thus— 

To approach. 
To be sorry. 
To repent 




Taking off the se we here have, aeercar, 1st conjugation ; doler, 3d conju- 
gation ; and arrepentir, 3d conjugation. (80.) 

These verbs are conjugated by placing the pronouns me, te, se, se, luw, 
OS, se, se, according to the number and person of the nominative they refer 
to, immediately before the verb, if the subject be expresoed before it ; and 
either before or after the verb, if the subject be not exp re ss e d or placed after 
it When they are placed after the verb they must be written so as to 
form one word with it. 

In the imperative mood they are always placed after the verb, which sup* 
presses the s in the fint person plural, and the d in the second person of the 
same number. When the second person singular or plural is used with 
the adverb no, the pronouns are placed befbre the verb. ESxampleB ^— 


El m emmgrmtmU. 



W. m cMgrmtmUm. 
Mt hmkim cmmgrmtMUit, 
Ym wm he mrmmd0. 


\ NmUftrt 
: Nmmfurt 



of Hm aDeoBdandthinl; m, 

It dotf not ■dmit uy 

p.rtie^Je. .ad cpojiigBtod Willi fl» 






■n bm fin 







AD pMrive putidplM that do not tfiiminate madooe idotm eallea ir« 
regnlar; meh are the foUowing, from the 

To eover, 
To fry. 
To do, 
To printf 
To die. 
To solye, 
To turn. 

ahrir, Merto. 

eubrir, euhierto, 

deeir, dieho. 

eteribtr, uerita, 

freir, frito. 

hacer, heeho. 

imprimir, impremt. 

morir, muerto 

9olver, multo. 

ver, vtffo. 

poner, puesto. 

volver, vuelto. 
Their compoimde haye the nme iiTe|riilarity. 

O&c. The participles past of haher, aer, tf#far, and tener, do not ad* 
mil any variation. The fint and the last had it formerly. 


Tliere are aome yerba that haye two ptunoe 
and the other inegnlar. They are contained in 
for hreyity** sake, the irregolar participle only i 

To lorfeit, 
To compel, 
To condnde. 
To confuse. 
To conyince. 
To conyert. 
To awake, 
To wipe. 
To exclade, 
To expel. 
To ezpi 
To fix. 
To satiate. 
To include. 
To incnr, 
To insert. 
To inyeit. 
To ingraft, 
To join, 
























partieipUa, the one legolar 
the following list, in which, 
I expreswd. 











to fimi the cwmpwiid 

I El km ditperimd9 tempnm. 

■ ▼eriMladjectmsy ud with die Tvto 
nwiUm i ml teneee with kaher; exoeptinf /rMff 
ly and ft few odien ; aib 

I El eaU deafierto Umfnm. 
I EUm kmm pnaiHa, (jprovetdb.) 



Adrote ere Horaied from ftdiectiree of one tenmnfttion hy mUSaag to tfaem 
, iUef, dnleeme n te; and from tiioBe of two tenninatioiie fay add- 
to the femmiBe ; an^ grmeiam, gnckMunente. Tliejr tdmit tiie 

two or mon adveria ending in ly ooeor in the aame aeotenoe, tlit 
meafe li added to the lant only ; aa, 
elegantly and eonectly. I El kmUm earreeta y tUganftrntatt' 














aedf aqmL 


donde, adamda. 


1 WeO, 


. Mlere, 





Yesterday, ^ 
Last night, 
< Now, 













No, nor. 


no, m 

At once. 

On credit. 


d «tnnfo«j»*. ^ 

de una vex, 
d veeee. 







de tranee. 
de verae, 
he aqui, or aUL 


The moat ireqoent 
At, to, for, 


Of, from, 


In, on, atf 

Between, amoog, eiUre. 


dntee, ante. 






Towards, kdeia. 

Until, haeta. 

•For, to, para. 
By, for, through, per. 

According, . eegun. 

Without, tf^. 

On, upon, eohre. 

Behind, trae, detrae. 

The following prepositiona require de after them, when they are foUowed 
by a nocm or pronoun ; a»— 

That man comes after. 
Sir, he will go after you. 

Bee hombre vitne deepuee. 
Senor, 61 ird deepuee de V, 


Abo/e, iq>» 
Out of. 


d eereay al rededor, en tomo. 
d eerea de, al rededor de, en tomo de. 

dntee, delante. 






Within, in. 





On, upon. 



detrae, trae. 




They are daased as follows : — 





Neither, nor, 

y at i, 6} 

E » used instead of y when the following word begins with i or JU; as^ 

Wise men and ignorant. 
Mother and daughter. 
* Neitfaer he nor she went out, m* SI ni ella ealHrom. 


Sabioe S ignorantee. 
Madre 6 kija. 



Or, eith«r, ) 
WlMtber, S 

69 li, y«.» 

•M que. 


aun cuando. 


^ } ttun, euando. 

AJthoD^y though, minque. 

Whereas, forcMMi$ 

That, parafue. 

That, { fan que. 

Id Older that, ( &f.n dt. 



By, for. 



Wo to me ! 




porque, que, 
puee, puee que, 
par tanto. 






con toZfae. 




I So, 


puee, paeete ^' 


anno, aiiceme, 

i Ay I 


I Ay de mi i 

i He ! 
: Ea ! 
! Ola ! 


Take care! 




God grant! 

Viva I 

OjaU ! 




I. Words in a, e, al, or, ble, ion, eion, eie, are the same in both la»- 
goageo; as, diploma, epitome, foital, eolar, durable, Ofniwm, adkeno^ 

a. Words in ant, ent, ient, add an e ; as, ohsonrant, oheervanU : regent, 
regente; obedient, obediente, 

3. Words in ect, ii, id, il, add an o; as, select, eeleeto; aitic, eriti<»' 
placid, |iMcti2o; tranquil, tranquOo. 

4. Words in anee or aney change it into sncta ; and those in enee <» 
sney into encia ; as, tolerance, tolerancia ; constancy, pnidenca, adolescency. 

5. Words in acy, amy, emy, logy, ody, omy, ory, asy, e«y, change the J 

\U is employed instead of d, when the woid immediately fbUofwing '^ 
~* with or Ao ; as,— • 

Silver or gold. | Plau H erw. 


into M ; aa, effieaeyy infamy, academy, mythology, melody, economy, theory, 
ftnCasy, oomteay— ^e«»a, ^c. 

6. Those in ehy change it into quia ; and thooe in phy into Jia ; aa, 
monaichy, morunrquia; philosophy, ^Uoao/Eo. 

7. Words in ice change it into ieia ; as, avarice, avarieia. 

8 Words in ine, we, ire, change e into o ; as, divine, actire, severe — 
dtvino, j^, 

9. Those in tian change it into eion ; as, constitution, eonatitucion, 

10. Words in ty change it into dad, and sometimes add ttd instead of the 
y; as, activity, aetividad; majesty, magettad. 

11. Words in ory, ery, ory, change the y into to ; as, annivenary, afii- 
eersorto / baptistery, bautisterio ; laboratory, laboratorio. 

12. Wcxrds in (nu or toits, change ott» into oao ; as, famous, famoto ; 
deUcions, delieiomf. 

13. Latin words beginning with # followed by a consonant, either lose 
the #, or add an s ; as, soientia, cieneia ; spiritus, espiritu. 

14b Proper nouns in us change it into o ; as, Publius, PubUo ; Titos, 
Tito, (348.) Those in er change it into ro; as, Alexander, Alejandro, 
Those in o add n ; as, Cicero, Ciceron, Those in eo or on are the same in 
both languages. Noons having the diphthongs a, m, retain the e only ; as, 
JRuooB, Sneao ; CEdipus, Edipo; Cosar, Cesar, 


Syntax principally eonnsts of two parts. Concord {Concordaneia) and 
Government, {Rigimen,) 
Concord m the agreement' which one word has with another in gender, 


' Agreement is the similarity of words in numher, gender, &c. As the 
articles and adjectives admit of no variation of either in English, it will be 
proper to explain here what that word imports and requires in Spanish, 
which will be better understood by the following examples : — 

The rich man. 
The rich men. 
The rich woman. 
The rich women. 
A just man. 
Some just men. 
il just woman. 
Some just women. 

El hombre rico, 
Imo hombres ricoo. 
ha mojer riea, 
Laa mujeres ricao. 
Un hombre juoto. 
Unos homhrea juetoa, 
Una mu]er juata, 
Unas mnjena juetae. 

It will be observed by these examples, that the article the has no change 
in Engikh, and that el has four in Spanish. The same is the case with Um 
res rich ondjuot, and with the articles «ii and tmot. 


or peBHm. O 99 U m ou nt m that pover 
ipeech has over another in directing ita mood, tenn, or 
faif mlea contain the moit important of both. 

one port of 
The Ibiknr- 


RoLi 1. The article moat agree in number, gender, and caae, with the 
noun to which' it refeia ; aa, 

Qoiet aoli to de, pleaaant fields, aeiene 
weather, polling atreama, and 
trmnqtiillity of mind eontribate yery 
moch to die feeonditj even of the 
moat barren geniua. 

El 9a9ieg9, el lugm- apceiiU, la 
mmetddad de loa caaipea, U aere- 
nidad de loa ctcioa, el micrMsrar 
4t laa fuentes, la quiehtd del ea- 
fhritu mm grande parte para ^ue 
las miiast ma9 tsieriUa «e mtuM" 
tren fecundas, 

Don Quuotb, prot, pL l 

Oht, 1. The nouna o^no, (water,) agwUa, (eagle,) acta, (act, record,) 
imela, (anchor,) &ta, (wing,) alma, (aool,) ave, (bird,) ama, (the mistreaaof 
a honae, a booaekeeper,) and a few others, thoogfa feminine, reqoiie the 
maacoline article, bot only in the aingnlar nomber, and when they are im- 
mediately preceded by iL (985.) 

They quenched their thinrt in the EU09 bebieron del agna del orreya. 
water of the rivulet Don Quuotk, cap. xTiiL pL L 

Some other nouna feminine beginning with a, or Ha, having the fint 
eyllable long, are freqqently uaed in the aingular wttli the maaculine article. 
Tliia nae, however, ia not generally aancUoned ; and the greateat number of 
the elaario writen follow the rule laid down by the Spaniah Academy, that 
ezcepta only the above nouna. 

RuLB 9. The English indefinite article before national nouna, aa well 
aa before thoae that aignify the dignity, profesaion, trade, condition, &c, of 
persona, in the titles of books and other performancee, and in exclamations, 
t# not tranelated into Spaniah ; as, 

Hie Monaerrate of Cristobal de Vi- 
ruea, a Valencian poet 

It waa certainly known that Don 

Joan do Auatna waa appointed a 

general of the league. 
And ending in Zoilus or Zeuxia, 

thoogli (me was a backbiter, and 

the ^er a painter. 

El Moneerrate de Cristobal de Vi- 
ruee, poeta Valenciano. 

Don Quuotb, cap. vL pt i. 

Se wupo par eierto que venia par 
General deeta liga Don Juan de 
Austria. Ditto, cap. xxxix. 

Y eeabando en Zoilo, 6 Zeuxis, 
aunquefui maldidente el uno, y 
pintar el otro. Ditto, VrelL 

/ Que Idstima ! 

What a pity! 

Oho. 9. If the indefinite article be immediately followed by an adjec- 
tive emphatically «ed, it moat be tranaiated ; aa, 



Tlioe I obtained an enngii's com- 
miaioii in the company of a ja- 
moMM captain. 

Alemici A $er mlfirtx de unfi 

Don Qduotk» cap. xzziz. 

Oba. 3. Should a proper noun foDow that of the dignity, &c., the <2e/i- 
nite aiticle mnrt be affixed to it ; as, 

Whom continnally in onr Castillan 
language we call king Artns. 

Vice m hateful. 
Men are mortal. 
Virtue m amiable. 
Bichew shall not profit in the day of 

Que eontinuamente en nuewiro ro^ 
manee CasteUano llamamM el rey 
Artu9. Ditto, cap. ziiL 

RoLB 3. The definite article (el, &c.) is prefixed in Spaniah to all com- 
mcm BubstantiTee, when they are used to ezpress the whole extent of their 
tion ; which, for the same reason, do not require it in English ; as, 

El vicio ee aborrecible. 
Los komhree eon mortalee. 
Xa virtud ee amable. 
Las riquezae no aproteehar&n en eH 
dia de la venganxa* 

The nouns vice, menf mrtue, richee, are used as collectiye noons, and 
taken in a general sense ; that is to say, they mean that all Tices are hate- 
fal, all Tirtues are amiable, that all men are mortal, and that no richer can 
prerent the yengeance of God. 

OAs. 4. The article is retained in the phrase before the adjective, when 
a common noun, taken in the whole extent of its meaning, is omitted by 
eDipoa; as, 

Red wine is not so dear as white. El vino tinto no ee tan earo eomo el 

(▼ino) bianco. 

RoiA 4. Common nouns, used in an indetorminato sense, are used with 
or without the article, as in English ; as, 

He asks three dollars for the hat 
He asks for the three dollars, value 
of the hat 

El pide tree peeoe par el eombrero. 
El pide loe tree peeoe, valor del 

RuLB 5. When the names of the days of the week are used to mention 
the day with a reference to a certain day, they require the article ; as. 

Thursday before the Friday on which 
she was to remove to her father's 
garden, she gave us a thousand 

Eljuivee dntee delviSmee, que eUa 
ee habia de ir al jardin de eu 
padre, noe did mil eeeudoe, 

Don Quuote, cap. xL 

Caea, meaning home, and being preceded by a preposition, does not admit 
the article ; when it signifies kouee, it may be used with or without it ; as, 

Wife, I will show you them at home. 

En caea oe lae moetrari, mujer. 

Ditto, cap liL 

Calle (street) requires the article before it, and before its name if it ahould 
be a common noon ; as, 



Hs fifei at Paul ilnel, (in the itoaet 

of tha Peaii) 
Am ba antand St Jamaa atzeet in 


El Vive en la ealU de U PaU. 

Al entrar la caUe de Santiage ca 

D. QxJUOTB, cap. xItuL pt ii 
Rdlb & Tha EnglUi indefinite articla, before noaos of measure, weight, 
or fiiMi&er, 'm tranriatad by the definita article, according to the name it re- 
fan ta Tha prapoaitiona a or per are ■ometimea added, which may as w«& 
be omitted ; aa. 

Hiii braaddoth if worth ten doUan 
a yard. 

Bnttar aella at two 

« pound. 

Eeie pano vale diez peeoe vare, (or 
& diez peeoe la tara, or iiez pe- 
eoe por vara,) 
La manteca {mantequUla) ee veuie 
d doe realee libra, {la 2tira, orpn- 

Rou 7. Tha Engtirii definite article before oidinal nnmben, when 
they are immediately preceded by a aabetantiye, in quotations, diTtrion of 
hooka, namaa of dignity, dice., ia omitted in Spaniah ; aa. 

Book the lint, chapter the aecond, 

oaction the fifth, die. 
The inTinciUe Cbarlea the Fifth. 

Libro primerOf eapitulo eeguMde, 

pdrrafo quinio. 
El invictiainw Carloe quinUk 

D. QuuoTB, cap. xxziL 

Ohe. 5. When tha Englkh definite article px«cedea an adjectife oied 
aa an epithet before the nouns above stated, it must be translated ; as, 

Angnatna Caaar would have been in 
the wtong had he consented to 
the execution of what the divine 
Mantnan ordered on his death- 

No hulnera acertado Augueto Cew 
ei eonnntiera que ee pueiera « 
ejecucion lo que el divino JfofUV' 
arw dej6 en eu teetamento ordi' 
nado. D. Quuotk, cap. xiii. 

Rule 8. The article a, and the adjective one, are not translated befoTB 

hundred, thousand, million, half, &c. ; as. 

In the year one thousand, one hun- 
dred and one. 

He aaka, ar wants one yard and a 


En el aOo de mil, ciento, y ana* 
El neeeeiia, or quiere vara y aiedif' 

Rdli 9. Proper namea of persons and of countries do not admit tlie 
article ; the fonner, however, in a colloquial and very familiar use, take 
it; as. 

She waa caUed Toloaa. 8e llamaba la Toloea. 

Don Quuots, cap. iii- 
Ohe. 6. The nouns muerte, (death,) cielo, (heaven,) and the like names, 
take the article, except in exclamations or direct speeches ; as. 

If the power of death be your sub- 
jaot, apply <* PaUidm more,** dec. 

Si trat&redee delpoder de la naurte 
aeudid luego eon ** Pallida mom" 


RgWAKy. ** It t* th€ rnU tf cur kmguagtf (the Caalfliaii,) thai proper 
maun§ are not aeeompanied iy artieUg; excepting la Manoba, la CkK 
MTitA, LA HABANA."--<6xaiiimar of the CMtilian Language, by the Royal 
Spaniflh Academy, pait iL, ch. yL) The i»eceduig rale has been giyen in 
ooofaniuty with this deciaion of the Academy, which may be need as 
foOows: — 

The names of the countries that are not qualified by the adjectives old or 
new, upper or lower, &a, expressed or undenrtood, are generally used with- 
out the article ; as, 

Mexico. Mejico. \ Malta. MoZta. 

The names of the countries that are qualified by the said, or other adjec- 
tivee, when these are not expressed, may be used with or without the 
article ; as, America, or la Amhiea, (norte or sud.) Andahtda, or la 
Andaiucia, (alta or baja.) When the ai^ectiTe is expressed they require 
the article. 

The following are exceptions, and must always be used with the artide. 





A province of New Castile. 





Havana, &c. 

El Canadd. 
El Paraguay 
La Alearria, 
La Barhada. 
La Florida. 
El Ferrol 
La Coruna, 
La HabanOf j^. 

The article is omitted in the dates of letters written in the places above 

Oba. 7. Fkoper names of mountains and rivers take the definite mas- 
culine article, without regard to their termination ; as. 

Those who feed their flocks upon the 
qncious meads of the meandering 
Guadiana ; those who shiver with 
the chill Uasts of the whistling 

Loo que ou ganado apacientan en 
loo extendidao deheoao del tortu- 
000 Chtadianai loo que tiomblan 
con elfrio del oUbooo Pirinea 
Don Quuote, cap. xviiL 

Rule 10. When several nouns come together in English, with an arti- 
cle before the first of them only, the article is repeated before every one, 
especially when they are of diflferent genders, and a particular emphasis is 
placed on them. When they are used in English without any article, the 
same is done in Spanish, (372.) 

They mention the father, mother, 
country, relations, age, and ex- 
ploits performed by said knight 

JVos euentan el padre, la madre, Im 
patria, loo parieniee, la edad^ y 
lao haxoHao quo el tai cabaUoro 
hixo. IX Qmion, esp^ L 


Kout 11. The utksk ■ 

before noons med in B|ipontMn ; u, 

O Envy, the root of all evib, and the 
deatioyer of so many nitneo ! 

• O Enoidia, raix de injimU$ mtim 
y eureama de las virtitdet I 
DoM QouoTB, capb vm. pt il 

Boui 19. The definite maacnline article, angiilar or plmal, ii uBod be 
tee the adjeotiree taken sabetantiyely ; as. 

Hie wise man feareth and dedineth 

ftom eviL 
The expectation of the wicked ahall 

El 9abio feme y we denia del amL 
La e§peranxa de los impioe pereeeri. 

06t. 8. When a noon, qualified by an adjeetive, ie mppreflMd by eltip- 
aia» the article that precedes the adjectiTe most agree in number and gender 
with the noon that has been omitted ; as, 
Black and white are two opposite El negro y el hlaneo eondeecekret 

colorei opuestoe. 

That m, el color negro y el color bianco. 

Rule 13. The English definite article before adjectiyes need in an ib- 
solate sense, that is to say, comprehending in their meaning a generality of 
objects or things that may be masculine or feminine, singular or plnnli ii 
trandated by the indefinite pronoun lo ; (344,) as, 
Let no man judge the white Uack, Ninguno oe ponga djtagarlotlMet 

and the black white. por negro, y lo negro par blanee. 

Dow QuuoTC, cap. it. p. ii. 

RuLB 14. When the adjective todo (all, or whde) is placed before the 
sttbstantiTe, it requires the article after it, whether it be ezpreseed arnot ia 
Englidi; as, 

All men, or all the men. 
The whole assembly. 

Todae loe hombree. 
Toda la aoamblea. 

RxMAns. The meaning of many phrases depends on the use or onuaoa 
of the article. A few examples may elucidate this reooark. 

To set up a store. 

To open the store. 

To encourage, to support. 

To die. 

To miss one's aim. 

To be successf oL 

To have an evil tongue. 

To have the tongue aoro. 

Abrir tienda. 
Abrir la tienda, 
Dot el alma. 
Dor en bianco, 
Dar en el bianco, 
Tenermala lengua, 
Tener mala la Ungua. 

RoLi 15.— The a4)eetiye must agree with the substantiTe is gender and 
number; as, 

The yaliant boy. I El miackacko vaUenU* 

llie handsome giiii. * | Lao muehackaa AsnMMi* 



Oka, 9. An a^jeetire qualifying two or more nomui or {toiioiuifl of diiftr- 
ont frenden, in the Miigiilar> agreos with them in the maacnline 
in the ploral ; aa, 

The &ther and the oon are rich. 

The mother and the daoghter are 

He and she are generooa. 

The hooBe and the garden are mag- 

El padn y el hijo aon rieot. 

La madre y la hija aon kermomu. 

El y eUa 9on generoaoa. 

La easa y eljardin aon magtdfieoa. 

Oba, 10. Two or more adjectivea qoalifying a plara] noun, which aignifiea 
them aa separately considered, agree with it in the singular ; as, 

She ia unexcelled by Helen, nnri- 
▼ailed by Lneretia, or any other 
heroine of ages past, whether Gre- 
cian, Roman, or Barbarian. 

A ella no la Uega Elena, ni la al^ 
eanxa Lucreeia, ni otra alguna 
de laa famoaaa mujerea, g«< oi- 
miron en laa edadea frethiiaa, 
griega, latina, 6 b&rbara. 

Don Quuotc, cap^ xzr. ' 

Oha. 11. An adjectiye qoalifying two or more nouns of inanimate objeota 
or things, having diflforent gender and number, generally agieeo with the 

A union which the equality of our Union que eaai la eoncertaha la 
family and richea seemed to point igualdad de noeatro linaje, ^ 
out riquezaa 

Don Quuote, cap. zzir 

Oha. 13. A noun of the femmine gender in the ploral, being in the same 
phraae with a noun masculine in the singular, having but one adjective, 
the aiyective agreea in the plural, and in the masculme temiination, if the 
verii agreea with the plural noun ; aa. 

His promisea and his oath have been 

Sua promeaaa y au juramento han 
aido falsos. 

In such cases it is better to place the plural noun next the adjective, and 
make the agreement with it ; thus — 8u juramento y aua promeaaa han aido 

Rule 16. — An adjective qualifying two or more plural nouns or pronouns, 
of di^rent genden, agrees with them in the masculine termination in the 
plural; as. 

Both the brothers and sisten are 1 Tanto loa hermanoa, como laa her" 
charitable. | manaa aon earitativoa. 

Oha, 13. This rule is strictly observed when the noons or pnmoonc signify 
animate objects ; but when the nouns signify inanimate objects or things, 
dasno authors, both ancient and modem, generally make the aiQectiva 
agree with the nearest substantive ; as. 

Yonr wonliip mmt be out of your 
said Sancha 

466 APPKimix. 

fSm» temaret y etpermusa fnenn 
Sos oipenuixas y Umarf fuhnn. « 
Vaiias fu^nm mis eflpenmas y temont. 
VawMfmirwn «■« Um&rt9 y efpemsM 

Happy were my boon, my days, DiekMOM eran mu hm-M, «at Hm, 
and my yeaxn y mU anos, 

Don Quuotb, cap. liiL ^ fi. 

RuLM 17.~An adjective referring to Usied, (you,) Una, (your lonfahip 
or ladyship,} &c., most agree in gender with that of the person spoken of or 
to» without any regard to the termination of these noons ; as, 

If your lordship would be (leased to ' Si vueatra Senariafuewe 9enido it 
bestow OB me, dec. darmet ^. 

Don Quuotk, cap. zlii pt ii. 
Fiiestra mereed debe de to- mtn- 
gvmdo, dijo Saneko. 

DUto, dUto. 

RcTLB la — The English poesessiTe case with the *s, is translated hf 

jmitting the '«, setting the preposition de (of) before the word to which the '« 

^as annexed, and placing the noail which is the last in the £logli8h sentttooe 

Ihe &nA m the Spanish translation, with the correqwuding article ; and le- 

Toiaing in the same manner the order of the other nouns ; as. 

He has read Pope's works. > 

He has read the works of Pope. \ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^ 

If thore be more than two snbstantiyes, the last in English most be the 
first in Spanirii ; as. 

His brother's partner's boose. I La coma del eompanero de n her- 

I snano. 
0&& 14. In Englirii the sign 's is freqoently used instead of the noon of 
a place, boose, office, store, &c, where a thing has happened or been done, 
which being omitted by eUipsis, it is perfectly understood by the whole of 
the aentence ; but the noun thus omitted must always be expressed in 
Spanvh; as, j r 

Sancho figured to himself that ho 
would find at her's, (the duchess's 
house,) what he had found at Don 

's and Baail*sL 

A Sancho se U figuraba que kebia 
de haUar en ella, (la case de la 
duquesa,) lo que habia kallado en 
la casa de Don Diego, y en lade 

Don Quuotb, cap^ xzxi. pt il 

•leXL^il^'^to" "^"^ ""^ ^^ masculine gender, in the ploia] nomber, 
The dnke and dm^ •^P""* *»*h gondere ; as, 

-«i-W with thT<AL*!l^'''j I ^^'^f^^^' ^ ^^V^ deUcoMO. 
to their easde. «»toiied I voloi^ron 6 au eaatilh. 

I Don Quuotb, capL 



RuuE 90« — ^Adjectives ugiiifying dime]iaion» nicb u deep, high, law, 
lomgt wide, thick, &c., require the preposiUon de between them and the 
number, and alao after the sabstantive they refer to ; and the veib tohe m 
tnuoslated by Uner, (290 ;) as, 

They have a room twenty-four feet 
long, twelve wide, and fifteen 

Elloe tienen un apoeento (enaiio) de 
veinticuatro piee de largo, doee 
de aneho y quimee de aUe* 

Tlie a4JectiveB in such caaea are nsed only in the aingnlar number, and 
in the maacnline gender. 

Oia. 15. When the noons, length, width, height, &c., are made use of, 
they must be preceded by the preposition de ; and they may be translated 
as substantives or adjectives ; as. 

The Giralda of Seville is 300 feet in 

La Giralda de SeviOa tiena 300 
de piee alto, (or de altwra,) 

Rule 3lw — ^The adjective is to be always placed after the noun or nouis 
it qualifies ; as, 

Take notice, doctor, that from hence- 
forth you need not to take the 
trouble to provide dainty and deli- 
cate dishes for me. 

Mirad, doctor, de aqtti adelante no 
oe cureie de darme a comer oosas 
regaladae, ui manjares exqvieitoe, 
D. Qouorn, cap. zlix. pt ii. 

Obe. 16. When a particular emphasis is laid on the adjective, it is gene- 
rally placed before the substantive ; as. 

The limpid fountains and murmuring 
rills afibrded them their savory and 
transparent waters in magnificent 

Lae clarae fuentee, y corrienUo rioo 
en magnifica abundaneia eahroeae 
y traneparentee aguae lee of redan. 
D. QuuoTE, cap. zL pt l 

When one of two or more adjectives qualifyiug a substantive is more em- 
phatically used than the other, or othere, it is generally placed before the 
noun, and the other adjective after it ; as. 

My good young lady, have pity on a 
poor fugitive slave. 

Caritativa Seiiorita mia, eompadc' 
eeoe de una pobre eeclaoa fugi" 
tiva. Db AlIa. 

Rule 23. — ^The adjectives uno, (one,) alguno, (some,) ninguno, (none,) 
are always placed before their substantives ; and when they are immediate- 
ly followed by a masculine noun, or adjective in the singular, they drop the 
e. The same do bueno, malo, (12,) primero, and tereero, (46.) Chrande, 
(97, 261,) ciento, (139,) and eanto suppresB the last syllable ; as. 

As I was one day in Mercen street, 

in Toledo. 
Although the composition of it cost 

me eome trouble. 

Estando yo un dia en el Aicana de 
Toledo. D. QuiJOTE, cap. iz. 

Aunque me coetd algun trabajo 
componerla. Ditto, Preface. 

Obe. 17. Vno drops the o also before substantives in the plural ; as, 
They could not find one in twenty- i EUoe no pudii^n hollar one «n w 
one days. , | 

intiun diae. 

' Boui S9^--TIm peiwQAl pnmooBi «iif;>e(, or in the nonuiiatiTO 
ftvqoMidj omittad, (14,) eipeettUy in ooUoqnial ityle, nolMi s pafticobr 
emphMM m laid od thenit or it is naeeavy to ezpres tliom in order to ayoid 
•mbigoity, which may happen by their omiwinn in the fintand thinl peBnn 
■nfular of the imperfect tenae of the indicatiTe* and of the imperfect 
of the eohionctiTe mood of all the yerte ; as, Pensaba emmfrar la 
which phraae may aignify, ** I thoafht, or he thouffat to boy the hooae,'* fat 
the want of the pronouiHi ye or ^t 
We know thai thou wait at Algiera. 

8Mm9i»9 que ettdboM en ArgeL 

D. QuuoTS, cap. zll 
Ye veU'Cmando H duermee, ye Uen 
H camime. 

Ditto, capL zL pt ii 

Rdlb 94^— Jftf, thee, kim, ftc^ mwt be tiandated me, te, le, &c., when 
they are the immediate object of the Toib ; aa, 

I walch while thou ait ileeping. 
weep while then ait ainging. 

Ab aooB aa ahe aaw me, riie told me, 
be not oneaay, my friend. 

An eemo eUa me otd me dije .- 90 
te fiir6e#, cmige, 

D. QouoTB, eapi zzriL 
Aquien ae kwmUa, Dioe le enaalara. 

Ditto, capi XL 

Ohe, 18. Him, her, them, you, (when refeiring to saleif,) being the 
diieot object of a pronomioal or reflective Teib, moat be tranriated ae; aa. 

Ho that ia humble, God will exalt 

And a great friend of hia dreaaed 
himaelf alao aa a ■hepherd. 

y juntomente ae eitltd eon H de 
paetor otro eu grande amigo, 
D. QuuoTB, cap. xiT. 

O&a. 19. Me, him, her, you, &e., being the indirect objective, or com- 
plement of a reib goremed or preceded by a preposition expreand or du- 
deiitood, are trandated mi, H, ella, &c, liter the preposition, (aee Table of 
Ptononna, p. 70.) Except ehoold the preposition be d, for then they are 
generally tranriated me, le, &c, without the preposition, and frequently re- 
peated with it before ml and il, to give more energy to the frfirase ; aa. 

He was informed of the departure, 

though not by me. 
For her I foiaook my father's house. 

He keeps him here enchanted, aa 
well aa myself. 

El oupo la partida, y no de mi, 

D. QouoTi, cap. xltiL 
Por ella deje la eaea de mi padre. 

Ditto, ditto. 
Tihtele aqui encantado, coma me 
tiene d mi 

Ditto, cap. xxiii. pt ii. 
Bulk 25^— Aa Aim, her, it, them, you, (usted,) may be in Englidi the 
ohjeet or the complement of a verb, paiticular care most be taken to distin- 
golrii these caaes. When they are the object of the yerb they are trana- 
lated le, la, loo, or 2aSi according to the gender and number of the noun or 
pnMMNm they atand for When they are the comploment, or indueot olgee- 



tire cawj th«y mart be ezpraHed by <c in the Mngolor, and 2c« in the 
plonJy for both f^ndeis ; as. 

Ha pfortfated liim <m the ground. 

The companions who law them mk 

And we who know her. 

Don Qnlzote called Saneho to ghre 
him his hebnet 

The hoateflB recounted to them what 
had haj^ned in her honee be- 
tween him and the mnleteer. 

Don Qoixote asked her what was 
her name. 

Bnt the deeds which they (the maids) 
had seen kept their mirth ander 
the rein. 

El U derribd en el auelo. 

D. QcruoTi, cap. iiL 
£os compaHero9 que talew loe vieran. 

Ditto, ditto. 
Y low qtie la conoeemoa. 

Ditto, cap. zii. 
Don Quijote Uamd d Saneho que 
vinieoe d darle la eelada. 

Ditto, ditto. 
La huiepeda Uo eontd lo quo eon il 
y eon el arriero lee habia aeontO' 
eido. Ditto, cap. sozii. pL L 
Don Quijote le preguntd eomo ee 

Uamaba. Ditto, cap. iii. 

Pero laa proexae que ya hahian visto 
(las doncellas) les tenian la riaa d 

raya. Ditto, ditto. 

In order to prevent the ambiguity that in some phrases may result, the 
pronoons el ella, &c., are repeated ; as, 

Hedeliyered the letter to him, (to El le entregd la earta d il, {d ella.) 

RciiB 26. — Mimno (self) is sometimes added- to the doods or proooons to 
give them particular energy. It changes its termination, like any other ad- 
jective, according to the number and gender of the noun or pronoun it re- 
fers to, and is placed near it ; as. 

Without money, Alexander himself 
most have seemed frugal. * 

Sin hacienda Alejandro mimno pa- 
reeiera eetreeho. 

D. QinjoTC, cap. zzzix. 

RuuB 27^ — The neuter pronoun it, is used in English to represent objects 
or things that by nature are neither male nor female ; and even animals, 
when their gender is not known. In Spanish all common nouns are either 
masculine or feminine, na has been explained in treating of gender ; con- 
sequently the pronoun it, and its' plural them, must be translated el, elloo, 
ella, eliae, with the respective variation of the cases of said persons. The 
scholar, therefore, must be careful to ascertain the gender and case of the 
noun to which it refers in English before translating said pronoun ; as, 

El leyd el proyeeto, y U aprobd. 
Ella reeibid la earta, y la conieotd. 

He read the project, and approved it 

She received the letter, and answer- 
ed it 
Obo. 20. — ^When the pronoun it is redundant in a phrase» it must not be 

translated. It is redundant when it is used instead of the words that come 

after the venby and which constitute its aubjeet or objeet ; as, 

40 • 



/f «aiMitlierof< 
ikmt bodily exareiae i» amdueme 

Bammteria de emutamU 
que el ejereieio carpark et 
eetUe a la eabid. 

In whieh phnae the natunl order ■ : that bodily exereiaa ia eanduaee 
ta kemlikt ia a matter of eomaimnt experianee. 

Itf refening to the yeihi, or to phnaee and eentencee to which no gender 
emn be applied, is trmmlated by the pzonoan lo ; and when it ia to be placed 
alter a piepoMtion in Spanish, by ella; as. 

Tlie gallant Aepheid begged him to 
accompany them to their tente; 
Don Quixote was fain to comply 
with U, and accordingly did af sow 

Whoever apenda hia time iU, eooner 
or later will repent of tt 

El gallatda paatar la pidid qme at 
mmeae can el a ama tieadaa; kA- 
bolo de eoneeder Dan Qicyete, y 
lui lo kixo. 

D. QouoTB, capu xlTnL pt it 

Quienquiara qua emplea mad el 
IwMpe, tearda 6 ta mp rm m a ae arre^ 
pantwd de ella 

it, m the hnpemnal redm (aa has been already explained) ■ not tzana- 
lated; aa, 

It rains, llueve, | It is cold, haeefria, &«. 

In the phrases tf ia aaid, they aay, it ia rumored, du;., the pronoons it and 
they are not translated : the veib is placed in the third perK>n singalar, pre- 
fixing the pronoon se to it, or ia the third peiaon ploral without any pr»- 
noun; as. 

As they say, let the dead go to the 
bier, and the living to good cheer. 

y como dicen, vdyose el mticrfs a 
la aepuUura, y el eios d la hagm- 
xa, Don Qouora, cap^ xix. 

RoLi 28^ — ^When two or more objective cases of the pronoons occur in the 
same phrase, they most be airanged in the following order: se ia to be 
placed before all otheia ; then ms, te, Hot, or oa; in the third place, Ze, Iss 
la, laa, Ua ; and el, ella, dec., with a preposition, the last of all ; aa. 

He gave H (a book) to them. \ElaeU (on libro) di6 A ellaa. 

Ruut 99. Wka, coming inmiediately after its antecedent, is translatad 
que ; when it stands by itself, or is governed by a prepositioii, it is rendered 
by quien; as, 

Sancho came oat to receive the 
commands of Don Quixote, who 
had sat down upon a bench. 

Sancho aaU6 6 ver lo que le 
daba Don Quijote, que eataha 
aentado aobre un poyo. 

DoK QuiJOTK, cap. lix. pt n. 
Un eatudiante i qnien diateia eueuia 
de vueatroa penaamientaa fui el 
que lo deacubri6. 
Don QuuoTX, capw xliv. pt ii 
Which, that, or any other tvro relative pronoons, being in the same sea- 
enoe. the second may be translated eual, with the eoa a a pan d Ung utiels^ 

A stadent to whom yon imparted 
yonr intentions, was he who dis- 
closed it 



to sfoid the rapetitioa of the mae pnmoan, nnlen a perticnhtf emphtwii is 
pieced on it; as. 

The fint peraoo (whom) I met, was 
father, who said to me. 

Lm primera permma eon* qoien «n- 
eontre fafi sa padre, m cnal me 
dijo. Don Quuotk, cap. xlL 

Ofta. 31. When these pronoons are goremed by a preposition, loAom Is 
nsnally translated quien or eual, with reference to persons ; and que, and 
sometimes cual, with the coiresponding article, qieaking of animals or 
things; as, 

Par eierto, SeH&r Don Lute, que 

correeptmde Men 4 quien voe eoie 
el K&bito qao teneie, y la eama en 
que oe hallo, 

Don Qoxjots, cap. xIit. 

RuLB 30^ — He who, $he who, they who, thoee who, are translated el que, 
la que, he que, lae que, and eometimes, for the sake of energy, aquel que. 

Indeed, Signbr Don Lois, it soits 
well to whom you are the dress 
yoa wear, and the bed in which 
yoa now lie. 

Both she, and he who accompanied 

Tkm Fernando, and thoee who came 

with him. 

Aei ella eomo el que la aeompailaha. 

Don Quuotb, cap. zxxyii. 
Don Fernando y los que eon SI ee- 
nian. Ditto, cap. zxj:Ti. 

Ohe. 22. What, when it is the same as that which, is translated lo que ; 

He coold see it, for through what 
migfat be termed the roof, entered 
a stream of light 

Piidolo ver, porque por lo que oe po* 
dia Uamar teeho, eniraba un rayo 
de aoh 

Don Quuotk, cap. Iv. pt ii. 

Rous 31. — Relative pronouns are called interrogative when they are 
employed to make a question. They are translated in the same manner as 
the relative pronouns. Which, referring to more than one objecTt, is trans- 
lated eual or cualee ; as, 
Who was the ignorant wretch who ' i Quien fuS el ignorante que firmd 

signed such a warrant ? { tal mandamiento ? 

What knight-errant ever paid tax or i Que eabaUero andante pag6 peeho, 
custom ? 6 alcabala ? 

Don Quuotk, cap. xlv. 
I Quien (or eual) de elloe (or ellae) 
vendrd ? 
Whieh of the two will you have 7 i i Cual de loe (or lae) doe quiere V. ? 

I Q^ien llama a la puerta f 
^ Quien llama? 
i Quien eetd ahi? i Quien ee ? 

* Oho. 93. When the intenogation begms by a preposition, the answer mnii 
bsgin by the same pieposition ; as, 

Which of them wiU come 7 

Who knocks at the door7 

1 > 


X - 




that i e| ireBe n t» the penon of the poMeawr, praeeded by ^0, k to be 
re p eated after it, or oaed in ite itead ; ae, Send me hia (book, m. &)— JBn- 
vicflw V. el 9uyo de el; at better, el de il alonei 

PoMiBMi?e pRmoona most be repeated before every Bobetantiye in a aen- 
teiioe, though not ezpreand in Engiiah ; aa. 

He bought hiahat and glovea in Jdin El campr6 au eombrero y mu guau' 

tea en la ealle de Juan, 
Dejadme Uegar al arrimo de quien 
no me kan podido apartar vuewtraa 
importunaeione9f wuatraa amena" 
goBf vueetraepnmeeaetnivuegirae 
D. QcjuoTX, cap. zzzvi. pt ii. 

BaSeit me to avail myaelf of the prop 
fiom which yon could not disen- 
gage me with all your importunl- 
tiesy threata, ptomiaea, nor preaenta 


RuuB 33.^ — A verb having aeveral pronouns of different penona ioi ita 
aubjecty (nominative,) moat agree in the plural with tho firrt of H^m in or- 
der; aa, 

Tou, he, and I will do it. 
Thou and she wrote welL 

V. el y yolo karemoe. 
Tii y ella eecribiateie bien. 

In the fint example the veib ia placed in the fint penran plural, beeauae 
the pronoun /, together with the other two, ia the same aa toe; and in the 
aecond, beeauae the two prononna may be ezpreaBed by you. 

lliey left 2ioraida and me by our- 
selvea, and we are going to see 
whether my father ia atill alive. 

Soloe quedamoe Zoraida y yo, y 
vamoM eon intencion de ver oi mi 
padre ea vivo, 

D. QuuoTB, cap. zL 

The penon speaking, out of civility always names himself the last 
When Uated and a pronoun of the third penon singular form the subject 
of a veib, the verb is in the third penon plural ; as. 

Yon and he saw them. | Uated y il loa vieron, 

Ofta. 24. A verb having for a subject a noun in the aingnlar, that oom- 
prehenda in itself the sense of the other subjects of the same verb preceding 
it, should it be the last, or the nearest to the verb, must agree with it in the 
singQlar; aa, 
80 that the solitude of the place, the 

darkneas of the night, the noise of 

the water and rustling of the 

leaves, all together, caused horror 

and dismay. 

Oho, 95. When the subject is a 

De manera que la aoUdad, el oitio, 
la oacuridadf el ruido del agua 
eon el auourro de loo hqjaOf todo 
causaba horror y eapanto. 

D. QnuorcB, cap. xx. pt i. 

common noun plural, in which the 

ia included, the veib is placed in the firrt penon plural $ a% 




T%e SpaniafdB, wbenever they have 
■ choice, iodine to that which ii 


4k U moM 

eleeekm, noe incl 

Sold, lib. iii. cap. tdL 
OhM. 26. Two or more sobjects of different number, oomiected by u 

advenatiTe conjonctioo, reqoire that the yerb ehall agree with the laA of 

them ; aa. 

Not only the mother and the daugfa- No nlamente la madrt y Iom k^M, 
tera, but the father aleo wae then sino fonftien el padre habia inn«r- 
dead. to entdneee, M'Hsiolt. 

Rura 34. — Collective noune definite^ or mich aa denote a dotemibiato 
number of pereons or things, require the yerb in the nngnlar ; ae, 

I Veo aquella polvareda 7 Teio e» 
cuajada de un copioeUimo ejireite 
de diveroaa 6 innumerahltBgenUtt 
que por alll viene marckando, 
D. Q0UOTB, capu xt£ 

thou that cloud of dost 7 The 
whole of it is raised by a yast 
army of yarious and innumerable 
nations that are marching that 

Collective noune indefinite' mwA have the yerbs in the plural ; as, 

Cofno quiera que ello eea, esta gente, 
aunque los lleyan, yan de for 
fuerxa, D. Qnuors, capi zxn. 

Be that as it may, these people are 
carried, but not yoluntarily, they 
are driyen by force. 

Baiticular care, howeyer, must be paid to the logical sense of the phrase, 
for it may sometimes require the singular ; aa. 
The greatest number of the peopU | La mayor parte de la gente del eat- 

of the casUe, who did not know ! tillo que no sabia la verdad dd 

the truth of the case, toere sur- i caeo estaba snspensa y admirada. 

prised and astonished. I jy, Quuote, cap. riri. pL ii. 

Roi,a 35— -An actiye tranatiye yeih requires the noun that ■ the object 
or Its action, in the objecUye case ; and the preposition d must besides be 
prefixed to it. when the said object signifies a peraon or thing pcncmified, or 
«• « proper noon ; as, 

Don Fernando, Cardenio. Lucinda. 
and Dorothea were struck dumb 
wiu. aatoniriiment. gazing in «. 
fence to oba .....a.^ b "* w 

to one aaoCfaer. 

^by"^.^°*' «^°"^°5r and sloth 
by t«nper«neo and watchfuhit 

Next year he attacked the Goleta, 

^^' 87. The pmpooitkm A' ' ^ta. 
Henoini.. — • * **'* '*nt it m reoniw^ K-r 

; a% 

Callahan todos, y miriibanae todot, 
Dorotea 6 Don Fernando^ Dm 
Fernando & Cardenio, Cerdewm 
& ZMocinda, y Ijwtocinda i Cerie' 
*>»• D. QiTUOTB, cap. znri 

Hemoe de conquietar d la gula y al 
suedo en el poco comer, y en el 
fnueho velar. Ditto, cap. riii. 
£1 aOo aiguiente acometi6 4 la Go- 
leta. Ditto, cap. zzxix. 

pronouns me, te, ae, as*, 
'«qaired beforo the other cans of «id 


My beraty oompeb you to kwe me. 

Who would giTo theo iilands to gov- 

A que MB amma ct mneve mi Aer- 

mo9ura. D. Qouotb, cap. ztr. 
I Quien to kabia de dor 4 tf m2m 
que gobenutr? 

Ditto, cap. Uv. pL it 
Obe. 28. Acthre-tranaitiTe, and even inUannthre Yerfaa, and those eigniiy- 
ing to adhere^ to accede to, &c, require the prepomtiom d, eren before other 
objects, to prevent ambiguity ; as* 

The old man found a little kid that 
its mother had lost 

El viefo haUd un eabrUo que hubia 
perdido d eu madre. 

Oie, 29. An active-transitiYe verb, having both as object and complement 
two nouns or pronouns, signifying rational beings/both cases requiring the 
preposition a, suppresses it before the object direct, and reUins it before the 
object indirect or complement ; as, 

My dear father, I recommend to yon 

the innocent Laura. 
I am not your daughter, you have 

taken away from me my husband. 

Querido padre, yo o» recomiendo la 

inocento Laura. 
Yo no eoy vueetra hija, voo me Ao- 
heie quitado mi esposo. 

JovsLLANOs, El DeUneuente, 
[act V. Bc« 3, 5- 

RuLB 36. The present of the infinitive mood in English, used substan- 
tively as a subject or object of another verb, does not admit any preposition 
before it in Spanish, and frequently takes the article el ; as. 

Siempre he oido decir que el hacer 
bien a vUlanoe, es echar agua en 
el mar. 

D. QuiJOTE, cap. zziii. 

Yojuro ir con voe. 

I have always heard it said, that to 

confer benefits on base-minded 

people ie like throwing water into 

the sea. 
I swear to go with you. 

Ditto, cap. 

06s. 30. The verbs, itill, ehaU may, could, &c., when they are not 
auxiliary, but expressed by querer, deber, or poder, govern the verb that 
IbOows immediatoly after them in the present infinitive without a preposi- 
tion; as, 

I eoM do no less than answer him. 

He would not pass these things in 

No pude dejar de reeponderle, 

Don Quuotb, cap. xxxii. 
El no qniso pasar ettae coeas en si- 
Undo. Ditto, cap. xvi. 

RuLS 37. — ^Verbs implying, to move, to hegin, to compel, to teach, to 
learn, to exhort, to invite, to assist, to oppose, to accustom, &c., govern 
the verb that depends on them in the present of the infinitive mood, and 
generally require the preposition ^ ; as. 

The innkeeper returned to see what 
his guest commanded. 

El venUro volvid d ver lo que su 
huesped mandaba. 

Don Quuotb, cap. il 


Tha oonqMUBMiM of the woandad he- Jm eMtjMJierM ife bt KeniM e^ 
^•n la difcAorg-e a flhoweroffloiM menx^itm 4 DoFer piediu apftn 
upon Don QoucotA. Hon Qii^ofe. D.Qnii.cap.E 

O&f. 31. Verbo implyuig mofton, gorom the noon or Fezb, denoting from 
whence the motkm proceeds^ with dt ; the noan or yerb which pointi oat 
Its diiection, with it ; and the nopn oiproimg' the ipace throogh wliidL it 
pOMfw, with par ; as, 

I come from the city of Baeza, in 

company with eleren other priests, 

and we are going to the city of 

As he entered the street of St Jago, 

in Madrid, a judge was coming 

through it 

RouK 38^— The jprssenX or active participle in English, being afcqe in the 
phrase, must be literally translated ; as. 
So saying, she entered into the thick- Y en dieiendo esto, ee entr6 en It 

eat part of a wood. maa cerrado de un hoepu, 

Don QuuoTB, cap. m. 

Obe. 32. The Englid) present participle, referring to a noun that if an 
object of the former yeih, may be translated in the gerund, in the infinitiTe, 
or on the indicative mood, according to the sense of the phrase ; as, 

Vengo de la ciudad de Beexeem 
atroa once aaeerdotes, y Tamoi i 
la ciudad de Segovia, 

.Don Quuotk, cap. xix. 

Al antrar en la ealle de 8aniiag9 n 
Madrid^ venfa 4 salir par eUasa 
Alcalde, Ditto, cap. xlm 

Yo vi d loe muehaehoe jugando, (v 
jugar, or quejugaban.) 

I saw the boys playing, (that b, 
whilst they were playing.) 

Ohe. 33. Words ending in English in ing, prefixed to a common noon, 
are used as rerbal adjectives ; and they are most frequently translated by 
the Spanish participles terminating In ante or iente; as. 

Un padre amante, 
Un kijo obediente, 
ha asamblea constituyeatet 

A loving father. 

An obedient son, 

The constituting assembly, 

fiom the verbs amar, obedeeer, eonatituir. But as not all the SpsniA 
▼erhs have active participles, and as verbal adjectives in anU or iente esn- 
not be formed of all of them, the learner, before translating the Eogliih 
words terminating in ing, must consult the dictionary m order to find out 
the proper word to be used in the translation ; as. 

An aflfecting scene. 
Meddling people. 

Presuming ideas. 

Una eeeena eenaible, (not afeetaate.) 
OenU eniremetida, (not eatreme- 

Ideas preauntuoeaa, (not presvanes- 

0*fc34. A substantive, compounded of a present participle and a coBiiiM* 
— " gwieraUy translated by a particular name ; a^ 
A apoaking-trampet | Una 


It m abo agpriwwd by the infinithre mood of the veih, and even by a nb* 
itantiTe deriyed from it, preceded in either case by the preposition de; w^ 

A repeatinj^'Watch. 
A fishing-rod. 

Un reloj de repetieion, 
Una cana de pesear. 

HuLE 39^ — ^The English pieQent or active participle, being preceded by a 
preposition, is translated by the present of the infinitive mood after the same 
preposition ; as. 

Wilt thou still penist, Saneho, in 
saying, thinking, believing, and 
affirming, that Dolcinea was em- 
ployed in snch a mean object ? 

I Que todavia dot, Saneho, en decir, 
en pensar, en cieer, y en afirmar 
que Duleinea estaba oeupada en 
tan vU qfieio ? 

Don Quuote, cap. viil 
Ohw. 35. When the preposition is by, the English participle is frequently 
translated by the Spanish gerund, suppressing the preposition ; as, 

And by doing it you will oblige him 

to sign the deed. 
He loot his place by speaking too 


Y haciindolo, V, le ohligara a fir- 
mar la eeeritura. 

El perdid au plaxa por htAlar can 
denuuiada libertad. 

Oho. 36. The English present participle used substantively with an 
article, is translated either as a substantive or in the present of ^e infinitive 
mood with the article ; as. 

The commencing of a thing is as 
good as half completing it 

El comenzar la§ eoeae e« tenerlae 
medio aeabadae. 

D. QuuoTB, cap. zlL 
Ofrs. 37. When the present participle of the verb to be, (being,) followed 
by a past participle, points oat the action expressed by the latter as present 
and continuing, it is translated by the verb eetar in the corresponding 
tense, preceded by the pronoun ee, and the past participle is rendered by the 
Spanirii gerund ; as. 

To let, one of the two houses now 
being finished in Pearl street 

Se alquila una de la$ doe caeae, que 
se estan acabando en la ealle de 
la Perla. 

Hie following rules are devoted to the explanation of the tenses that 
daim particular notice : no mention, theref<He, is made of those of which 
the literal translation is sufficient ' 

RuuB 40w — As the tense called in English the Imperfect of the Indica^ 
ttM, may be translated into Spanish by the Imperfect Tenee, N. 3, or by 
the Preterit Indefinite, N. 3, as* it has been explained in Lesson XL, 
pages IST'-S, to the directions therein given the following explanations are 
added, the better to elucidate this subject 

1. When the imperfect tenae in Engliah expresses an action or a state 
of things that was going on at some time past, but was still unfinished or ia* 
ooopleto, it most be translated in the imperfect tenee in Spaniek ; a% 



In a town of Ia Maooha there Imed 

a fenttoman He maintained a 

female houeekeeper turned of for- 
' ty, and a niece who woe not quite 

Eh ten lugar de la Maneha vim n 

hidalgo .Tenia e« m mm bm 

ninn, que panba de Ue ciMreiOo, 
y vnn Marina fve no llegaba a iM 
vetnl«. D. QouoTX, cupu L 

9. Thii tenee denoten a former progreanye atate of existence; ai, 

Yo U dije que pensaba en elfrtltp. 
D. QuuoTK, Prefaet, 

I told him I thought abont the pre- 
Tliat ie to say, I was thinking. 

3. It eiqprenea a time praMnt, with loipect to another p«^ or that non- 
thing was heing done at a time m which another cacnmfltanoe happened; 

He died on the road to Constantino- 
ple, whither they were earrying 

El mari6 en el eamina de Goulfa- 
tinapUh adonde le lUvehemeaO' 
tivo. D. QuuoTB, cap. zxxii. 

4. It denotee the lecnrrence or repetition of an action, at a time which ii 

gentleman, the honn that Eete dieho hidalgo loe ratei fee 

he wDoe at leisore, (which were the eataba oeioeo, (jque eran lot net 

greateot part of the year,) he ad- del one,) <e daba a leer Ubnt it 

dieted hinuelf to the reading of CabaUeriao. 

the books of chivalry. D. Quuors, cap. I 

5. The customs, habits, characters, professions, or occupations of Individ- 
nab, when they are no longer in existence, or have undergone some change 
or alteration, are expressed by the imperfect ; as, 
He waa of a rongh constitution I El era de complexion rtcia Jf " 

and lOos called Quijana. 

llamaba Quijana. 

D. QuuoM, c^ t 

El eura de au lugar era komkt 
oabio. Ditto, ditto. 

Pero Maeoe Nicolas, ipu tn d 
barbero del miemo pueblo, dedi 
que ninguno ignalaba al eebeUao 
dol Feho. Ditto, dUte. 

The curate of his village wao a 

learned man. 
But Master Nicholas, who wao the 

barber of the same Tillage, affirm" 

ed that none of them equalled the 

Knight of the Sun. 

6. TTie Terfas that imply oontmnance, or that express a state of tog* 
that was contained for some tune or period, without any reference to the 
eommencement, duration, or end of the action which they eqxesB, mwt be 
translated by the imperfect tenoe ; as. 

He wao a native of Calabria, and En Calahreo de naeion, ytrataba 
treatad his slaves with great hn- can mueha humamdad o w ow- 
mamty. ,,.^, ^ ^ Qouora, cape xlfr. 

DonAntonio Moreno tens ealUd Don Antonio Moreno oe llamaba el 
£oii Quixote's enteitaowr, and he I hmoopod de Don Qa^, y •«"■ 
••'^ to find means, &c I huoeando medioo, Ac 



RiMitif. — It may, therefore, be conriderad as a mle, that whenever the 
Eogikh imperfect temie may be expreend by the yerb to be and the present 
participle of the same verb, or by the verbs used to, in the habit oft oc- 
euMiomed to, dec, preserving the sense of the phrase, it must be translated 
in Spanish by the imperfect tense. 

Bat as the imperfect tense is frequently expressed in English by the anx- 
ilisry veib did, the scholar, before translating the principal verb, moat as- 
certain whether did means at that time or then, expressing the action as 
entirely finished and completed, without requiring any other verb; or 
whetiier the verb following did may be rendered by to be and the preoeni 
ptartieipU, as explained in the preceding paragraph. If the verb to which 
did is prefixed may be translated by the verb to be and the present parti- 
cqtle, the verb must be translated by the imperfect tense in Spanish. But 
if the verb connected with did expresses an action entirely pas^ and that 
cannot be translated by to be and the present participle, without changing 
the meaning of the phrase, then it must be rendered by the preterit, N. 3, 
in Spanish ; as. 

Don Quixote did thank him for his 
good will, took a little sustenance, 
Sancho ate voraciously, and* then 
both Uttd themselves down to sleep. 

Agradeci6wlo Don Quijote, oomid 
algo, y'Sajieho muehoy y echi- 
ronse i dormir entrdmbo§. 

D. QuuoTB, cap. lix. pL ii. 

In the preceding example, the verbs took, ate, laid down, might be ex- 
preoed by did take, did eat, did lay down ; but not by was taking, eating, 
or laying down ; the verb consequently must be translated in the preterit, 
N. 3, (as in the example,) and not in the imperfect tense. 

RvLB Ah — ^The imperfect tense of the subjunctive mood has three ter- 
minations, the first ending in ara or iera, N. 7 ; the second in ariaf eria, or 
tris, N. 8 ; the third in aae orieoe, N. 9. 

1. The terminations ara or iera, aae or ie»e, ought to be used when the 
reib is governed by a conditional conjunction ; and the verb that completes 
the nnae of the sentence, (whether it be placed before or after the govern- 
ing veib,) mnat be placed in the termination aria, eria, or tria, according 
to its conjugation ; as. 

If chance and fortune had not fa- 
vored me, the worid would have 
been deprived of this pleasure. 

Si eLacaao y la fortuna no me ayu- 
daran, el mundo quedaria/o/to de 
eate gusto, D. Quuotk, cap. ix. 

2. When there is in English an inversion in the phrase, the sentence must 
be set first in the regular form, prefixing the corresponding conjunction to 
thevaib; as. 

Were it not, (if it were not,) becanse 
I do^ certainly know that all these 
inconveniences are annexed to the 
exercise of arms, I would Ue still 
where I am, and die with pure 

Si no fiiera, porque s6 muy cierto 
que todas estas incomodidades es- 
tan anejas al ejereicio de las oT' 
mas, aqui ms dejaria morir de puro 

D. Qtjuon, cap. s? 



3. Wlisn tlie Mntenoe bepni wHbont a eooditioiiiBl oaoiiiiMslioB, die tar- 
i^ii>^»wiiia n, 7,. or rio, 8, may be uwd ; and the yeib neoeauy to eom- 
pleto the aeuM, (■bould there be any,) mint be placed in the feimmafian 
er iMe, aecoiding to its conjugation ; as. 

I woold not like that princes and No qnenia (qnima) yo que ios 
IbnfB nm themoehres into soch c^es, y Iss reyes, «e pa 

seai0;siile« pe^^roc. 
D. Qduotb, cap. xjodw. pC E 

The tenninatioii mrm or ters, ii genenlly osed in ejacnlation ; «% 
Who ooold describe now the throb- < ; Quien podiera dedr ahara 1st m- 
bings of my heart* while I remain- ftressltof que ute did el earmK9m, 
ed then ! mieninu alU eatrnve ! 

D. QUUOTB, cap. XZTB. 

^ Two or more Toriis in the imperfect tense of the sabjanctiTe^ goremed 
by the lame conjonction, or completing the sense of the same phraao, 
be placed in the termination chosen for the firat of them, whether r«. 

Si arzobiepo mandtf d un empell^m 
svyoqoe seinformase (infonnara) 
del teeter tt ere verdmdj y qme mei 
vtUmo haUsse eem el loco, y qme 
si le pareciese f«e lexM jwicie, le 
sacase y ponese en Ubertmd. 

D. QuuoTBy capk LpC.iL 
5. When the imperfect tense of the snbjnnctiTe mood is goremed hy a 
▼eib in any of die past tenses of the indicative, and the governing verb ag- 
nifies Is epemk, te ikudt, to believe, or any other of the like nieaniii|r, any 
of the three terminations may be used with the conjunction que ; psovided 
the Toib to be plaoed in the subjunctive mood has, as its sul^ect or 
tive, any other poison but the one speaking ; as. 

Itie archbiriiop oidered one of his 
chaplains to go to the rector and 

inquire into the tmth, and even to 
talk with the madman himself, and 
thai if he shoold think that he was 
recovered, he might bring him 
away, and set him at liberty. 

I said that he would come. 
I did say that he would come. 
'I have said that he would come. 
I had said that he would cogue. 
Bat when the verb govemed or 


Yo deda que il 
Ye dife que 61 
Yo he dieko que il 
Ye kukim dieko que il 

has the same sobjeet «» 

nominative as the 

and; as. 

It is not that, euid Sancho, but be- 

cause I would met kaoe any secret 

rst in my keeping. 

or governing verb, «ily the termination rac is 

No ee eeo, dijo Suueko, stas que yo 
no quMria file se me jNi^risam ds 

D. QuuoTSy csp. XV& 
It mnst be observed, thai ahhoqgfa any of the terminalioai may he imed 
with the abofo-mentioned verbs, the termination ra generally indicates duty 
or o b ligation on the part of its snkgect, and the termination ran merely im- 
piles fatnrity or pnmibility; ss. 



1h» niMler told hk wnruit to do it 

The mistreM promiMd that her aer- 

▼uit would do it 

El amo dijo a mc ertAdo que U Uel* 

era tfniMdMtam«iite. 
El ama prometid que #tt enada la 


The oee of the Subfunetive Mood m fully ezplamed m Le«oiis LXXVIIL, 
(351,) LXXIX., (356,) LXXX., (362,) and LXXXL, (368,) which the 
•ch<dar is advised frequently and attentively to study, in order to make him- 
self perfectly well acquainted with the rules therein set forth. 

Rdxjb 42d — Will and toouid, 9haU and shouldf can and eould, may and 
fnigkt, used as auxiliaries, point out the tense of the verb that follows them, 
which is the only one that most be translated. But when they are used as 
principal verbs, they are translated juerer, deber, poder, 

I. When the emphasii of the phrase lies on the verb that follows them, 
wiU and sAaU point out the future of the indicative, and ehaU and sAoiild 
sometimes the future of the subjunctive ; as. 

She will come to-monow. 
He shall do it to-day. 
Should they write, please to let me 
know it 

EUa vendrd manana. 
El lo hard hoy. 

Si eUoa eteribieren, Hrvase V, avi- 

Obe, 38. WUl means the free determination, or ready disposition to do a 
things. Shall, in the first perBon, simply indicates and declares, in English, 
what will take place ; in tiie second and third persons, it implies a promise, 
command, and determination ; and in the interrogative sentences, permisBioin 
or direction. In translating these two verbs, attention must be paid to these 

Therefore, he vnll not do it may mean he ie not willing to do it, or ho 
will not be willing to do it, or he certainly ehall not do it, according to the 
sense of the preceding sentences. This phrase in the fint example must be 
translated by the preeent of the indieatioe of the verb querer — el no quiore 
kaeerlo ; in the second, will is to be placed in the future of the same veib— 
il no querrd hacerlo; and in the third, the auxiliary will is not translated, 
and the veib to do {haeer) is translated in*the /uture— ^2 no lo hard. 

The same rule is to be observed with may and can, whicfa may he trane* 
lated by the present of the indicative or subjunctive of the veib |iodsr *, or 
in the present of the subjunctive of the principal verb. 

2. When will and would are not joined to any verb, they must be trans- 
lated by querer, (to wish, to be willing, to desire, to like ;) as, 

Why do yon not write to-day 7 
Because I will not, (/ wont.) 

He begged his ancle to ogn, bat he 
would lioL 

i PorquS no eaeribe V, hoy ? 
Porque no quierOt (no me da la 

El ouplied d §u tioquo fbrmmra^ fof 





3. Witt and wauldf though ibUowed by a TBib, are tmulated by fi w w r, 
when they are iiaed emphatically to ezpreai an abaolute wirii ; aa» 

He will be obeyed without any ez- 

Tliey would have him go, and he 
was obliged to do it 

El qniere mt obedeeido «m exctum 

EUot qmuevon ftu ilfuerot y utm^ 
TO Migade d kaeerlo. 

4 Would denote! aometimee the repetition of an aet» or a coatom, or the 
habit of doing a thing, and then it is frequently rendered, by aoZer, tuor, 
aeottumbrar, or by the verb that foOowi it, in all cases in the imperfect of 
tiie i ndjcatire ; as, 

In the summer the old man would 
sit at his cottage door, and draw 
letten in the samd for his darling. 

En el verano el vuyo solia (acostum- 
braba) 9entar§e d la puerta de ss 
ehoxa y dibojaba letnu en la arena 
para su queridito ; or. 

El viejo ee sentaba a la puerta^ dtc 

5. Shouldt used for ought to, denoting duty or necearity of acting, ia 
translated by deber, in the tense of the other verb in the English sentences 
or in the imperfect tense of the snbjunctiye ; as, 

Ton ohould not do that, since you 

know it is wrong. 
If he wishes to do it, he ohould ask 

permission before. 

6b Can and eouM, may and might, signifying poooihility, are translated 
by poder, (to be able ^ as. 

V. no debe (debiera or deberia) haeer 
eao, pueo §abe que ea malo. 

Si el desea haeer eao, €\ debe dnUa 
(debiera or deberia) pedir 

Ton ooM speak to him whenever you 
please; but they may not take 
that liberty. 

If I ooitld, I would write. 

He might do it, if he pleased. 

F. pnede hMarle siempre que ^ine- 
ra ; pero eUoo no pueden lonarse 
eta libertad. 
Si yo pudiera, eocribiria. 
El podiia hacerlo, ft quinera. 

7. The auzOiaries would, could, ohouldf might, being foUowed by Aom 
and a paot participle, must be translated by poder, querer, deber, in the 
hmperfeet tenoe of the indicative, or in the termination, ra, N. 7, or Ho, N. 
8, of the imperfect of the subjunctive, according to tlie sense of the phrase, 
when the emphasis is on any of the said anzfliaries, leaving the verb have 
in the p r esent of the infinitive ; but when the